Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Documents 1 - 50

2 February 1645
General Richter’s mission against the Temryuks, destroying Temryuk and Hadji Effendi Villages

At dawn on January 23rd, 17 infantry brigades, 2000 Cossacks, 6 horsemen and 7 mobile artilleries gathered in the Cossack village Nikrasovsk, but the melting of snow and puddle road season delayed them to the second of February. That evening, and in total silence, a faction made of three squads attacked via Belaya River Cutting 55 Versts (Verst = 1060 meters). At dawn, they crossed Belaya River near major and rich neighborhoods; Temryuk and Hadji Effendi. The Cossacks crossed the river immediately and surrounded those neighborhoods. Some Temryuks tried to infiltrate the ranks of the Cossacks, but they were cut into pieces. 36 people from the neighborhoods were captured while the others chose death. Apart from the population, the Troop seized a quantity of arms, red goods, horses and livestock, the neighborhoods were burnt. F. A. Cherbin
Kuban Cossack forces history Volume 2 page 476

Document 2

In May 1728
An infantry consisting of 600 Don(1) Cossack and Circassian led by Mikhail Nekrasov flounced against tsarist troops.
The collection of archival documents relating the history of the Kuban Cossack troops and Kuban region. Pp. 38.
(1) The Don River

Document 3

1769 General Medem’s campaign against the Kabarday
General Medem sent a horsemen task force against the Kabarday led by the horsemen troops major Prince Ratiev. He previously had a fierce battle with them on the sixth of June in the corals of Ladkumka. The Kabarday fought valiantly but the Mezdok Cossacks fought as valor under the Commander Saveliev, who himself led the troops to the barriers. The violent battle lasted until night, and in the next morning the enemy waved the white flag and betrayed himself, the Kabarday surrendered unconditionally. General Medem sent them the Chief of the Russian police station to explain the meaning and sanctity of the treaty, while he continued progress to the Kuban hoping to benefit soon from the impression and the uproar of spreading the news of crushing the Circassian squad in the mountains.
V. A. Potto, the Caucasian War Volume 1, page 60

Document 4

27 September 1779
Invading an island on Malka River
This incident occurred on September 27th, on the same day new troops led by Major Farbetsian arrived, who was the hero of the Turkish war, and earned the hero cross Medal since he was a lieutenant. Farbetsian offered Jacob an immediate attack on the Kabarday’s main camp which was located in one of the islands that were formed on Malka River. The proposal was accepted, and on the 29th of September, a large faction – that included: Tomsk infantry troop, Kabardian Battalion troop, two battalions of soldiers, two Mezdok field battalion brigades’ troops, Mezdok Cossacks troop, 1000 Don Cossacks, Kalmyks and horsemen and 10 Knight battalions of Vladimir- surrounded the Kabarday from all directions. There were no artilleries but Farbetsian and Jacob were hoping to handle the matter without the need to use them. The Kabarday had no place to retreat especially that they responded to our proposal of surrender with gunfire, Farbetsian began the attack. The violent battle lasted for five hours, and during the battle, an artillery that was seized by the Kabarday earlier was recovered. The camp was seized with a sudden pounce, and everything on the island was now under the Russian soldiers’ bayonets.
V. A. Potto, the Caucasian War
Volume 1, page 98

Document 5

7 - 9 October 1790
Baron Rosen’s forces have set fire to villages left by the Bjadogh between Psekups and Pchas Rivers, and on the River Marte they wiped out eight villages, while on the River Pshits they burned 28 villages of the same tribe.
Boutkov.P Materials for the new history of the Caucasus - Part I S.P.B 1869, page 228

Document 6

In 1800 The campaign led by Major General Drashkevich
Major General Drashkevich, who was leading the entire mission, gave Bursak the news that on the 16th of May, he and his faction launched a campaign against the Circassians through the Temryuk lands and brought artillery across Tshorni(1). Bursak wrote to Drashkevich on May 28 that they had prepared 1500 Cossacks for the Zakuban(2) campaign against the mountaineers, and on the second of July he crossed the Kubna River through Ikatirinowsk station accompanied by a faction of 2005 men and began chasing the mountaineers. The third faction consisted of two troops: the Cossacks troop and Likhner’s private cavalry troop which was led by the Black Sea troops Lieutenant Colonel Yermeyev. The military operations started, and on the fifth of June Bursak notified Drashkevich that in the early hours, the Cossacks ran into small groups of Circassians, two of whom were captured. But later on the Cossacks had to engage more seriously in the battle, chasing the Circassians away from Aslan Jerry and Dawlat neighborhoods, by Oshid River. The Cossacks had their hands on thousands of heads of livestock. The troop led by Yermeyev was able to plunder 2,542 different kinds of livestock. Our forces have also looted cattle from the Circassians in other areas. His Highness the Emperor Pavel declared graciously to the troops that the Cossacks and the regular soldiers who participated in the invasion and the defeat beyond the Kuban will have a share of the spoils. The share of the Black Sea troops was 660 head of cows and 2684 head of goats. F. A. Cherbin / The history of Cossack Kuban forces Volume 2 page 156 -------------------------------------------------- ______ (1) means Black (2) Beyond the Kuban

Document 7

Cossack Commander Bursak’s Campaigns
Since the beginning of the Cossack leaders’ first actions, Bursak hoped for a permission to send campaigns against the Circassians with disciplinary objectives, and when the forces were granted this right by the authorities, Bursak presided over a series of campaigns beyond the Kuban in the years: 1800, 1802, 1807, 1809, 1810, 1811 , and the Cossacks had presence at different times in the lands of Bjadogh, Natokhawaj, Shabsough and Abzakh under the leadership and supervision of Bursak personally. Every time the mountaineers incurred loss and their neighborhoods were destroyed and burned including their Grain and fodder, and their livestock was looted as booty of war. Bursak had been promoted to the rank of major general in 1807 due to those actions.
F. A. Cherbin IKKV Volume 2 page 75

Document 8

1802 Cossack commander Bursak’s disciplinary campaign
The disciplinary faction consisted of 336 Cossack officers, 2245 infantry soldiers and 3858 Cossack horsemen, and on the twenty-ninth of May Bursak crossed the Kuban River right by Olginsk police station at the border, where the Special Cavalry Regiment XIV joined him, and that night Bursak -with some of the troops- reached to swampy areas where Prince Bojok neighborhoods are located. There at sunrise, a fierce battle took place between the Cossacks and the Circassians. The Circassians were retreating and hiding their families and possessions behind Pshits River, not allowing the Cossacks to reach to their neighborhoods. But part of the Cossacks got into the forest from behind the Circassians and after separating them from the river they attacked them with white arms, and they annihilated them. The Circassian casualties were 200 killed and 300 wounded. The Cossacks got control on the four neighborhoods and captured 532 people, including Prince Bojok himself and his family. The faction’s share of looting was 1158 head of cows and 1396 head of goats. The governor upgraded Bursak to the rank of colonel.
F. A. Cherbin / The History of Cossack Kuban forces Volume 2 page 158

Document 9

30 November 1804
Cossack Commander Bursak’s disciplinary campaign against the Shabsough
A task force consisting of 8 horsemen troops, 5 infantry of the Black Sea troops, the twelfth battalion of private Cavalry Regiment and 6 artilleries -starting the 30th of November till the 1st of December- crossed the Kuban River under the command of Cossack Commander Bursak. It was supposed to punish the Shabsough, so forces consisting of three columns were sent along the Shipsh Afipsu River up to the mountains. At the dawn of the fourth of December the Russian forces–after dividing themselves into four sectors- began to crush the Shabsough properties from four directions, and many battles and skirmishes occurred in different places. The Shabsough were defeated all over, and lost 150 people, and then joined a task force composed of 1000 people and tried to attack the Russian columns, but they could not withstand artillery fire. Fighting continued until 5 p.m., and the Shabsough were completely destroyed, and they were dislodged to the mountains and dense jungles, losing more than 250 dead and many wounded. Troops destroyed all neighborhoods it encountered, looted 1300 head of cows and approximately 6000 head of sheep and they camped at the river Shipsh to spend the night. The Russian troop spent the entire next day -which coincided with the fifth of December- standing in place, only small parts of it were sent to explore the lands owned by the Shabsough that they have not yet reached to. Mountain Rivers flooding prevented the forward progress of the mission and they returned to the Black Sea sides.
F. A. Cherbin E. K. K. B
Volume 2 page 161 - 162

Document 10

12 December 1804
Cossack Commander Bursak’s Mission to Shabsugia
On the 12th of December, when the rivers froze of severe cold, Bursak progressed again against the Shabsough. The task force crossed Obun River on the same date at night and hid all day between the forests and canes until the following night. The following night it snowed heavily and a severe storm struck to the extent that the spies strayed from the road several times. At eight on the morning of the 14th of December the task force approached the Shabsough houses. As the Shabsough were cautious they rushed to the forest. But Cossack horsemen chased them and a battle revolved. The Circassians were defeated and they lost more than 500 dead and 4 prisoners. The Russian task force robbed 50 head of cows and 2000 head of sheep, and burnt buildings, grain and fodder. Upon leaving, the Shabsough gathered around 1000 people and started another fight, but they were defeated again, leaving 100 dead in the battlefield. In this mission in general, 650 people were killed and the same number were injured, more than 2000 homes were burnt and 20 horses killed.
F. A. Cherbin IKKV Volume 2 page 162

Document 11

9 May 1807
Commander General Gangiblov and Commander Bursak’s mission
On May 9th the Russian troops burned and destroyed neighborhoods along the rivers: Kudako, Ashlth, Gaytuh, Geshepsin and Zames. The task force spent the night by Korvandi River. The next morning, across the other side of the river, large groups of the enemy started showing and the tuff Caucasian mountaineer Knights started calling snipers to fight. Gangiblov hesitated due to the large number of mountaineers, and intended to reach Olginsk crossing point to cross from there to the Black Sea. But Bursak was well aware that this would have never save the Russian forces from danger, and that the Circassians will chase the forces on the way back defeating them from the back. Therefore, the General was convinced to fight the Circassians, and the fierce battle took place. The Circassians were defeated and lost about 70 dead and 80 wounded.
F. A. Cherbin IKKV Volume 2 page 165

Document 12

18 June 1809
Commander Bursak’s mission to Cherkessiya
Commander Bursak -accompanied by the whole task force- moved on June 18th and arrived at night to Psekups River, and from there he crossed to the rivers Chetuk and Matte. On their way the Cossacks burned several neighborhoods of Batamorza, Which sometimes gave the oath of loyalty and obedience to Russia and other times betrayed. The Circassians inhabitants hid in the mountains and forests and the mountaineers armed groups tried to create a barrier and closed the road in the face of the Russian Brigade. Clashes took place everywhere, the neighborhoods were burning in flames and blood was spelled. Throughout their presence in those areas, 18 neighborhoods were burnt, including many farms and apiaries. The grain and fodder reserve was lost, the Circassians lost 300 people and about 520 were seriously wounded. The Russian Brigade lost 12 soldiers and 56 were injured. The territory was totally invaded and destroyed, and the task force headed back to the Black Sea.
F. A. Cherbin K. K. B Volume 2 page 169

Document 13

17 February 1810
Commander Bursak’s mission against the Cherchens and Abzakh.
On the seventeenth of February a detachment of the Black Sea troops was sent to the territories of Cherchens and Abzakh by the River Sup. The Circassians were caught by surprise and they had no time to arm themselves. This time the Cossacks showed an exceptional brutality, they burned everything and killed everyone, without distinction of sex and age, killing men, women and children. Bursak had to intervene personally in that matter and was able to rescue 14 men and 24 women from death in several neighborhoods. The Cossacks caused full and comprehensive devastation and burned neighborhoods, grains, fodder and property. The Cossacks took some of the belongings left, like copper pots, fabrics and weapons, and looted 100 horses, about 300 head of cows and 300 head of sheep. This time, it seemed like nature was on the mountaineers’ side and helped those who have suffered untold suffering. The rivers overflow disrupted the hunt down of Circassians, and Bursak moved on with troops returning to the Black Sea areas. F. A. Cherbin I. K. K. V Volume 2 page 173-174

Document 14

10 March 1810
Commander Bursak’s disciplinary campaign beyond the Kuban.
Commander Bursak proceeded with the forces beyond the Kuban River on March 10th. The task force consisted of 12 Cossack Regiments, One garrison battalion and two brigades of the Special Cavalry Regiment accompanied by 6 artilleries crossed the Kuban River by Elizabethan boarder station. Bursak, who suddenly felt ill, gave an order to divide the entire Party into two columns, one under the command of Colonel Kobinyak, and the other under the command of the head of the troop’s corporals Dubonos. The Cossacks marched together for 50 versts of the Kuban River, and then Dobonos’s column headed to Zerki River while Kobinyak’s column to Ile River, but later on they marched not far from each other, and continued to inform each other. On the morning of March 11th, the Cossacks attacked the neighborhoods and after several hours everything was destroyed and shattered. The Cossacks had no mercy for the Circassians, and the death toll by artillery alone (according to Circassian statistics) was nearly 500 people. The soldiers looted many arms and household appliances, captured 45 Circassian, and robbed 40 horses and 80 head of cow. With these spoils the troop arrived home from the right side of the Kuban River, on the 12th of March. F. A. Cherbin I. K. K. V Volume 2 page 174

Document 15

12 September 1810
Commander Bursak’s disciplinary mission to Abaza neighborhoods Commander Bursak, accompanied by 12 of the Black Sea Regiments -Between infantry and horsemen- two soldier regiments and three battalions of the twenty-second Cavalry Regiment, with 10 cannons, passed the Kuban River on September 12th. The forces marched throughout the night and in the morning they arrived to Abaza neighborhoods and started invading, that was because the Abaza were against Prince Alkaas who was loyal to Russia. The next day the troops crossed to Chubu River and continued destroying the neighborhoods, and burned the grains and fodder. The Abaza hid in the mountains and forests, and in October 20th Bursak and the troops were back by the Black Sea on the right bank of the Kuban River. F. A. Cherbin / The History of Cossack Kuban forces
Volume 2 page 175

Document 16

14 December 1810
Lieutenant Colonel Yeremyev’s achievements in Shabsugia
In Bursak’s report –who is the column I force commander- he informed Yermeyev that on the 14th of December 1810 the column was preoccupied with the Circassians, and robbed 400 cows and more than 300 head of sheep. On the 20th of December, during a new battle against the Shabsough, two were captured other than the dead. On the 21st of December a neighborhood was burned by the Cossacks and the Circassians were thrown out. On the 22nd of December during the troop’s pursuing of the Circassians, on their way they burned “not a few houses and properties”. On the 23rd of December they also burned many houses and farms, grains and fodder. At the end, on the 24th of December, the column attacked many large antagonist neighborhoods. The campaign ended with a big defeat of the Shabsough who lost many in between dead and wounded. F. A. Cherbin / The History of Cossack Kuban forces
Volume 2 page 176

Document 17

January 1811
Commander Bursak and Colonel Rodzivich’s campaign to the Shabsough and Natokhawaj territories
On the 11th of January, a new mission for the Russian forces started towards the territories of the Shabsough and Natokhawaj beyond the Kuban River. Two brigades were sent; a Cossack brigade under the command of Commander Bursak, and the other a mix between private and Cavalry Regiment under the command of the Cossack Colonel Rodzivich. At the beginning, the teams were located in different places, and on the 12th of January, Bursak and the Cossacks - who were near the Kuban River – moved towards the mountains. On the same date, Rodzivich - who was with the private Cavalry Regiment and the Cossacks – reported to Bursak that he crossed the Adagum River and he’s on Shabsough soil. And on the following day Bursak’s troops dealt with the mountaineers and the Cossacks were able to loot 100 head of cows, which came right in time as supplies for the soldiers.
On the 14th of January the two brigades were united and barricaded near the river shepsh. This time the matter between the Russians and Circassians did not reach to serious confrontation. Only the Cossacks in Bursak’s brigade had some clashes with the mountaineers, in which Colonel Lysenko’s regiment was particularly distinguished and defeated the Shabsough several times and burned several neighborhoods. The Shabsough decided reconciliation and sent their prestigious to Rodzivich several times with peaceful suggestions. Rodzivich told them to hand over the Russian prisoners and the weapons they took from Olginsk crossing point, and pay levy, but the Circassians evaded with excuses. Only the Shabsough who resided in the District of Anthyr River agreed to pay levy and make peace. Subsequent negotiations did not lead to any result. After staying by Shepsh River, the two brigades returned to the Black Sea. And while they were crossing the lands owned by the Shabsough that signed the truce, the mountaineers did not attack them, but as the troops crossed Anthyr River they were on the lands of the inimical Shabsough whom started attacking the Russian forces until both sides got into battle. The Cossacks and the private Cavalry Regiment burned and destroyed several neighborhoods, both sides suffered losses between dead and wounded. F. A. Cherbin IKKV Volume 2 page 176-177

Document 18

3 February 1822
Vlassov’s mission beyond the Kuban
Vlassov decided not to forgive the Circassians, even for their small incursions. With this goal he arranged a small platoon, and on the 3rd of February 1822 he moved with the platoon to the mountains. The Circassians dispersed when they saw the Cossacks behind the Kuban leaving their neighborhoods. Vlassov’s platoon crossed the rivers Pshetsiz, Kun and Bogundyr, which mostly were in the Shabsough’s territory. The platoon robbed approximately 700 head of cows and 400 head of sheep and then returned, but they were chased and attacked often during the retreat.
F. A. Cherbin E. K. K. B Volume 2 page 39

Document 19

24 December 1822
The Destruction of Dodaroukoh neighborhood by Lieutenant Colonel Tikhotsky
At the end of the year 1822, the mountaineers were again subjected to military sequestration by the disciplinary Russian troop. And as can be seen from the communiqué of this year dated the 31st of December, submitted by Lieutenant Colonel Tikhotsky to the forces commander, General Stahl, the disciplinary campaign consisting of 733 infantry troops and 553 of the Cossack horsemen accompanied by two rhinoceroses each weighing 20 lbs, was sent to invade Dodaroukoh neighborhood. The neighborhood was surrounded by the Russian troops and it was burned on the 24th of December in which during the troop captured 66 people. On the way back a group of mountaineers consisting of 509 people tried to attack the Russian Brigade to retrieve the prisoners, but they failed. F. A. Cherbin / The History of Cossack Kuban forces
Volume 2 page 208-209

Document 20

March 1823
General Vlassov’s campaign beyond the Kuban
In March, General Vlassov and his task force were beyond the Kuban where they destroyed Circassian neighborhoods, while on the 4th of March 141 people were captured from the Circassians population, and up till the 23rd of May 16 of them were dead. F. A. Cherbin the History of Cossack Kuban forces
Volume 2 page 241

Document 21

November 1823
Vlassov’s disciplinary campaign to the mountains
Vlassov ordered the summoning of concessionaire Cossacks to the border line with an approximate number of 2500 people, and headed himself with the task force towards the mountains in mid-November. The disciplinary campaign marched along the rivers Tsakh, Sup and Ilik, and on November 22nd it destroyed several Abzakhian neighborhoods and looted many livestock and copper artillery. And for the second time, Vlassov destroyed the Shabsough neighborhoods in December, and burned neighborhoods with all what they contained from forage and grain reserve for Bread. From Vlassov’s bulletin to Watvyev on December 21st, it showed that during the destruction of neighborhoods located on the rivers Azipso, Hablo and others, and during the campaign’s retreat returning to the Black Sea, four officers, two rural tsarist Russian policemen and 23 Cossacks were wounded. F. A. Cherbin IKKV Volume 2 page 241

Document 22

February 1824
Vlassov’s campaign beyond the Kuban, destroying the neighborhoods of Jambut, Aslan, Morza and Tsab Dadhika
In February, Vlassov destroyed the neighborhoods of Jambut, Aslan, Morza and Tsab Dadhika. At the dawn of the 5th of the month, he approached the neighborhoods cautiously, and began the extermination of the population. The Circassians were caught by surprise and were in a severe panic and fear and did not think of resisting, and they tried to get out of the neighborhood in any way possible. As a result, there were no losses in the troop. The Cossacks captured 143 people, robbed 700 head of cows, nearly 100 horses, 1000 head of sheep and a lot of property. Only during their return, the mountaineers - who have returned to their consciousness-started attacking the Cossacks with ferocity. 200 armored men jumped in between the lines of the troop, part of them were shot and the other fell in the hands of the Cossacks alive. To that extent of valiance and apathy was the Circassians’ attack on the troop. On the way back, two Khamash neighborhoods were destroyed with order of Vlassov, and the troop crossed to the Black Sea.
F. A. Cherbin E. K. K. B Volume 2 page 242

Document 23

24 June 1824
Emmanuel’s order to Bescrovny to prevent reaping the harvest of grain
On June 24th Emmanuel assigned to Bescrovny the mission to move with the platoon to the Circassian territory that lies before the Anapa area, to prevent reaping the harvest of grain in the neighborhoods that do not pay levy of ratifications for peaceful relations with the Russians. And because it is not possible to prevent reaping the harvest of grain in different and large areas, Bescrovny asked Emmanuel the permission to burn grain and also punish those who do not wish to hand over the levy. Emmanuel delayed his answer, and only on the 21st of June he allowed to take decisive action against the mountaineers, he even allowed to reinforce the faction with more infantry near Anapa if the Shabsough and Natokhawaj refused to swear the oath of loyalty and obedience to Russia. F. A. Cherbin E. K. K. B Kuban Cossack forces history /Volume 2 page 250

Document 24

June 1824
Colonel Katsariov disciplinary mission and destroying Klycheva and Dodaroukoh neighborhoods
In June 1824, the Russian disciplinary task force proceeded to the Circassian neighborhoods located on the river Zelenchuk. And what appears from the disciplinary task force commander Colonel Katsariov’s proclamation to the twenty second infantry task force commander major general Stahl, a task force composed of Cossacks and soldiers advanced towards Zelenchuk River on the 18th and 19th of June, and before the dawn of the 20th of June, a sudden and surprising attack was launched on Klycheva and Dodaroukoh Circassian neighborhoods. The Russian forces surrounded the neighborhoods from all sides.
The Cossacks and soldiers’ shouts and Gunfire awakened the residents. The half naked Circassians -wandering amid the smoke of weapons- jumped out of their homes and fled to the surrounding forests. Women and children –whom were taken by fear and horror-, did not know what to do or where to seek protection. The animals’ fearful shouts and dogs barking increased the atmosphere’s disturbance. The soldiers and Cossacks - who were surrounding the neighborhoods with a tight circle-, sent a special section of the soldiers to take over the houses. There was no actual battle where the two opponents confronted each other face to face. The deafeated escaped but the victorious tried to prevent them from escaping, and although the troops were strictly ordered to have mercy on the lives of the population, the clashes and combats with mountaineers did not pass without deaths or injury and disability in the injured.
The Russians used all their power and authorities and they were freely allowed and capable of shooting at fleeing Circassians. 200 bodies remained on site, and many of the population, particularly children and young people drowned in Zielenchuk River while attempting to cross to the other side of it. 370 people of both sexes were captured, and the task force robbed massive numbers of livestock: 600 horses, 1200 head of cows and 7000 head of sheep. F. A. Cherbin IKKV Volume 2 page 210

Document 25

24 February 1825
Vlassov’s mission to the Shabsough and Natokhawaj territories
By the 24th of February, the task force was reconstituted again and advanced to the territories of Shabsough and Natokhawaj. The task force composed of the first, second, fourth and eighth troop, nine troops of horsemen and infantry troops II, III, IV, V and X, which was joined by the troops on the border crossing line Cavalry Regiment V, VII and VIII. It was divided into three sections: two acting columns which were led by the two colonels Sturojinka and Tbants, and the third column – with Vlassov’s presence-was a reserve and was led by The 100 Cossacks Leader, Olhovy. The whole task force made its whole formation by proceeding forward silently and very cautiously throughout the night, until they reached the river Psebebs, where they stopped for rest. From there, Tbants’ column was sent to the Shabsough neighborhoods and Sturojinka’s column to the Natokhawaj neighborhoods, while the reserve column remained in place.
At the dawn of the 25th of February, the first Cossack column attacked two Shabsough neighborhoods, and the people –who were attacked by surprise- fled to the jungle, the Cossacks were able to seize 35 prisoners, but killed 27 of them for resisting and wounding two Cossacks, and freed a Russian that was captured by the Circassians earlier. The neighborhoods were burned including its grain and fodder, and the most valuable property and weapons were taken by the task force while the Cows and sheep were taken by the Cossacks. And with these spoils Tbant’s column returned immediately to the aspects of the Black Sea after they defeated the Circassians easily and almost without incurring any losses. It took Sturojinka’s column entire days to reach the two Natokhawaj neighborhoods due to the difficult roads, and then Sturojinka gave the order to attack the neighborhoods. The two neighborhoods were destroyed and the task force took the belongings and the livestock, and the Cossacks captured 44 people and killed a few, then Sturojinka’s column also headed to the Black Sea, where he arrived without any hindrance. And there also the reserve column headed with General Vlassov. F. A. Cherbin IKKV
Volume 2 page 243-244

Document 26

12 December 1828
General Emmanuel’s mission beyond the Kuban
At the end of 1828 a strong task force advanced to the mountains beyond the Kuban River under the special supervision of the Commander of the Black Sea forces on the Caucasian front line, Calvary General, Emmanuel. From November 12th to December 13th (during a month), the task force made several moves –with disciplinary goals- to the mountains, highlands and rivers. And in order to achieve further success the task force was divided into three columns. According to a predetermined plan, many sections of the column were able to be present by the rivers: Zelenchuk, Urup, Chamlyk, Tegenyah, Hodz, Laba, Fars, Psefir, Gups, Gaach, Khunf, Bilaya, Korjips and others. And they had matters to resolve with the Kabarday, Naghwey, Bselen, Bashilbay, Abzakh, Barkay, Mahosh, Temryuks, Egurkay and others. There were a number of clashes, and there were dead and wounded at the sites from both parties. But the mountaineers were defeated everywhere and suffered heavy losses in lives that were not comparable with the Russian troops’. Many of the Circassian population were seized, and neighborhoods were burned including a lot of fodder. On the sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth of December alone, 25 Abzakh neighborhoods located on the River Korjips were invaded and destroyed including their populations and 1348 homes. F. A. Cherbin Kuban Cossack forces history
Pages 389-390

Document 27

21 July 1829
Bescrovny’s disciplinary mission to the River Ile
The task force included three staff officers, 24 officers, 20 police officers from the rural police, 9300 Horsemen, 560 Cossack infantry and two artillery factions. At Eight o'clock on July 21st the task force crossed the Kuban River, and at two thirty -almost on scheduled time- it reached to Berko, which is located in the center of the Natokhawaj housing area and surrounded with plowed fields and meadows, which is not owned only by the local population, but also some local ethnic Circassians who are living in the mountains. Hence, the troops were sent to search for Circassians and livestock out in the fields. In the morning, the Circassians who were heading from their neighborhoods to the fields found out about the attempted invasion so they attacked the Cossacks and both exchanged gunfire. However, the Cossack troops were able to plunder 1900 sheep and burned four Apiaries with 1000 Cells. Meantime 500 mountaineers gathered around. The Cossacks burned grain and fodder. The mountaineers attacked the Cossacks but their attack was repulsed, leaving in place 5 corpses and 8 horses. The Circassians rushed from other locations to the battle field, which raised the number of the crowd to 1000 Circassian. A fierce battle took place over two hours; a number of attacks by the Circassians were repulsed. This time, the mountaineers left 9 corpses and 14 horses in the battlefield. By the time the troop was retreating, the number of mountaineers had increased and continued the attacks on the wings of the troop. At the Kuban crossing point, a new battle started and lasted from four o'clock am until three thirty the next afternoon. At the outset the mountaineers were kept off the Kuban by the crossing point with gun fires, but they continued to attack the troops from all directions. After the mountaineers’ efforts in defeating the Russians went in vain, they left 13 bodies and 17 horses in the battlefield. From the information gathered by our spies, the Circassians took away more than 35 dead and 70 injured, apart from the 27 bodies and 39 horse abandoned on the battlefield. The troop burned 17 homesteads, 300 grain stores, 500 fodder stores and 4 Apiaries. The Cossack captured only two Circassians and a little boy who was near the sheep. One of the Cossack troops was killed, and one officer, three policemen and 9 Cossacks were injured. 13 horses were killed and 26 wounded. During the troops’ trip back 295 sheep perished and 1605 made it across the Kuban.
F. A. Cherbin IKKV
Volume 2 page 253-254

Document 28

18 September 1829
General Bescrovny’s mission to the Abzakh and Shabsough properties
General Bescrovny’s mission that started on September 18th consisted of 5 staff officers, 29 officers, 38 policemen from the countryside police, 928 horsemen and 772 of the Cossack infantry escorted by 5 artilleries. The Khamash - who were reaping the crops- informed the Abzakh and Shabsough about the troop’s approach. The Circassians dispersed into their neighborhoods and sent their wives, children and the elderly away to the mountains, while they stayed in the neighborhoods. Bescrovny’s task force headed to the Abzakh and crossed the rivers: Sup, Ilik and Unobat to the border between the Shabsough and Abzakh properties, and there were the fields where both tribes grew their crops. The next morning the fog was dense and only around eight o'clock the task force found out that they were exposed to the Circassians. Burning about 200 store grain and 350 store fodder and taking 259 sheep and one Circassian, the task force left in peace and headed back to the Kuban. F. A. Cherbin Kuban Cossack forces history
Volume 2 page 254

Document 29

1831 The possibility of displacement of the Natokhawaj and the resettlement of Russian population instead.
The idea that we had in mind for a long time came back to life, which is to lodge Cossacks in the northern coast of the Black Sea. It is known that Turkish neighbors wanted to put their hands on these areas, by establishing Azovskaya Cossack forces and settling them near Mariupol. This time, authorities took into consideration not to settle the Azovskaya troops, but the Malorossiyan Cossacks instead. It was determined to send 1300 families from Malorossiya(1) to Anapa, and when a question came up, "where would be best to resettled the Cossacks, Anapa or Gelendzhik?", the local authorities voted in favor of (Anapa), since it was closer to the Black Sea, and being -including its surroundings- a fertile land, which makes it easier for agriculture. The impact of this situation also affected the need to have Russian troops on the Gelendzhik gulf, since the north-west part of the huge triangle- which is inhabited by Natokhawaj and should be lodged entirely with Russian population- is required to provide favorable conditions for deportees, and the strengthening of the line from Olginsk to Gelendzhik or to Novorossiysk, if it was necessary. F. A. Cherbin KKB Volume 2 page 299
(1)Malorossiya : Small Russia

Document 30

November 1831 Frolov’s task force mission
In the month of November the military operations against the mountaineers continued. In the evening of the 1st of November the Circassians attacked two Cossacks during their movement between the two Cossack villages Bikishivesk and Sovorovsk. One of the Cossacks was killed with a sword during a battle with swords, and the second was wounded but managed to jump away killing his mountaineer attacker with a bullet from his pistol. From the 20th to the 23rd of November, Frolov’s task force invaded the neighborhoods of Katch Abazian princes and the Kabardian Prince Haji Hamurzyn. The task force captured 361 prisoners from the mountaineers and robbed about 1000 head of cattle. F. A. Cherbin Kuban Cossack forces history
page 398

Document 31

20 November 1832
Caucasian front line point Commander General Frolov Beyond the Kuban
On the 20th of November, Frolov moved ahead with a strong task force at night through heavy snow towards the upper direction heading to the Kuban, to Ust Djigotinesc fort. The snow was very intense to the extent that during the night the task force was not able to reach its specific points which were the neighborhoods of the Abazian princes. Therefore, General Forlov with armed Cossack horsemen marched quickly leaving behind the infantry and the heavy task force sections; they proceeded and covered all the exits surrounding the coral river valley. The mountaineers - who noticed the approach of the Russian task force- opened heavy fire on the Cossacks, and started gathering their families, their livestock and valuable property to somehow traverse the line of the Russian forces and head to the mountains. The General -who had put the canons in the appropriate places-, began destroying the mountainous neighborhoods and give an order to the Cossack troops: Kopansk, Khopirsk, Volgsk and Dunsk to hurry and attack the neighborhoods. After the mountaineers’ desperate resistance, the Cossacks took over the neighborhoods with a sudden attack and oppressed their populations. Some desperate Abriks and Kabardians hid in the mosque and some houses and refused to surrender, and then the troops opened fire at the mosque and houses. The Abrik, who survived the artillery shells were killed in clashes with Russian infantry, who managed to accede and join their partners. The Russians in this violent incident lost 10 commissioners while one officer and 16 commissioners were wounded. On the battlefield, corpses of more than 150 Circassian who were killed in the clashes were found, and about 50 women and children were killed as a result of the Russian Canons shelling. The task force captured 381 persons, including 46 persons who were armed, and the spoils were about 1000 head of cow. Frolov sent a section of the task force, led by Lisanivich to Prince Morzaloi’s neighborhood. These troops opened fire heavily in the Coral of Kardanah River and defeated the mountaineers, with only 4 of them injured. As for the mountaineers, they lost a number of dead and wounded. The Russians captured 9 prisoners and looted 186 cows. F. A. Cherbin Kuban Cossack forces history
Page 400
The Caucasus and beyond, during our administration through the years 1831 - 1837

Document 32

From Baron Rosen to Chirinechev
From 12, 12, 1831 No. 245-page 370
381 people of both sexes were captured after the hunt down in the corals, 46 of the captured were armed, they also captured the families of princes Kuchuk, Aslan Jerry Kich, the wife of Kabardian Prince Jampolat Haj Hamurzyn, as well as an important and respected person between the nations of the mountains, Mecker Effendi (Sheikh Mecker) as well as his family. In addition to the captives, 150 bodies of men killed in the clashes and 50 women and children who died from guns fire were found. After starting fires in the neighborhoods, General Frolov and Lieutenant Colonel Lisanivich advanced forward with the troops and prisoners composing two marches, and on November 23rd they arrived at the Castle (fortress) Ust Djigotinesc, right were the troops headed to their former location. During the destruction of the Prince Mirzalo neighborhood by the third brigade holding Mesquite(1), from the Navagainsk infantry regiment, the soldier Midvideiv started a fire in the mosque and ran into a Circassian that shot at him and then escaped, but the courageous soldier chased him and killed him, while he suffered two wounds. (1) a kind of rifles

Document 33

636 of December 7, 1833, No. 891 - page 737
Before the dawn of the seventh of this month, Zas crossed the river and sent Cossacks forward to stay ahead of him and make a sudden attack on Prince Knoukoh neighborhood, and then he followed them accompanied by infantry and artillery. The Cossacks attacked the neighborhood quickly from two sides but regardless of that the population began fleeing to the nearby forest as the Cossacks approached. But a large section of those searching for salvation were captured by the Cossacks, and they were 68 of both sexes. Apart from that the rest remained in their homes or behind their gardens plot and opened fire severely. Upon Zas’s arrival accompanied by the infantry and artillery, he stopped the Cossacks so that not to expose them to great losses in vain, and sent two infantry brigades with 100 Cossacks after installing a battery composed of 6 guns to cover the forces sent. The neighborhood was seized and set on fire; the mountaineers who remained resisting in the neighborhood were all exterminated.

Document 34

Page 738
.... With that all mountaineers’ families fleeing to the forest, all the properties remained and became spoils for the Cossacks.... At the end of crushing neighborhoods, I ordered Sirbenov hastily to attack the mountaineers accompanied by 100 Cossacks, and Cossacks to spread around the way and the surrounding highlands. The implementation of the task entrusted to him was a great success, causing the enemy great losses, without any loss from our side .....
Document 35

Colonel Zas’s letter to ... (1) From December 18, 1834 / page 740
Until now.... I am very satisfied with the services of the border station: I attack the Circassians whenever I please; and they gave in to the extent that they sent their Messengers several days ago from all directions. The Bselen delivered their levy and I forced them to swear the oath of loyalty to us, the Abzakh and Sultan Kyz-Giray also were present ..., the Mahoshians were seeking clemency, but I’m thinking to give fraudsters an agonizing strike first, in order to hold them more tightly into their agreement..... Each day they bring me more Russian POWs ... retrieved 50 of them so far.
(1) This is how it was in Russian without mentioning in to whom

Document 36

Colonel Zas’ report to Baron Rosen From February 25, 1834 / No. 454-page 741
.... On February 16th I advanced beyond the Kuban to punish the Mahoshian people ... Here, I had the opportunity to eliminate the most brutal and vicious group of people in addition to punishing people mentioned above. Although I intend to destroy another neighborhood, and according to the opportunity I had, I headed from Gyogi castle’s side to Tlabgai neighborhood.... and I captured three Kabardians from carriages that were on their way to fetch grass, other that the thirteen who were already have, who did not wish to surrender voluntarily, so I ordered to kill them. Upon our arrival to the neighborhood, I handed over the command to the Kuban Cossack troop leading - the 300 Cossacks major- Rot.
I gave him an order to surround the neighborhood and seize it. ..... And with his fast reaction, Major Rot seized 60 people of both sexes, and looted 300 cows and 81 horses. The savage group meanwhile panicked and started fleeing from their homes since that first Cossack cry, leaving their weapons behind attempting to escape to the forest but most of them were killed by the Cossacks..... with the soldiers lined up ready to fight, the cleansing continued with artillery shells, and I sent there two infantry brigades, but they could only capture 11 more people, and since the fire was inflames in many places, the rest were either killed or burned after attempting to escape by hiding on their homes’ roofs or by the manure. So like this, we destroyed and destructed of the mentioned neighborhood.

Document 37

No. 647 of November 10, 1834, No. 476 pages 745-746
The elimination of the mountainous nations ... I considered it would be essential that our army reaches heights it had never been to before, up to Ahmed Mountains, and the acquisition of famous Tam neighborhood in the mountains, which is known for its fortified location and richness, in order to terrorize and intimidate the mountaineers more. On November 4th, I destroyed that neighborhood that the mountaineers –who are neither obedient nor loyal to us- considered fortified and rich. It burned entirely, and the mountaineers realized that no rocky slopes, distance nor snow can be an obstacle in the face of our troops. The neighborhood residents died in the fire without having the chance to hide in the slopes. All the properties were burned before we could lay our hands on them. 24 people - males and females- were captured, and we looted some cows. The neighborhood’s chief Zaorom was killed with his brothers.
By reporting this, I would be honored to add that from our side only one person was killed and 13 injured. Terrified from the genocide that occurred in Tam neighborhood, the Kizilbeks who are residing in the inaccessible Caucasus slopes, offered levy as a symbol of loyalty ... and with this request, deputies from Shagiri neighborhood approached me at my camp.....

Document 38

No. 648 From Lieutenant General Villiaminov to Baron Rosien
2. 12. 1834 No. 1880
Colonel Zas informed me in a notification dated the 31st of August 1618, that since his division inauguration, they manage to overpower 28 neighborhoods of different opponent nations, and with my approval, they were all forced to swear the oath of loyalty and obedience.

Document 39

651 From Baron Rosen to Chirinechev
December 30, 1835 No. 4 page 747
Lieutenant General Malenovsky mobilized his task force at the center of Velika Lagarni, and from there headed on the 30th of December and crossed the River Ile through the bridge, advancing three more versts to Azipso River and rushed to the first large neighborhood, but the residents were able to leave their homes and flee to the nearby forest. But their properties in addition to their homes and grain reserve were set on fire. The mountaineers left behind -after seizing the neighborhood - 20 bodies on site. From our side, two soldiers were killed and five soldiers and an officer were wounded... To avoid further losses in vain, Lieutenant General Malenovsky wanted to head up and cross the river and destroy the close neighborhoods then head back to the Kuban....

Document 40

652. Colonel Zas’s report to Lieutenant General Villiaminov 26. 2. 1835 No. 187
We learned that through our spies that the Ubykh -Because of the lack of fodder- they took their livestock herds to the heights of the river Chadago to graze there, relying on the coral’s natural defensive shape, so I decided to Ransack these herds and punish this inimical nation... At dawn, the Cossacks headed towards the herds at the bottom of the narrow, severe sloped valleys. The herdsmen’s gunshots boomed throughout the mountains declaring our decisive victory for our enterprise..... And to make use of the troops that have been mobilized I decided to pass through the headwaters of the Hodz River, to the Bagho people who are still strongly unwilling to offer loyalty and yielding to us. And with this intention I returned to Voznisinskui’s fort, and stayed there for a day, assuring to the leaders and princes that I would be coming home with a big spoils. On the evening of the 15th of February,I secretly removed camp and headed for the River Laba considering that the warning that boomed from our previous attack in the mountains must be have eased by now, and most probably the residents of Bagho neighborhood had returned to their homes in the night of April 16th ..... ..... Although we found a lot of things at their homes and we crushed the corn, but we have not been able to capture one prisoner.... This brave storming of the mountains -that have not been touched or reached before - by the Russians ..., caused horror among the mountaineers.

Document 14

654 Major General Malenovsky’s report to Lieutenant General Villiaminov March 18, 1835 No.495 - page 752 "To achieve our goals, it’s necessary to send a mission for battle, calling for that battle the groups gathered at the Shepsh and Sup Rivers, to make our enemies realize the power of Russian weapons."
Page 753 "We have seized several neighborhoods and burned all its property. In one of those neighborhoods we captured two women and two children ..."

Document 12

657 Major General Zas’s report to Lieutenant General Villiaminov November 1835 No.1029 page 755 - 756 "I wanted to punish the mountaineers for crossing the Kislovodsk Line, and I’m very enthusiastic to capture more prisoners, to spread horror within the enemy, plus it is a great opportunity for us to restore our prisoners by exchange. Our forces are fully ready, gathering at the Chamlyk River, and at the dawn of the 31st of the month we moved quickly attacking the enemy neighborhood. We captured 59 people of both sexes and burned the neighborhood down to its foundation; all property was looted by the infantry and the Cossacks troop. The resisting group that hid in the neighborhood was all killed. Other than that, 37 dead bodies remained in the neighborhood, and from our side 5 soldiers were killed and 3 wounded ...”

Document 13

658 From Baron Rosien to Chirinechev March 5, 1836 No.194 - page 756 "... While approaching their neighborhoods, Major General Zas sent the Commander of the Cossack Regiment Lieutenant Colonel Kadet to the Stavropol Front Line, and the commander of the Caucasian Regiment Lieutenant Colonel Livashev was assigned with the task of taking over another neighborhood. When the Abaza saw the Cossacks in the narrow winding roads, they left their homes and fled to the forest adjacent to their neighborhood taking their families along, and those who were unable to leave closed their houses on themselves and defended stubbornly. To avoid loss of life in vain, Major General Zas gave the order to set the neighborhood on fire. Most of the people were killed while they were trying to escape the fire, plus those who refused to surrender. When the troops returned to base, Major General Zas sent the Don Cossacks Regiment Leader number 54 Robashkin, to crush the remaining neighborhoods, being aware of what is happening and because they maintain reserves of grain and fodder.... From our side One Cossack was killed and 4 wounded”

Document 44

659 from April 2, 1836 No.283 - page 756 After Major General Zas conquered the Bselen, the Mahosh, the Bashilbay and part of the Abzakh, they were forced to expel all the fleeing Kabarday living with them, that is if they wanted to get rid of our fierce means and lead a peaceful life. The tribes did what they were told out of fear of punishment, but in spite of that, the Kabarday did not turn to us but settled at Psefir River in a difficult to reach coral, which was surrounded by forests from all sides. When informed of their whereabouts, Major General Zas mobilized a force of 500 infantry soldiers from Fort Voznisinskui in addition to 1300 Cossack and 2 artilleries. They started marching in the night of February 27, hoping to reach the neighborhood of the fleeing Kabarday ... Upon arrival, Zas order 300 Cossack to launch a quick attack on the neighborhood ... Trying to escape, many drowned in Psefir River, and those who closed their houses on themselves were either killed or became victims of the fires. We only captured one person. "

Document 45

660 of May 14, 1836 No. 456-page 757 On March 29, Horunzhy Nevedov moved in trace of a group of savages heading to the heights of Chamlyk River, he traced their path until he reached Bolshay Tifin searching within the Corals of the Rivers in the woods. He caught up with a small group of them while they were returning to the mountains, carrying along three dead and one wounded on a hand barrow. When the Brutes noticed the Cossacks tracking them they left the hand barrow behind and fled, but the Cossacks chased them and captured five out of seven and they were killed immediately, while the rest managed to hide in the jungle groves.

Document 46

661, To Elyaur Adlilberg from August 1836 No. 888-page 758 "Since Major General Zas knew that after the mountaineers’ defeat at the hands of Lieutenant Colonel Jirovi, they will be preoccupied with burying their dead and won’t perform their usual precautions and guarding, he decided to seize this opportunity and strike the Abzakh neighborhood Gurmai, located on the heights of Hodz River, and with this goal he headed - on the fifth of July - accompanied by 260 Cossack and two horse-drawn artilleries towards Voznisinskui fort, from where 329 Cossack of the Don Cossacks VIII regiment and 150 infantry soldiers joined the forces, and on the eighth night of July he headed to Gurmai. With orders from Major General Zas, the Commander of the Kuban Cossack troops Lieutenant Colonel Rot surrounded the neighborhood, charged and eliminated it entirely. A part of the population was eaten by flames along with their homes while they were defending themselves, and others were killed during combat. 42 people were captured, and their properties turned into Cossack spoils. During the invasion four Cossacks and two horses were wounded. "

Document 47

664 of October 7, 1836 No. 1106 page 759 "Major General Zas decided to eliminate Berzej neighborhood, and with that intent he mobilized a faction composed of 400 people from Navagainski infantry regiment in Teflisk Cossack village, in addition to 800 Cossack from the Cossack troops covering the Kuban and Kafkas fronts, escorted by two horse-drawn artilleries. And on the night of September fifth, he crossed the Kuban River and reached Laba River.
Page 760 After the successful task, Major General Zas decided to eliminate Hojhabel neighborhood to generate more terror within the population behind the Kuban.."

Document 48

667 of December 3, 1836 No. 1278 page 765 "After Major General Zas knew through the mountaineers who are loyal to us that our enemies the Abzakh are not carrying any preventive measures, he mobilized his troops and on November 16 he crossed the Kuban River to attack the neighborhoods located on the right side of Belaya River ... our spies were sent at dawn to detect the area in the river heights, and saw at approximately 5 versts from the troop, some Abzakh shepherds and a big pile of dry grass. The troop’s leader sent a brigade composed of 200 Cossacks immediately. Baranchiev secretly surrounded the shepherds, two of them were captured and the others were cut into pieces for their refusal to surrender, and then returned to the troop without any inconvenience taking along all the sheep which was more than 1000 heads. Several hours later the guard patrol discovered a hostile patrol composed of seven persons and were heading for the location of the troop. Major General Zas sent a Cossack brigade with Lieutenant Colonel Rot to capture or eliminate that patrol. The Cossacks found the hostile patrol and eliminated them because of their resistance. From our side only one Cossack was killed. "

Document 49

Page 766 "On the nineteenth of the month, Major General Zas advanced towards the Kuban to the low-lying areas of Belaya River, stopping by the Hatoqai tribe neighborhoods, to collect levy as a confirmation of their approval to deport to Laba next spring. On the 21st of the month the troops arrived to the Kuban, and after quarantine in the gaps of Labinsk everyone was back to their positions. "

Document 50

672 from Baron Rosen to Chirinechev, from December 9, 1837 No. 25 pages 769. "On the Fifteenth of November Major General Zas headed to beyond the Kuban ... He crossed the river and on the same day he reached to two barriers controlled by the enemy ... but quickly the courage of our troops and our officers overwhelmed the mountaineers, and the neighborhoods left by the enemy were looted and burned. As for the non-confederates, and from what they saw of severe terror and fear, they were forced to ask for mercy and reconciliation, and sent their prestigious to Major General Zas and handed him the levy...