Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Documents 51 - 100

742 from Baron Rosen to Chirinechev, from January 29, 1837 No. 98 page 866.
"... His Excellency’s desire embodied in allowing the Cossack infantry troops located in Anapa to settle in its vicinity, and assisting them in the first phase to encourage them. This way and during a short period, the armed Russian population on the Natokhawaj lands will be more powerful, and will form a protection for themselves of that part of the territory without the intervention of the forces.

Document 52

751 from Baron Rosen to Chirinechev, from June 26, 1837 No. 224 Anapa, p. 875. I have issued a decree to Major General Siborski as follows: "The Completion of the fort which you laid its foundation stone, and if the surrounding mountaineers did not declare their obedience, then we will crush and eliminate the nearby neighborhoods."

Document 53

VOLUME 6, P.2. 866.Tozhe, dated November 29, 1823, p. 490.
"On the night of the 30th of September, the task force moved from Nevinnogo Mysa to the tops of the Laba River. After making a lot of movements during the night and after three marches they arrived to the Naghwey neighborhoods without being noticed. The inhabitants of these neighborhoods were not expecting nor ready to attack, since they lived far from our borders. The sudden appearance of the Cossacks and their attack confused them to the point where they barely resisted, preferring to escape, being the only mean of survival. Three neighborhoods were surrounded in a glimpse and the connection with the left bank of Laba River was cut. The enemy took refuge in homes and hid in the forest and the House of worship, at least 300 persons of both sexes and various ages were killed, and we captured 566 people and plundered 2000 head of cattle.

Document 54

The patron of all, General Yermelov’s report, from April 1, 1826 No. 10. Conf. (page 494). “General Vlassov progressed on the 24th of the month with a faction of 3000 people to the Natokhawaj neighborhood, with the intent to punish them, benefiting from the bad luck that accompanied the residents of beyond the Kuban in all measures, and attacked them unexpectedly at dawn. The Natokhawaj defended themselves resolutely but ended up frustrated and suffered heavy losses. We captured 46 of them, and from our side one soldier was killed while one officer, two noncommissioned officers and seven soldiers were wounded. "

Document 55

870. the Report of k.s. Skassi to General Yermelov,
From 4.04. 1826. № 63 - Kerch. "... By the evening of the 25th to 26th of last February, Major General Vlassov crossed the Kuban River across Andrevski border Station, accompanied by a large troop of Cossacks and launched an attack on villages.... He handed its neighborhoods to the Cossacks to collect loot, so they crammed all property, killed 25 people and captured 45 people, a woman and a child. As for the houses they set them on fire and looted two thousand sheep.
Page 495 A lot of relatives and supporters of the Natokhawaj suffered without guilt during the missions of The Black Sea Forces Commander against the people of beyond the Kuban…
In the reply received from Major General Vlassov, I noticed sadly that the acts and actions that were put forward included a lot of exaggeration, and in many of those missions innocent people suffered instead of perpetrators...
Injustice have spread and heard everywhere, and there is no hope of maintaining friendly relations between us and those nations... Until now, I’ve deferred informing you with this unfortunate event, hoping that Major General Vlassov would agree to my proposal to call the leaders of all Circassian neighborhoods adjacent to us, to confirm their innocence and effectuate justice for those who suffered from our recent mission against them on the 25th of February, but his Excellency did not agree to this proposal ... "

Document 56

Extracting k.s. Skassi reports from the officials recruited in the Circassian mountains,
From 20 February to 4 March, p. 496-497. "... On the night of the 25th to 26th of the month, The Russians attacked Psebej Village and captured seven families who were not guilty of anything ... two of the families were wiped out on site, and that was the same fate of anyone who showed resistance in that unfortunate event ... The wife of the deceased “Kalabat oglu” was captured, also both his sister and his younger brother Geryaya, including their peasants whom only two of them survived. The properties in the houses were looted, as for the houses they were set on fire and it is not yet known how many of Saat Geryaya family were killed.”

Document 57

871 to High Command General Yermelov, dated July 29, 1826 - Moscow. (p. 497).
From the report of Strelkov, who finished his assigned research about the acts of the Black Sea Force Commander, Major General Vlassov ... And I saw his illegal actions against the Circassian people of Natokhawaj, which increased the intensity of the initial charges that I received. So you can clearly see that it wasn’t only because of his desire to earn the excellence war decorations through simple efforts of destroying the miserable people’s houses, but it was an unforgivable vanity and shameful greed.

Document 58

Volume 7 page 866. The lands that previously belonged to the Kabardians were taken away, and not just the ones located behind Malka River, but in Kabarday itself starting from Vladikavkazsqui Fort and up to the Kuban, which were all owned by the people, were taken away and are now owned by the government without paying anything for them in return. Also the saline lakes located on Etok and Kuban Rivers were taken away, and which also belonged to the Kabardians Since time immemorial, in spite of General Yermolov’s announcement in a leaflet on the sixth of July 1822 that none of the properties that belonged to the people (Lands, saline lakes) would be taken away from them. He allowed bringing mud for herds from The Kuban salt lake, which was awarded to Lieutenant General Villiaminov for the benefit of Khopirsk Cossack regiment, while the lands on Etok and Zulk rivers including the saline lakes were awarded to Volgsk Cossack regiment. After that it became imperative to Kabardians, who earned their living from livestock breeding -which needed salted mud and large tracts of land- to suffer from extreme poverty if the government did not give their lands and salt lakes back. Although they were previously very rich from the abundance of miscellaneous livestock, that changed after the succession of several leaders of the border stations, and who were only interested in requital, and accused the Kabardians falsely of theft, and sometimes it was all lies and slander. And using that they obtained a court order to seize their livestock herds grazing near the border, and such a thing happened several times a year, regardless of whether the Kabardians were guilty or not according to the authorities, and even those who had a guarantee voucher from the authorities, were exposed to the same situation. Such practices lead the Kabardians to an intensive degree of poverty to the extent that they were forced to hide in the mountains from those unfair invasions. Many of them fled beyond the Kuban, and some of them, recklessly out of anger and revenge, pilfered from border line areas. In 1818, Tram neighborhood, located 7 Versts away from Constantinogorsk Fort, was invaded and destructed entirely. Livestock was looted without any reason, and after a period of time when some residents returned to their former homes looking for wheat that might have remained sound in some stores, 2 of them were captured and handed over to military service.

Document 59

844 Kodintsa report to General Paskevich, dated April 22, 1827 No. 155, page Kerch 873. "... The most important and only reason for the mountaineers to be ready to become Turkish nationals, is Major General Vlassov taking over command of the Kuban boarder, who followed somewhat a destructive order, which is probably based on types of greed and gain obsession. As soon as he assumed the leadership of the Black Sea forces, he breached the state of peace and security that prevailed on the boarders since the peace treaty with residents of beyond the Kuban. He began his actions by crossing the Kuban River to the Circassian lands where he cut down the forest and burned their fields, and finally he attacked their neighborhoods and destroyed everything. Among the campaigns that headed against Circassians, which included uneven levels of extermination, you cannot overlook the attack carried out by this Major General in March 1823 after crossing the Kuban River accompanied by three Cossack troops of the Black Sea, in which he caused violent havoc in the districts of Bjadogh and other Circassian tribes loyal to Russia since a long time. This tyranny caused an enormous rage in the mountains. Circassians, who were robbed of their property without any guilt, were eager for revenge... and they started causing damage to our borders. "

Document 60

874 from General Paskevich to General Nesselrode dated June 5th, 1831 - No. 1102 page 902 - 903. "... A unified military force must be adopted as a basic principle during taming the Caucasian tribes, especially the ones beyond the Kuban. Small and temporary victories will not accomplish the job. The Mountaineers are always avoiding direct confrontations and are waging guerrilla war. So by only depriving them from basic living elements with our ongoing practice of the purviews mentioned below - those elements that serve as basic keys to their industry - we will force them to voluntarily seek the protection and magnanimity of our government.... ” "The most important foundations and methods that must be observed in order to tame and subject the residents of beyond the Kuban are: 1) The continuous prevail of our forces in their most important positions and fields near the cities and rivers exits from corals where all their industries and aspects of presence exist. 2) Forts to be built in the areas mentioned above and military settlements in areas nearby. 3) Once again, the military oversee everywhere ... 4) ......... 5) the support of non-Accord cases which may rise between the mountain tribes and assist the weaker. 6) ...... 7) ...... 8) the search as much as possible for ways to weaken their spirit of bravery ...”

Document 61

Major General Bekovich and Colonel Gasfort’s report to Paskevich, September 17, 1830 page 906. In order to activate the actions taken against the main Rejectionists to subordinate, which include the Abzakh tribe, it is undoubtedly possible to induce some of the branches of the Adigey and with this we eliminate what is left of conformity between them, since this conformity is not with the best interests of the current status of Russia ".

Document 62

"... On the right wing of the Caucasian front, our actions were not less successful. The defeat that Major General Zas inflicted upon the Abzakh was a warning for them from approaching our borders, and on the Black Sea coastal front our troops built the Mykolayiv Fortress on the Ubykh lands and at the gates of Tuapse built the Teginskoe Fortress... "

Document 63

In November 1833 Major General Zas launched an attack and destroyed Prince Ayteka Kanukoua neighborhood. And in 1834, he gave his commands to the Kuban front to destroy Makhosh Tlabgay neighborhood. In April he penalized the kizilbeks, in June the Barakay neighborhoods and in September Anzor neighborhood ... In September he broke the beyond the Kuban bloc, robbed the Ubykh nearly six thousand head of cattle and attacked Bako neighborhood on the heights of Hodz River, and in October he targeted Prince Ibrahim Dakshoka neighborhood. In 1836 he moved to beyond the Kuban to punish the Abaza and subject them like the Bselen the Bashilbay, and sent a troop to discipline the rascal Kabarday. In September, Hojhabel neighborhood, Gurmai Abzakh neighborhood and Berzeg neighborhood located in the heights of Maykop River Valley on Nawk River were all destroyed, and in the same month he annihilated the people residing on the slopes of the snow-covered mountains beyond the Kuban, on the Hawst Slope located north of minor Zielenchuk. ".

Document 64

No. 361 from Paskevich to Chirinechev, from 15-05-1829 page 960. Major General Perovsky is looking at the mountaineers as if they were an independent nation and believes that the Kuban is the best area for them adjacent to the border, but the aim of the occupation of Anapa is to restrict relationship between the mountaineers and the Turkish, and the authorities is not seeking union with the Caucasus generations of bandits, but is seeking total repression, Since there are no other measures that could be taken that will ensure the safety of our borders... ... Major General Perovsky fears of mountaineers armament, and on the other hand the force of arms alone is capable of repressing them. The war against them will not end even when they are fully reconciled, so our fear of their attacks should not stand in the way of establishing more settlements, which will do the job of their repression. "

Document 65

12 from 03-12-1829 No.2324 page 962. "GI, is determined on his previous opinion regarding the feasible Cossack settlement from abroad in the Anapa territory, and for that purpose, all the appropriate conditions and desired benefits will be provided and will be explained in detail in the addendums. And his Excellency will allow to postpone residing them near Anapa until the end of our next mission against the grudge- holding mountaineers, which with its outcome, the safety of our boarder lines will be ensured against any attack by the beyond the Kuban barbarians .... "

Document 66

From Chirinechev to General Golovin, from 24-02-1840 No. 117 pages 242. "... The main objective of this action which was represented in putting an end to the foreign relations of the mountaineers, has been almost achieved and there’s no doubt that it would be fully achieved with the proposed solution of increasing the number of boats in the Azov Sea and the use of steamboats to float alongside coasts, then we would have to seize two or three coastal centers so that we can fully accomplish the first part of the overall system for the suppression of the mountaineers. Then, when the right time comes we will use of arms against the mountaineers in any place we don’t find full and unconditional obedience, and those acts must be carried out just like Major General Grabbi’s vision, with strong forces, and not small sections of the army ... And with the seizure of the territory and forts, either the forces of the Black Sea or the Malarosque Cossacks - who where resettled there – should seize whatever is left behind, according to E.V. ‘s study on the means and systems for a firm suppression upon the Caucasus. "

Document 67

252. The review of the pre-determined plan for a comprehensive suppression upon Caucasus Mountains tribes from 12-03-1840. Conf. Page 244 G.I. pre-determined plan for the overall Suppression of the Caucasus tribes was based on the idea that it is only possible through a gradual takeover of all or most of the survival means obtained by the mountaineers, in order to stress and pressure their presence as much as possible and force them to succumb unconditionally to the authorities’ demands.
These acts are supposed to pressure the mountaineers in their lands in one hand; and with that we control the lands that are suitable for cultivation by the Russian population, and on the other hand, to prevent any communication or relation with foreign countries and prevent their access to the necessities of life, with direct orders from the authority or by authorization and approval. The only way to achieve this dual objective, which was stated that it could not be achieved without the force of arms, but its use is strictly defined under the limits shown in the drawn plan ... For that, the main features of the proposed military operations against them was explained in the approved plan for the suppression of the mountaineers. First, it must be accomplished with determination and continuity for a firm unconditional subordination within those regions where the operations will take place, secondly ... gradually ... Thirdly ... in a consistent manner.
Page 246. -- "Eventually, what is left is to carry out the military operations against the mountaineers, without which, according to the remarks of the Caucasian Leadership, we cannot expect any success in suppression. The necessity to use the force of arms was never rejected, but on the contrary, it is a priority in G.I. ‘s drawn plan for comprehensive pacification in the Caucasus. "

Document 68

255. General Grabbi’s report to Chirinechev.
From 30-03-1840 No. 527 page 251.
"... These conditions are: 1) ... 2) ... 3) ... 4) ... 5) The elimination of all non-subdued neighborhoods, laying between 20 to 25 versts from the sea, which will be the most effective measure to stop the smuggling trade 6) The use of armed force and sending multi faction missions against the non-subdued beyond the Kuban tribes. "

Document 69

257. Grabbi’s report to Chirinechev
From 11-04-1840, No. 206 / page 255. You can really notice that the real united efforts will be only through pressuring them to the fullest extent so that they leave the eastern coast of the Black Sea, and through confirming our authority on the plains of the Caucasus line. But this pressure is one of the key objectives of the pre-drawn plan to pacify the Caucasus, which is being carried out for six years with great determination and continuity, according to G.I ‘s guidelines, and it would be expected If you see any early or general results now. And regardless of the unfortunate events on the front line, the mutiny of the mountaineers should not be considered a non-conducive circumstance, but on the contrary it should be considered the most suitable condition for the immediate destruction of all their hopes in maintaining their independence ... “

Document 70

260. General Golovin’s report to Chirinechev
From July 9,1840 No.762 - page 263. "Regarding the exploration of the Ubykh lands, with orders from Lieutenant General Raevsky, he was approved to do so with our endorsement, on the rivers Psezyuape and Tuapse, keeping their distance there until September, although it was preferable to make such an exploratory mission at the end of autumn ... where in autumn we will have the opportunity to destroy all the grain reserves of the mountaineers, which would have been collected in the neighborhoods, and the destruction of their houses, which would be more crucial to the mountaineers and their families in autumn and winter times. "

Document 71

386. from Major General Zas to General Golovin
From April 25, 1838 No. 592 On the eighteenth of the current month, I smashed a large crowd of Abzakh behind Belaya River, not far from the devastated neighborhood Hartsiz.

Document 72

399. Major General Siborski’s report to General Golovin
From July 11,1838. No. 50 - pages 457. "... The fact that the Major General had a conditional signal to progress, and an order of disarmament of Circassians, and if they achieved seizing it, to burn the neighborhoods across located below the slope..." ..... The Private faction leader decided to retreat taking the shortest road, carrying the looted weapons, and at the same time, giving the orders to burn two large neighborhoods that belonged to the enemies. The Mingseleski Regiment artillery with 50 policemen exterminated another two nearby neighborhoods with their fires...

Document 73

413. General Golovin
From February 29, 1840 No. 1253 - page 468. There are necessary conditions that must be considered when exploring the enemy neighborhoods: First, the neighborhoods should be close to the coastal fortress, so that the task force won’t encounter any incident whatsoever ... Second, the value and importance of these neighborhoods to the mountaineers themselves, so that we won’t waste time and effort with measures that might be without meaning or impact. Finally, for the neighborhood to be serving sentence for a long time, so this would be a fearful example of a strict but fair authority. "

Document 74

414, Lieutenant General Raevsky’s observations on trade with the mountaineers and the deportation to the East Bank, on page 473 of goods traded with the mountaineers. "... I do not put the reasons that lead to the lack of prosperity of that trade, it just stopped with the accession of that territory to Russia ... with the accession of that territory , the local authority developed procedures, which were to stop any peaceful or business relations from our side, especially exporting salt, which is needed by the mountaineers ... and the authorities aimed to hinder fleets - which floats the sea – and prevent the entrance of any goods from the sea side, and with that they aimed to keep 800 thousand inhabitants in a great siege where hunger and poverty will weaken them, and eventually will be repressed by storming into their mountains.."

Document 75

417. From Chirinechev to General Golovin of 29-03-1840 No. 174 pages 482. "There is no doubt that conducting two attacks at the same time or almost the same time will leave the biggest impact on the mountaineers, apart from the dispersal of their strength, and will accelerate the achievement of objectives, and not only will it facilitate the task, but it will also allow us to give the mountaineers the severest penalties through searching for them in the nearby seized areas..”

Document 76

Page 483 The attack on the Ubykh territories will be determined immediately after the completion of those attacks mentioned before ... To punish the mountaineers even more and make them fully understand what kind of terrible and brutal force Russia is. Regardless of this attack, more must be waged on the nearby neighborhoods.

Document 77

421 From Chirinechev to General Golovin, from 12-04-1840. No. 2192. Page 488 "... His Excellency the Emperor considers that it is worthwhile to renew the fortress destroyed by the mountaineers and the use faction I in a strong attack from Fort Novoginsk or any other coastal point, into the depth of the Ubykh lands, as an extreme punishment for them being the main culprits in the recent unfortunate events. Notwithstanding this important procedure for punishing the mountaineers ... His Excellency the Emperor is willing to make every effort during this summer, from the east bank of Laba River, in order to haunt the Mountaineers in their homes and destroy their crops and their food reserves... ".

Document 78

422. General Golovin’s report to Chirinechev
From 12-05-1840 No. 212 – page 488 "In the previous day, small groups of mountaineers were observed in the neighboring highlands. The following day, we made our attack and seized the surrounding highlands without any resistance, which was regrettable since the troops in general were keen to fight, to measure up to his Imperial Majesty’s favorable judgment."

Document 79

423. from Major General Raevsky to Vorontsov
From May 25, 1840 No. 69 - page 489. "... I am the opposite of what is prevalent, I ventured and asked a question in St.Pittsburg which concludes that preventing salt trading with the mountaineers will hamper their suppression, and will encourage smuggling and strengthens the impact of Turkey, and other than that, it compels mountaineers to search for ways to survive independently from Russia .. . When there where salt trade-offs with the mountaineers previously, they did not make any hostile attempts. Novo - Troyitske is living proofs of how far can those peaceful relations go through trade with the mountaineers and how much we can improve the situation of the garrisons along the entire east coast. I found approximately 20 cows in Novo - Troyitske, enough to feed garrison fresh meat for more than six months... The mountaineers purchase used shirts from our soldiers at high prices. And our enemies the Ubykh, who do not deal with us in trade, are infiltrating our forts risking their lives taking out the bodies of our soldiers just to take their shirts and shrouds...."

Document 80

432. General Golovin’s report to Chirinechev
From 23-01-1841, No. 122 - p. 497. In two weeks Dal totally conquered, devastated and deprived its people, and all this cost us ten killed and twenty wounded, including six Russian soldiers only.

Document 81

433. The Director of Inspection Serebriakov’s report to Lieutenant General Raevsky
From 31-01-1841, No. 323. Ship "Molodyts" page 498. The Extreme poverty level that the mountaineers have reached to at this point, out of hunger, obligates me indispensably to renew your previous theory on the benefits that can be achieved from their miserable situation, to accelerate their repression, a process in which we used only kind and gallant methods but unfortunately cannot be appreciated by those barbarians. I have submitted to you earlier on May 21st last year in 1840, under the Number 757, that the conditions were never as appropriate as it is at this point, to be able to drive the Natokhawaj to such a level of need, and that after depriving them from the harvest in 1839, poverty spread everywhere in the mountains, and if we destroy all their crops next summer, they will be victims of starvation in the coming winter.. We don’t even have to use those huge and costly methods that we’ve used so far in order to make the Natokhawaj understand the need to relinquish, they have to accept that or else they’ll have to be deported. If our planned missions for this year in the Caucasus allow recruitment of 6 thousand people to suppress the Natokhawaj in particular, then success is ensured. These forces are divided into two or three factions, with sudden movements attacking in different times or simultaneously from several directions, from Anapa, Kuban and Novorsisk. And with their unexpected attacks from all directions, it will spread terror and destruction everywhere, then we’ll be able to force the Natokhawaj either to surrender or to deport them during a period of one summer ... From this we achieve great benefits: The conquered and oppressed Natokhawaj territory will deprive the rest of the tribes great aid because at the present time, where hunger and need prevailed like never before, the Natokhawaj will turn to them to get bread, where in the past years, they’ve always lived a comfortable rich life, while other tribes turned to them from all places to get food rations, but now they are in dire need. In short, the mountaineers who are refusing to succumb will lose their most fertile land, and the situation will surely get worse and the lives of the people living in the mountains will be affected from the arrival of those evicted from here.

Document 82

Page 502 "... Accordingly, the mountaineers from one hand are certain of their immunity and on the other hand we strike by surprise to deprive their ability to resist, and so willing or forced, they will be quiet spectators and they will even offer good hospitality as a sign of gratitude for our mercy, while the voices inside of them say: May we get rid of these unwelcomed guests as quickly as possible. "

Document 83

434. from Lieutenant General Raevsky to Chirinechev
From 28-02-1841 No.65 Kerch - page 505. "... The Director of Inspection plans only the destruction, extermination and oppression of the mountaineers ...."

Document 84

439. Chirinechev, from 16-09-1841 No. 279 – Conf. page 515. Willing to distract part of the enemy’s force, I offered the governor of Abkhazia to send about 450 people from his militia aboard two boats to Golovinsqui Fortress, to be landed there at night to launch a sudden attack on the nearby neighborhoods. Major General Sharvashedzy headed to the site personally accompanied by his Militia, and completed the mission with an exceptional success, but the militia found some empty houses in the three neighborhoods, so they burned them and returned without any spoils and without any enemy chases. ... On the fifteenth of the month, after preparing the place, we transferred the needed equipments which were manufactured mostly of raw materials from the forest. We performed our prayers and laid the foundation of the stronghold. Throughout this time, the Ubykh were busy collecting the harvest and were discussing among themselves what steps should they take next, but they did not reach a decision. I will wait as long as the situation requires, until work progresses, and if the negotiations did not lead to a result, I will advance with the task force for the destruction of the surrounding neighborhoods.

Document 85

Page 523, a statement from 19-12-1841, No. 292. That may be a proof of the peace-loving relationships, and the desire of good-neighborly relations, that could serve as a convincing argument against whoever emphasizes the Ingratitude of Circassians and their barbaric acts. And mostly if that actually happens, then it is created by Russia’s dictatorial and tyrant inclination and desire.

Document 86

Volume 6 - A.P. Yermolov 1816-1827 page 942 "... I will be holding a court session for the same owners and nobles to restore the rights of Russia and assign the cases requiring the call of clergy authority..." "The children whom we’ve kept so far shall be returned to their families, when the authority is satisfied with the behavior and loyalty of their parents."

Document 87

3 from August 1, 1822 - the camp on Malka River. "... It was announced to the Kabardians in particular and also to the general public, that all the land owners and nobles who fled beyond the Kuban or are hiding in the mountains, are considered traitors nationwide, I deprive them of all their rights and privileges. Should any Kabardian have any relationship or link with them, he will be severely punished. It is forbidden to make any new marriage relationships with them. And if any of them had a case being looked in according to law is from now on invalid ...”

Document 88

Page 943 If one of the fleeing traitors beyond the Kuban, or the ones hiding in the mountains attack a village, or a pursue took place, and general public from that village do not use firearms, the village will be punished with gunpoint, according to the orders by the leader of the under construction fortress. ... From now on, it is forbidden for all Kabardian land owners and nobles to send their children to other nations like beyond the Kuban, Karachay or to the mountaineers in general, to be raised and taught, and must stay in Kabarday ... "

Document 89

Volume 10, 558. From Lieutenant General Rashpilya to Zavadovski From 4-12-1851, No. 273, p. 609. "The arrival of troops by Khatami - hablyu had an impact that led to the immediate arrival of the most respected and high positioned men in the neighborhood in order to conduct negotiations, but none was conducted with them, and it was announced to them that if they do not swear the oath of loyalty and hand over levy within half an hour, then their neighborhood will be burned. This threat and the preparations for an attack on the neighborhood came effective. Just in the scheduled time, levy was brought by Hatukoh noble family and the residents came out to take the oath ...”

Document 90

560. Prince Vorontsov’s Decree on the Caucasian Separate Legion, from December 11, 1851, No. 184. Page 612. The commander of the Black Sea Front coastal Forces assigned a task force consisting of four thousand soldiers accompanied by eleven artilleries in Novorsisk, in order to punish the Natokhawaj for their hostile position towards us. During a progression that lasted for seven days, the task force destroyed houses and food supplies, and they set fire to a large number of neighborhoods. Regardless of the mountaineers’ resistance, our forces continued a hard progress bravely ... On the fifth of the month, the mountaineers set an ambush in the Adaghum Valley and burned many neighborhoods, on the sixth and seventh of the month they destroyed the neighborhoods located on Shepsh River and in the Geshepsin valley, on the eighth of the month Major General Debo’s columns had confrontations with the residents of Nigni Hudako Valley, on the ninth of the month the rich and fully-populated neighborhoods of Pisva Valley were invaded, and on the tenth of the month Hops River crossing. Our losses were very small, three dead including an officer and 34 wounded. And as we were informed by our spies, the enemy’s losses in dead and wounded were very large compared to ours, and their big loss was in the crush of more than 2500 houses just before winter.

Document 93

1833, 7th of November – Zas’s mission beyond the Kuban After Zas and his platoon crossed Chamlyk at the dawn of the seventh of November, and dashed accompanied by his Knights beyond Laba River, he gave an order to the infantry and artillery to follow him, and until the arrival of infantry, Zas was able to capture 68 people from the neighborhood, where the mountaineers moved out their wives and children to the forest, and stayed in the houses with guns. In that ways, Zas took control over the neighborhood prior to the arrival of infantry. When they arrived, they began the destruction of the neighborhood with artillery, and forced the mountaineers to abandon their homes while the soldiers and Cossacks attacked them. Almost all were killed in the clashes, and the neighborhood was burned. F. A. Cherbin
Kuban Cossack forces history
volume 2 page 403

Document 94

February 1834 – Destroying Tlabgay neighborhood by the hands of Zas task force At the end of February 1834, Zas accompanied by a task force consisting of 800 horsemen, 7 infantry brigades and 8 artilleries headed from the Cossack village of Ubezhenskoy, located on Laba River, to Tlabgay neighborhood inhabited by Mahoshians, where exists – according to Zas’s information – a group of mountaineers who were intending to launch an attack on the Cossack village. It was winter, and a thick layer of snow was covering the area. The task force hardly cut their way through the snow and surrounded the neighborhood unexpectedly at a time where the mountaineers never expected it. The neighborhood was seized and cruelly oppressed. 193 were killed, including almost the entire group that had intended to launch the raid. In addition, the task force captured 71 people from both sexes and seized 300 head of cows and 81 horses. F. A. Cherbin
Kuban Cossack forces history
Volume 2 - page 406

Document 95

June 15, 1834 - The destruction of two Barakay neighborhoods by Zas Task Force. Zas arranged the task force and accompanied them on June 15th to Fort Voznisinskui and Laba River. The task force included 758 from the infantry and 1545 Cossack horsemen escorted by 5 artilleries. On their way, it was learned by Zas on June 17th that a group of Circassians consisting of 400 people, were located 10 versts away from Laba River, from Fort Giorgievski’s side. Leaving the task force in a place where they will be invisible, he headed to the gathering spot of the mountaineers, accompanied by 600 selected Cossacks. Having noticed the approaching Russian platoon, the mountaineers fled but the Cossacks caught up with them two versts from Laba River. There an exchange of fire occurred and the mountaineers lost many dead and wounded, and left 10 corpses on the battlefield. One Cossack was killed and 10 wounded. In the same mission, two Barakay neighborhoods were seized and looted, and 56 were captivated. The Cossacks seized all Barakay property, 4 of the Cossacks were killed and 14 injured. The numbers killed and wounded from the Barakay remains unknown.
F. A. Cherbin.
Kuban Cossack forces history
Volume 2 - page 406 - 407

Document 96

November 4, 1834 – The Destruction of Tam neighborhood by Zas Task Force. Zas made a selection of the best Cossacks from the Don, Kuban line, Khopirsk and Stavropol. And chose soldiers from three infantry battalions: Tivinsk, Novaginsk and Kabardensk. The task force included 581 from the infantry, 750 Cossack Horsemen and 4 artilleries. The neighborhood was seized with a sudden attack, where many of the dauntless Caucasian knights were burned and buried under its rubble, and their bodies among many other corpses were deserted, since the runaways could not take them along. "On the fourth of the month, Zas wrote to Major General Villiaminov saying: You have destroyed the district that the mountaineers considered a bastion for them. It was burned down to its foundation, and the mountaineers realized that nor slopes or snow neither dimension can stand in the face of our troops, which showed in that campaign a great example of masculinity, perseverance and patience. In the neighborhood fire, died the people who were not able to hide in the slopes. All properties were burnt without a hand put on them, 24 of both sexes were captured. “ Harsh but true words of the bloody history of beyond the Kuban. F. A. Cherbin
Kuban Cossack forces history
Volume 2 page 408

Document 97

Circassia’s Declaration of Independence In 1835, in connection with the extremely difficult circumstances during the Caucasian War, the leaders of the Adiga tribes united and developed a "Declaration of independence", which was sent to the monarchs of Europe and Asia. This act had significant implications in the international Diplomacy. "The Declaration" was published in the same year in various foreign editions. The following text has been translated from one of the English editions To Russian Language: "The Caucasians are not Russian subjects and are not even in peace with Russia, but for many years now are embroiled in war with it, going through this war without any assistance. They never received any assistance or support from any government. While the Sultan, as the spiritual head of the Muslims, exercises his rule in these areas, the residents of the Black Sea Coast, whom are professing that belief, were left to protect themselves on their own, and recently the Ports betrayed them repeatedly and left them without any assistance. One Pasha opened the Anapa gates (for gold in return) to allow Muscovites to plunder ruthlessly, telling the Circassians that the Russians came as friends to support the Sultan against the rebellion of Armenian Leaders. Another Pasha again betrayed them and abandoned them all at a sudden.

Since then, the Circassians repeatedly sent their deputies to the Sultan, expressing their loyalty and asking for assistance, but they were greeted bluntly. With the same manner they turned to Persia, and finally to Mohamed Ali, who accepted their loyalty, but refused to help. In all these cases, the deputies from Circassia were instructed to tell all those who, being at a distance, did not know how serious the Russian pressure was, as it is inimical to the customs, faith and happiness of all people. Otherwise why would the Circassians fight against it for all that period of time? How treacherous its Generals were and how ruthless its soldiers were.
It is not of anyone’s interest to destroy the Circassians. Rather, it is in the interest of all to support them. Hundreds of thousands of Muscovite troops are engaged in war against us, so that they’ll attack you next. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers are scattered in our sterile land and steep slopes, in which they’re fighting against our brave mountaineers, so that later on they will fill your rich plains and enslave you.

Our mountains have been the stronghold of Persia and Turkey, and without them it can be an accessible gateway to both countries, for those mountains are not only a cover for them, they represent a door to the home, which only by closing it the heart is protected.
But, in fact, Circassian blood flows in the Sultan’s veins. His mother is a Circassian, his harem consist of Circassians; also his Ministers and Generals. He’s the Leader of our faith, as well as our people, he captures our hearts, and we offer him our total commitment and loyalty. We are asking, in the name of all those connections and relations, for his sympathy and support, and if he refuses or is unable to protect our children and citizens, let them consider the grandchildren of the Crimean khans that are living among us. Those were the words of our deputies that they were entrusted to say but were not heard. This wouldn’t have happened if the Sultan knew how many hearts and swords he could have lead, if he only ended his friendship with the Muscovites.

We know that Russia is not the only state in the world, we know that there are greater states than Russia, and in spite their great power, they are configured with goodwill, they educate the ignorant and protect the weak, and they do not play well with Russia, but rather feuding with it, while they are not enemies to the Sultan but actually friends.

We know that England and France are the first nations in the world and have been great and powerful, yet when Russians came to us in small boats and asked our permission to fish in the Sea of Azov. We thought that England and France have no interest in such a simple and poor people like us, at the same time no doubt derives that those wise nations know that we are not Russians. And while we are badly trained and have no artillery, generals, organization, ships or wealth; we are honest and peaceful people, when we’re left unharmed. We loathe Russians and fight them constantly, and for a serious reason.

And later on, we learned – while feeling enormously insulted- that on European maps, our country is marked as a part of Russia, and treaties we know nothing about were signed by Russia and Turkey, and wants to convey those warriors - of which Russia tumbles- and the mountains –which the Turkish never set foot on - And Russia tells the West that the Circassians are its slaves; barbaric wild bandits whom cannot be shown leniency, and no law can curb them. We solemnly express our protest in front of God against such tricks and deceptions; we answer word for word, the word of truth against mendacity. For the past 40 years we resisted their attacks victoriously although the weapons were in their hands. With this ink and the blood that we shed, we declare our independence, enclosing signatures of people who do not know anything higher or more important than their country's decision, people who do not understand the subtle arguments, but know and will use their weapons when the Russians come holding their own weapons against them.

What kind of force can expel us from here? Our loyalty is offered to the Sultan, but if he’s at peace with Russia then he cannot accept it because Circassia is at war with Russia. Our loyalty is a voluntary sense that he cannot sell since it was never bought. Let the great nation such as England, which our eyes and hands turned to, not think about us at all, if we are unjust or not. Let it refuse any hearsay from cunning Russians before it refuses to hear the cries of Circassians. Let them judge those people for themselves, whom the Russians refer to as “wild and barbaric”, from their actions not from Fabrications.

We are 4,000,000 people, but unfortunately, we are divided into many tribes, languages and faiths, we have different customs, traditions, interests, alliances and divisions. We also never shared the same goal, but we had a semblance of government and custom subordinated commands. The leader elected by each tribe during war, has all the powers, and our senior princes manage each area according to their own customs, with a great authority that you cannot even see in any great neighboring country, but since we do not have one leader, we chose a foreign leader that controls the whole Eastern area. So we voluntarily accept the domination of the Crimean khans, then the Sultan of Constantinople, being our spiritual Leader. When Russia seized part of our land and won top everywhere, it tried to lower our rank into slaves, recruiting us in its army and making us shed our sweat and blood for their own enrichment. Forced to fight on Russia’s behalf and enslave more people for it even our compatriots and fellow believers. Therefore, hatred grew among us, and bloodshed will not cease, otherwise we would have been subjected by the Muscovite leader long ago. It would have been a sad and long story to be told, full of brutality and violations of oaths and promises, how Russia surrounded our country from all sides, cutting us from the necessary means of life, as it interrupted our trade and relinquished the last remnants of our homes to their hired assassins and left us without a Leader to follow. How it destroyed entire tribes and villages, and how it bribed the Turkish treacherous agents, and led us to poverty and drove us to hatred and irritation all over the world due to the horrors of which it permitted, while inflicting shame upon us with lies in the eyes of the Christian nations of Europe. We lost whole tribes, which used to collect hundreds of thousands of soldiers under their banners, but we were all finally united, as one, in the hatred of Russia. 200,000 people from our people only are subordinated to it in this long struggle; and of the remaining, none serve Russia voluntarily. Many children were abducted, and many children of the nobles were taken hostages, but at the first opportunity they fled back to their people. Among us there are people who enjoy the grace and respect of the evasive emperor, but who chose this benefit imperiled their mother country.

Among us there are thousands of Russians who preferred our “barbarity” over their country’s “civilization”. Russia built fortresses on our land, but they do not provide security beyond the reach of their artilleries; 50,000 Russians recently invaded us, and they were defeated. Only by weapon, but not by words, this country can be seized. If Russia conquers us, it would not be with weapons, but by the suppression of our communications and the use of Turkey and Persia as if they already belonged to it. It would be due to its siege for our coasts and destroying not only our ships but also the friendly ships that anchor in our coast, preventing us from buying salt and gunpowder plus other necessary martial products, not to mention confiscating our hope.
In spite of all that, we are independent and we are fighting and winning. The Emperor Representative, who presents us to Europe as his slaves, and who notes on our country’s map as his own, recently started negotiations with the Circassians, not to stop our resistance, but to trade 20,000 people that we’ve captured, and arrange a prisoners’ exchange. “
From the V.M. Atalikova Publications.
See: Living antiquities. 1992. № 2. Pp 20-23.

Document 98

August 5, 1851
A copy of the report to the transitory Leader of the Black Sea Border Stations, Colonel Rudanovski to ban the trading of salt with the Shabsough. To the Commander of the troops: after reading your Excellency’s report dated July 23 No. 2642, I allowed myself to attach the following resolution: "It is forbidden to trade with the Shabsough until they accept submission, and it must be ensured that not even one pound of salt shall reach them " . This is what I’m honored to inform your Excellency on behalf of the Supreme Commander of the forces. RTVYAA, F.13454, op.2, D.562, L.12

Document 99

A briefing on the Forts of beyond the Kuban The geographical location of this province provides our Border Stations line along the West Side of the lands beyond the Kuban with all the desired benefits. Also the Laba River with its wide, flat and smooth valley, as if it was a water surface, and its high and main right bank that reveals major suburbs and surrounds it forming a natural damn. The construction of the Forts: Zassovsqi, Mahoshivsqi and Temirgoevsqi, strengthened the Labinsk line, and our deep penetration in the lands of beyond the Kuban made a great impact on the minds of the Mountaineers, who are still refusing submission. Fort Zassovsqi with its small castle, is constructed on one of the most important roads in the Upper Heights of Laba’s Bank, with a rectangular form, 90 sazhen(1) long and 45 sazhen wide. In the center of its long elevations, special corners with short flanks were earmarked for the firing trenches equipped with seven defensive artilleries; it also contained two squares, troops’ headquarters, temporary ammunition and military equipment storage, stables and gun powder storage. All of this was built from turluka. While Fort Zassovsqi (Zas’s Fort)is of no military strength, the reason for not being able to eliminate the penetration of our borders by the mountain tribes and walk away unpunished - especially the Bagho and Abzakh tribes- is due to its inappropriate location. When General Zas realized that eliminating those brutal raids was impossible using regular methods, he built the fort in this place, which in addition to its meaning from the political point of view, it greatly affects the Bselen movements; being close to their neighborhoods, we will isolate them from the Mountaineers who are still refusing to surrender with both gunpoint and peaceful means, and we will keep them submersed. And we must draw the attention here not only to the most important military stations, but also to all centers that provide the best means of war for our conflict with the savages. Mahoshivsqi Fort is situated in a good fertile area, on one of the most important foothills roads of beyond the Kuban territory, and was built on the same Bank, that levels three Sazhen above the river Laba, forming an uneven sided Pentagon, its facade overlooking the plains, with two halved towers, with a flower garden in between where the main entrance to the fortress lies, the fort’s other elevations are surrounded by different types of trees, apart from two gates on the Laba river. This fort is equipped with four fort artilleries and five mid-range field artilleries, also containing a spacious Square Plaza, barracks with a remarkable capacity of 400 people, officers’ wings, arsenal and stables, fully equipped to serve as a place for the leader of the Labinsk front. Mahoshivsqi’s situation in the foothill plane connecting with almost all the Cossack villages with good roads, provide a lot of benefits in military sense, and is one of the most important points of the Labinsk front line. And because of this unique fortress’s strong profile and favorable place, the Mountaineers call it “Djigitkala” (The City of the Caucasian Warriors).

Temirgoevsqi is built in the valley at the Chamlytaa gate on the right bank of Laba River forming a four angle shape, and its wall has two immune towers. The fort includes two barracks, war headquarters, stables and a gun powder cellar built of clay bricks. It may seem that Fort Temirgoevsqi is too far from Fort Mahoshivsqi and that there was no need to build it there last year and so it is true, but the circumstances indicated quite differently. When General Zas saw the Temirgoev’s situation, and how the Abzakh threatened to devastate them if they do not pass on to their side, he built the fort there to insure their safety.

Fort Novodonski is constructed on the road running from Probnogo Okopa in Zayusovokoe fort, on the left bank of the Nagorno Chamlyka, against former Zhirovskogo fort, which is in the form of a square, with four towers, and includes -as in the previous mentioned forts- garrison facilities, wings, sheds and all necessary fortress buildings. And although the design of these buildings does not have total immunity- similar to ancient palaces- it has the ability to repel the attacks of the Mountaineers because of its strong and fortified situation.

Novo-Georgievskoe Fort is constructed on the left bank of the river Urup, 28 Versts away from Prochnogo trench in the form of a square, it has two towers and two half towers connected through a line of tunnels. It contains all the required buildings for the living garrison and gun powder cellars. Its circumference on River Urup provides many settlement benefits, and it is much safer than other locations. In addition to the forts mentioned, there are four other centers: Urupskoy, Sinyuhin, Chamlykskoy and Koksu, and all but the latter are built in places suitable for settlement. And although the surrounding lowlands of Sinyuhin are not extremely suitable as mentioned above, and do not provide the same degree of idealism and quality as Urupskoy and Chamlykskoy, But the increasing population will be able to eliminate the harmful fumes through cleaning the rubbles of stagnant waters in the marshes and by constructing a dam, it will create a wonderful lake. State Archive of the Krasnodar region, fax. 347, 3, l. 1G 6, 6 on., Y 9., 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 21 min., 34 on.
(1) A Russian unit of length equal to 7 English feet (about 2.134 meters)

Document 100

November 17, 1851

The report of the temporary Commander of the Black Sea Border Stations, Lieutenant General Rashpilya commander of forces in the Caucasus line and Lieutenant General Zavodovski on the requirements of the Shabsough: to withdraw from the Shabsough lands. After the unsuccessful peace talks in 1846, near shii-Oti months ago, the Shabsough began trying to start peace negotiations again. The main actor in this case was still Gamirz Rotok, the honorary foreman of the Abin River. I had the honor to submit it to Your Excellency and His Highness Prince Michael S. [Vorontsov] during the crossing through Ekaterinodar. The General Commander agreed to reply to Gamirza‘s suggestion -on the removal of the Forts: Georgie-Afipskoe and Abinskoe, and the withdrawal of troops from the Shabsough city- that it is a ridiculous one, and that if The Shabsough really wanted peace, they should certainly yield unconditionally, and offer their loyalty and levy. And he gave them a month deadline to decide. On the same day, October 18th, and in the presence of the honorary Shabsough Leaders, Gamirz Rotok retracted from negotiating the affairs of his people and the negotiations were passed to Magomtale Esentuko living on the Anthyr River. On the 20th of the month Magomtale went from the city to all honorable Shabsough Leaders, persuading them to do rather a general congress to end the case with the Russians. Indeed, in late October on the Bogundyr River in Gaudacho, the congress took place and all agreed to put up with the Russians. But in a nation like the Shabsough, such a decision could not face other than contradictions. Young people and even some of the honored individuals like Nesho-Sheblyaok and Nazhe, clearly opposed the decision. At the same time, the usual enemies of Russians Karabatyr Zanok (son of a famous Sefir Bay) and Tuguz Kerzech headed hostile parties and their adherents gathered at Bogundyre, slightly higher Tracts from Gaudacho. And so Shabsugia was divided into two parties at the beginning of negotiations, but this is not unusual when it comes to Circassians. Another fact almost spoiled the issue entirely: someone from the Anapa mountaineer Calvary informed Bogundyr that Vice-Admiral Serebriakov wants to do an incursion on Shabsugia from the Novorsisk side. Bzhego-Kai also notified them that the Black Sea Squad is heading their way from the Velikolagernogo side.

This news made even more confusion and disorder. Fortunately, at that time Abinsky squad had already been assembled to Holguín-skui, and Magomtale, after his meeting with me, was able to make certain that those were rumors and reassured the Shabsough.
Abinsk squad reached the fort without gunfire, and on the next day Magomtale Esentuk and Sheretluk Met (a leader on river Bogundyre area) and Gamirz Rotok. I reassured them that his highness the Duke Mikhail S. is holding onto the month period he granted them, but I reminded them that the first hostile action from their part would be a signal for an end to the truce, and secondly, because the month deadline given to them is already approaching the end, they would have to decide quickly.

As a result, in the same night (8 November) the Shabsough took an oath: First, not to fire at our returning troops, and secondly, to hold the general congress between the 9th and 12th of November. And indeed, our detachment passed from Abina to Olginska almost without a shot being fired, and the other half of the oath was also implemented on the approved date. At the end of the congress, on the 16th of the month, Magomtale Esentuk came to me and notified me that the residents of the Rivers: Anthyr, Bogundyra and Abina, as well as part of the River Gaple, are ready to take the oath and offer levy; and the only halt was on how the oath will be made, in what order, the levy and what is required from the Shabsough involving the new oath.
And since my Lack of positive rules in this regard, I could not commit myself into resolving all these issues so they are left to Your Excellency’s consideration. Additionally, I have the honor to add that Shabsoughs living on the Rivers: Abips, Ile, Ubgn and Afips (most populous) are not keen on making peace with us, and they did not even send deputies in the assembly that took place after the 10th of November.

Meanwhile, his Highness Prince Michael S. strictly confirmed not to conclude separate peace treaties with the Shabsough, therefore, I ask Your Excellency's decision to conclude peace with the residents of Anthyr, Bogundyr and Abina, and it is my duty to inform your Excellency not to expect total peace with the Shabsough any time soon, but the residents of the four rivers would willingly accept – as their neighbors along the rivers who will walk their path- especially when they clearly witness the benefits of peace with us. In regards to the levy, it would be very useful to take into account the method in which Mohammed Amin followed when he took mercenaries from the Shabsough as levy. He demanded one person of every hundred yards, which would count 4 people from Anthyr and Bogundyra Rivers, and 11 people from Abina River. If we demanded less levy, in the eyes of Shabsough would be less important than Mohammed Amin, and with such people as the Shabsough, even such small detail should not be neglected. But at the same time, we should take into consideration the requests of their leaders and not to over demand the number of mercenaries, and I thought we could as levy half the number of mercenaries, i.e. from Anthyr and Bogundyra 2 and 3 from Abin River. Representing all these objects to the permission of Your Excellency, whereas I have an honor to request not to keep my orders with the same messenger.

RGVIA, f. 13454, op. 2, D. 526, L. 1-4.