4 May 1863 – A letter to the Assistant Commander of the Natukhayski District F. G. Kreganovski on the stopping of transferring the Mountaineer population to turkey
until the issuance of special instructions (until achieving understanding between Russia and Turkey) Chief of Staff has told the Commander of the Army of the arrival of orders issued by the Army Staff to halt the transfer of indigenous inhabitants migrating to Turkey until an understanding is reached with the Turkish government. Accordingly, His Excellency has asked me to solicit you to exercise caution when transporting the inhabitants who are immigrating by boats and not to establish any correspondence with the consuls to avoid the appearance of documents related to the matter outside the empire. When you grant cards to the immigrants, please mention that the card the card is given to that certain family to choose a place to reside, and must hand over the cards only to those of the 400 families that were agreed upon. As for the rest, Please halt their departure until the issuance of special instructions...
until the issuance of special instructions (until achieving understanding between Russia and Turkey) Chief of Staff has told the Commander of the Army of the arrival of orders issued by the Army Staff to halt the transfer of indigenous inhabitants migrating to Turkey until an understanding is reached with the Turkish government. Accordingly, His Excellency has asked me to solicit you to exercise caution when transporting the inhabitants who are immigrating by boats and not to establish any correspondence with the consuls to avoid the appearance of documents related to the matter outside the empire. When you grant cards to the immigrants, please mention that the card the card is given to that certain family to choose a place to reside, and must hand over the cards only to those of the 400 families that were agreed upon. As for the rest, Please halt their departure until the issuance of special instructions...
August 16, 1863 Address by General Evdokimov addressed to both the military commander of Adagom platoon and to the Governor of Natokhaway Province regarding his dissatisfaction with the delay in the process of deporting the Natokhaway to Kuban territories-Stavropol City for 3 years. Enclosed to Your Excellency herewith a copy of the letter addressed from General - Almaior Sommarokov - to Stona, No. 1361, dated 11, August 11, along with the letter of Lieutenant Colonel Meniati, dated 9, August, so I convey in a clear format, to Your Excellency, the instructions below to be implemented accurately and as follows:
1. At the present time, there is no need to inform the Natokhaway population about the size of the land plot, that was allocated for their resettlement. Where this would not lead to any result, but will be a cause for the following: A. The Natokhaway exert their efforts to increase their numbers by adjoining the rebels’ families to them, and in this case, those families have to excluded from the lands located within the Adagom military Battalion. B. The local administration is Deficient because of delay in completing the process of deporting the Natokhaway; therefore there should be an end for this delay, that lasted for approximately 3 years, due to various pretexts, and therefore, I appeal from your Excellency, to refrain from raising any queries about deporting the Natokhaway, but the implementation of my orders accurately, which were given on this subject, which means that it must immediately deport the Natokhaway to the places that have been set aside, but for the individuals who have no desire to move to the places that have been allocated to them, they should be deported immediately to Turkey, by giving them a two-week deadline for departure to the places that have been allocated for them in the Churnumuri Region.
2. If that so-called Koshtanuka, does not fulfill his obligations within a maximum time of 10 days, in regard to deporting the Natokhaway to the places that have been allocated to them, to Turkey or to the Churnumuri Region, he must be immediately arrested and exiled to the City of Stavropol through the City of Ykatirinodar. The precision in the implementation of all stated, in the two items mentioned above, is of your responsibility and you must take the necessary measures to that which you deem necessary as per the general situation, and to take into consideration that perseverance and determination in taking appropriate measures that would bring us the desired result and not the negotiations and concessions. 3. As for the proposal that was submitted by Lieutenant Colonel Maniati in his correspondence on the resettlement of Natokhaway in Jastajayveskoi Station, and about giving them lands near the Vetyavezawi, Anapskoi, Jastajayveskoi and Blagovechenskoi Stations, I ask Your Excellency to convey to him to forget about this idea and not to bring it up altogether. I am expecting from you to implement all what was stated in my letter. In conclusion: In the event if additional military forces are necessary, you can resort to General - Mayor Graf Somarokovo – Alestono, and to establish correspondence about this subject in particular.
17, August, 1863 Report of the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, addressed to the Minister of War regarding the results of the “beyond the Kuban Region’s” settlement in the year 1863. During this year’s summer, two areas beyond the Kuban Region were seized by our Cossack settlers: The first on the east side of the Adagom Military Line until Ile River, and the second is between Belwi River and Shisha River waterways. 20 military stations have been established on the area of the two mentioned regions in addition to the establishment of a military station in the region that was seized last year by the cavalry Force No. 25, and I have given these stations, temporary names until they get final approval. 1. Between Adagom military line and the course of Ile River: 1. The side of Abin River, near the former fort in the same name - Abinskaya 2. The side of Abin River, near the former fort Nikolayveskojo – Shapsogskaya. 3. In the upper reaches of Abin River, to increase the area that used to be, with 12 Ferst - Ervanskayya. 4. In the Upper reaches of Abina River - Mingereileskaya. 5. The side of Antekhir River, near the waterway of the river - Antekhirskaya 6. The side of Khabel River, near the river’s waterway – Khabelskaya. 7. The side of Khabel River, with increasing of the area that used to be, by 7 Ferst - Jrozinskaya 8. The side of Ill River, from the headwater of this river in the valley, -Illskaya. 2. Between the course of Belwi River and areas along the waterway of Shisha River. 1. From the side of Kordgibsya River, a distance of 1972 Ferst of Fort Maykop – Kordgibskaya. 2. From the side of Kordgibsya River with an increase of the area that used to be with a distance of 1372 Ferst – Dagstaneskaya. 3. In the Upper reaches of Kordgibsya River – Negigorodeskaya. 4. From the side of Bshikheh River, with a distance of 1272 Ferst in the upper side of Bshekheskoy station, - Kubanskaya 5. From the side of Bshekheh River, with an increase from what it used to be 1572 Ferst - Absher Ron Skaya 6. From the side of Bshekheh River, with an increase of 10 Ferst from what it used to be - Shervanskaya 7. From the side of Bshekheh River, with an increase of 15 Ferst of what it used to be - Samorseskaya 8. Between Bshekheh River and Kordgibsya river Bshikh Kordjibsih, on the peaks – BrOskaya. 9. From the side of Bshesheh River, with a distance of 23 Ferst from Constantine crossings across the Kuban – Jobogukaiveskaya.
10. From the side of Bshesheh River, with an increase from what it used to be, by 17 Frest - Bjedokhoskaya 11. From the side of Bshesheh River, with an increase from what it used to be, by 1672 Frest – Bshesheskaya. 12. From the side of Bshesheh River, with an increase from what it used to be by 1212 Frest - Tverskaya
3. In thye region of Cossack Cavalry Regiment No. 25 1. From the side of JiaJi River, with a distance of 11 Ferst, the upper side of Jaijinskoy - Kalermiskaya And in addition, in the previous year, the relocation of settlement for the entire families in Bshesheskaya station, which was temporarily attached to the Cavalry Regiment No. 25 except Kalermiskaya station, and all previous and new stations that have been resettled with the consent of His Majesty the Emperor regarding my letter no. 365, dated, 16, April, addressed to you, regarding the Establishment of two new regiments of cavalry forces within the Kuban Cossack forces: Abinskojo Regiment and No. 26 Regiment, for those who used to the nature of the places in those areas, I think, according to Article No. 56 in accordance with the provisions of the settlement of Western Caucasus regions, through the formation of independent provinces, under a special leadership from the military regiments, as per the Cossack forces in the area of River Turk. And the establishment of those regiments necessitates the establishment of the following stations:
1. For the establishment of the Cavalry Regiments, Abinskojo
Abinskaya, Shabsughkaya, Irvenskaya, Negrelskaya, Antekherskaya, Khablskaya, Grozinskaya, and Eleskaya. The headquarters of this regiment will be in Khablskaya station.
2. For the establishment of the Cavalry Regiment No. 26 Krdjebskaya, Dagestanskaya, Nejihgorodskaya, Abshironskaya, Chervanskaya, Samorskaya, Proskaya, Jopokaiveskaya, Bjedoghvskaya, Bshesheskaya, Tverskaya, established in 1862, and were settlements in Bshekhskaya. The headquarters of this regiment will be in Asheronskaya station. After that, as mentioned above, the Kalermeskaya station will belong to No. 25 Cavalry Regiment No. 25 from the Brigade No. 5, of the Kuban Cossack troops.
According to your instructions that were sent to me by Your Excellency on 18 May, this year under the No. 122,new leaderships have been appointed for these regiments, the No. 26 regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Pace – Tolkorse, and Abinskojo regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Forolov. 21 stations had been settled in addition to a new station this year to include the following:
A. 33 families of officers’ families, 28 families from the Kuban Cossack troops and 5 families from the Azov troops. B. 3494 Cossack families from the families of the rural police, namely: 1. 1440 families, from the Kuban Cossack troops, of whom 1332 families had received assistance in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of the Western Caucasus settlement’s provisions, and 108 families were resettled in Calerneskoy station, which has won financial allowances and assistance from the government because of its service over four years. 2. 518 families of Donscojo Cossack forces. 3. 504 families of Azovscojo Cossack forces. 4. 49 families of the hunters (snipers) of River Turk Cossack for 5. 44 families of the Ural Cossacks. 6. 170 families of the Caucasian Army’s junior Staff. 7. 630 families of the government’s peasants, 100 families from Kharkov, 250 families from Boltovskoy, 96 families from Chernigovskoy, and 184 families from veronezhskoy. 8. 87 families of hunters of government’s peasants, and families of other classes. 72 families were settled as final, and disburse aid them, but the fifteen other families, which announced its desire to settle in Kalerneskoy station without any assistance from the Treasury, they had been considered as of the Cossacks, according to the letter of the General Command of the Kuban Region, and to provide them with assistance from the State’s property. 9. 38 families of peasant farmers, who belong to the interim administration of Donscojo forces. 10. 14 families of the peasant instigators of rebellion who are living in the territory that belongs to the Donscojo forces, who had not been exiled in the previous year. The total is 33 officers’ families, and 3394 Cossack and rural police families. Through this census to the families of the settlers who were resettled in the current year in the “beyond the Kuban” region, you will see Your Excellency, that in addition to 962 families of the Kuban Cossack troops, who have been selected for resettlement, according to the first call, it has been reiterated of another call of new settlers in accordance with the call made to you on 16, April this year, under the No. 368, 370 Cossack families had been appointed, except 108 of these troops’ families, who have been resettled in accordance with their special request at Calerneskoy station, without privileges, but with assistance due to their service for the period of four years. And by informing Your Excellency of all what is mentioned above, I hope that Your Excellency would request from His Majesty the Emperor to confirm my suggestion about renaming the new military stations in the Kuban Region, as well as to distribute them on the regiments, and eventually, I add that although the General Command of the Kuban Region have not yet provided the funds that were disbursed for settlement during this year, in any case, I hope that the cost of establishing new stations does not increase in “beyond the Kuban” Region during this year.
Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .248, for .1-3.
18, August, 1863 Report of the Assistant Governor of the Natokhaway province, Lieutenant Colonel Menyati directed to the Adaghom military regiment commander, concerning the desire of the Natokhaway to implement General Evdokimov to move to the places that have been allocated to them, and to establish villages for them, according to the orders within a period of 4 days (Fort Constantine). This month, the Natokhaway have come to me; advertising their desire of implementing our government’s orders of moving to the places that have been set aside for them and the establishment of the villages of them, according to the instructions that we have issued. They have started to leave during this month, and without the intervention of our military forces, and promised the completion of the leave within four days. I departed the forces that belong to me in Forte – Bacanskojo, and headed for observing the departure of the Natokhaway, and I think the Natokhaway end departure from the areas where they are currently located at, it is necessary to undertake actions in the region to make sure that all the Natokhaway had been departed to the allocated places for them, as well to make sure that they have dismantled their homes, and if it turns out that there are still houses built, they be destroyed right away, so as not to be able to return to their former residences, and that what I announced to the Natokhaway, who have come this month for the meeting. It appeared that the lands allocated to the resettlement of the Natokhaway, according to measurements of the surveyors the figure of 68 thousand acres including 10 acres of flat land close to the Kuban, including forests and mountains, so the land suitable for housing amounting to 40 thousand acres, and on this area resettlement of 4400 families, or 26,252 souls, therefore these lands will not absorb any increase on this number, and in result, there will be 1776 families totaling 12930 souls, remaining in the former places of residence of both sexes. By informing Your Excellency of this, I have the honor to send detailed information about deporting the Natokhaway soon, particularly after the completion of the preparation of lists of names of all the families of the Natokhaway people. -------------------- Government Archives - the Krasnodar region, P .325, B .308, .55 for the web.
19, August, 1863 Report of General - Almaior Somarokova - Alstona directed to the commander of the Kuban Army, Evdokimov, on the success of the resettlement of the Natokhaway, in places that were allocated to them. The Acting/Assistant Governor of the Natokhaway province, had presented his report No. 187, dated 18, August, in which he reported that the Natokhaway had come to him in the current month and expressed their complete willingness to move to the places that have been allocated for them, and moving will begin and end on the same day and within four days, according to their promise, and the troops that had been moved to the Natokhaway area in order to complete the relocation of indigenous peoples, have been stationed near Fort Bacanskojo, and these forces are essential to open roads in the province upon completion of the deportation, in order to make sure that no individuals have remained in their previous residencies, in addition to the destruction of those houses, and after survey, it was found that land allocated for the resettlement of the Natokhaway, which amounted to 68 thousand acres, only 40 thousand of which hare habitable, and there will be 4400 families or a total of 26252 souls of both sexes, settled on this area of 4400 families, or a total of 26,252 spirit of both sexes, the remaining population that total 1776 families, or a total of 12930 souls of both sexes are still in their old residences. By informing Your Excellency about the brilliant success that we have achieved, by deporting the Natokhaway to the places that have been allocated to them and the excellent organization shown by Lieutenant Colonel Manyati, I ask your permission to let us know how to deal with the remaining families of the Natokhaway, numbered 1776, where there is no possibility to resettle them with other indigenous inhabitants between Kodako River and the Belikiskom River, and whether there is a possibility to allocate a place to resettle near Geagyeh River and Lower Krenskojo River, near Adagom. -------------------- Government archives - the Krasnodar region, P .325, and by .1, B .308, 66, 67.
23, August, 1863 Address by General Evdokimov, directed to the Commander of Adagom Military Regiment Forces and the Governor of the province of Natokhaway, in regard to the secondment of Mr. Sholkoveskojo to the general command of the Adagom Military Regiment, and on tackling the difficulties of deporting the Natokhaway to the places that have been allocated for them (the city Stavropol). Enclosed herewith a copy of the report directed (to each of) His Highness General - Almayor Baron Somarokova - Alstona, dated 19, August, No. 1423 regarding the difficulties faced by Lieutenant colonel Manyati, during the deportation of the indigenous inhabitants who are located now in the Natokhaway territory, to the places that have been allocated to them, and I think it is my duty to inform Your Excellency, that I cannot have the confidence to see this officer, over the number of Natokhaway, but so as not to completely eliminate the process of deportation of these people, to the places that have been allocated for them, and to remove the obstacles that would face them, therefore I assign Colonel Sholkoveskojo, who will clarify the matter on the ground, and will relay my orders to you concerning this subject, and in regard to the other matters related to Adagom Regiment stationed on the southern slope of the Caucasus, and will stay in your region until the evacuation of the indigenous inhabitants from the territories of the Cossack Adagom Regiment, and then will present a report from your Excellency, addressed to me, after the completion of this case. Commander in Chief of the forces, General - Adyotant Baron Evdokimov
Chief of Staff, General - Mayor Zabodsky -------------------- Government archives - the Krasnodar region, P .325, B .308, for .65, 68.
23, August, 1863 Letter of the Chief of General Staff, directed to the head of the Russian mission in Constantinople, including a brief summary of the general policy that is followed in the Northwest Caucasus, starting from the date of 1861, and on the inadmissibility of the Former Deputy Mohammad Amin to the Caucasus. His Majesty the Emperor has read your attached reports attached to your letter addressed to His Majesty, with great interest, in 15 March, No. 789, as well as your letter addressed to me in 20 July, No. 790, and enclosed with it a copy of Your Excellency’s reports, you addressed to the Vice-Chancellor.
The Grand Duke was very grateful to you for information that you have told us and which are considered useful to us in many ways. All the information that you have informed us about, regarding the so-called Mohammad Amin, I have persuaded the Grand Duke about the bad intentions of this person and the daring that he enjoys, and his sought only to satisfy his selfishness, forgetting that the leadership in the Caucasus is fully aware of the conditions and the situation, of the Mountaineers, and at least as much as his full knowledge, of this situation. And to be able Your Excellency to evaluate the services which were introduced by the Former Deputy, I allow myself to enter into some details about our objectives in the Western Caucasus and the current situation for what it is for this part of the region, and to be more pronounced, I attach to you the map of North-west Caucasus. Prior to the year 1863, the target of our operations was to send military campaigns to the places where there are Mountaineers and to direct strikes to them, and even the inclusion of partial defeats with them, to convince them about the superiority of our forces, and to force them into submission. The result of these military campaigns was that the tribes living in the plains near us, they used sometimes to declare their submission, then they initiate rebellion at other times, and they always tend to rub us, and accuse their neighbors living in the mountains of those crimes. During the previous war on the eastern side of the Caucasus Mountains, all the tribes that we had subjected before at one time have rebelled, and then we were forced to conquer again. It became obvious that the continuation of the measures that had been previously developed, and despite of the conditions that we had applied to subdue the Mountaineers, that submission undergo constant only in the case as long as the Mountaineers wanted to be bound by it, and therefore the firing of one shot in the Black Sea, even a fake message from the Sultan, or the arrival of a person who is an alleged Pasha, all this could lead to start up the war. Even if we have built fortifications in the mountains and we have simply connected them together through roads, we have to keep large numbers of troops in the mountains; however, will not enjoy calmness, not even for a minute. As a result of this, it was decided in the autumn of the year 1860, to stop sending non-useful military missions, and to commence a systematic pattern, about the establishment of Cossack military stations in the mountains and to deport the Mountaineers to the plains and to put them under our command. And thus have to settle the Cossack inhabitants in the mountains and the eastern coast-line of the Black Sea. In the attached map, the red color has been used to mark the areas that have been resettled by our settlers since the year 1861. With the beginning of the implementation of this plan, the Mountaineers realized what to expect, which resulted in the year 1861, that three major tribes, which are the Shapsough, Abzakh, and the Ubykh to found a Union was and to elect deputies, request on their behalf from His Majesty the Emperor to accept their allegiance on the same conditions that Muhammad Amin is presenting us with. And they were asked to declare unconditional submission and they have to leave the mountains. As expected, the Mountaineers had taken up arms to fight. The previous year was one of the most difficult years we had, where the Mountaineers had fully compiled their strength, but that had not prevented our battalions to advance from two sides: from Anapa Eastward and from Labe River Westward, until reaching down to the Khabla River from one side and (Shesheh) River from the other side. As a result, a part of the Mountains’ inhabitants had been expelled and subjected unconditionally, and deported 50 thousand souls of them to the Kuban River, to the territories located at the mouth of the rivers and putting them completely under our administration. But the other part, they were assembled and housed in makeshift tents between the (Pshesha) River and (Shepsha) River. Due to the miserable condition of the Abzakh, they do not attack us you at the present time, and they appeal for mercy and truce until October, to be able to harvest the wheat crop. In October, part of them wish to move to Turkey, and another part will be resettled in the areas that had been allocated to them, therefore, what is proposed on us by the enemy, Mohammad Amin, to hold peace with him, the peace with him is almost inconceivable. And if we do not get into a foreign war, we will begin, starting next year to clean the coasts of the population, commenced from (Gelinjdika) River towards Southeastern areas. The measures that had been taken against the Mountaineers may seem tough, and had been taken bitterly. However, the experience that we gained through 50 years, states that, it is not possible to reach peace with people that has no government, and has no concepts of trying who commits robbery and theft. In such circumstances, the arrival of Mohammad Amin here, even if got good intention towards us and our interests, it is considered ineffective. Since the intent and objectives of this man is questionable, His Majesty the Emperor instructed me to inform Your Excellency to inform Mohammed Amin, that he is banned from being in the Caucasus until the end of the war, and in case that he appears here is from any side regardless what it was, that will be considered as a hostile act against the Russian government. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P, 416, up .3, b .1103, for up .1-2
02, September, 1863 Report of the Assistant Governor of the Natokhaway Province, Lieutenant Colonel Manyati, submitted and directed to the Commander of Adagom Regiment Military Forces, regarding the necessity of a reserve faction to be stationed at Gastajivskoy Station, for the process of deporting the Natokhaway to the places that have been allocated to them. According to Your Excellency’s letter of this month, N. 1497, I convey to Your Excellency and hastily, the need for placing reserve forces, especially, in Gastajivskoy Station, for the purpose of implementing the process of the Natokhaway deportation, I have to send two factions of the Kuban Cossack Regiment troops under the command of the military officer Malachevskojo, and concerning the completion of the process of deporting the Natokhaway from the Soko region and other places of their previous residence areas, according to the information that I have received, it shows that the Natokhaway will commence leaving, starting tomorrow, and they gathered on the banks of Bate River, which I do not know the purpose of that move, and they are determined to go to Anapa to present some suggestions to Your Excellency, and I informed them that Regardless of any instructions issued by Your Excellency’s part, they should not, under any circumstances, postpone their departure, and if the faction arrives while they are still in their former residence places, they will be arrested and deported into continental Russia. -------------------- Government Archives - the Krasnodar region, P .325, and by .1, B .308, .70 for the web.
08, September, 1863 Letter of Commander of Adgom military Regiment troops, General Mayor PaPisha, addressed to the command of the Krimskojo Military Infantry Regiment. Lieutenant Colonel Submitted a proposal to demolish the Natokhaway houses, so as they should not be able to return to their areas they inhibited before. Taking into account the desire of the government, that Natokhaway be deported to places that have been allocated for them and depriving them of the possibility of returning to their former residences and use, I announce to you, the issuance of the following instructions: that the mission of the forces under your command will not be limited only to monitoring of the deportation operation of the indigenous inhabitants, but the initiation of destruction of previous houses completely, then to keep the wheat, fodder and straw, and these instructions must be implemented rigorously and stringently, and I add that if you find in these old houses, patients (sick people), they must be taken out or carry them out, and to leave them out in an appropriate place, and I hope that you inform me with the updates, continuously and at all times.
-------------------- Government Archives - The Krasnodar region, P .325, and by .1, B .308, .74 for
11, September, 1863 Report of the Governor of the Natokhawaj Province and Commander of Adagom Regiment troops, General Evdokimov, regarding the completion of the process of deporting the Natokhaway living near the Adagom Regiment Station, to the places that have been allocated to them. In accordance with Your Excellency’s orders, addressed in your letter No. 1451, I would inform you that the Natokhaway who are living near Adagom Regiment’s military station, have moved lastingly to the places that have been allocated for them, between Pseh Bepsom, Desibsinom River and Bakinom River on the 8th of September, and concerning their homes they left behind, and their other structures, the military forces have torched and destroyed them, and will continue that, but not before the 12th of this month, because the stocks of wheat, fodder and straw are located near these buildings, and has been the dismantling and relocation of many of the tents to be burned. And to guard wheat stocks, I have allowed some people persons from the Natokhaway to have presence near them, but without their families in anticipation of an accident of any sort, and in the event of something arises, the persons present near the site will be arrested, and will be exiled to Russia, and the Natokhaway were notified that they have to transport wheat to their new homes before the onset of winter, and at present time, their livestock had been transferred to Psih River, and they were allowed to retain a small number of livestock to be used as food until the onset of winter. The commander of Adagom Regiment forces had firmly demanded from the heads of local communities to stress on their communities for the need to apprise them of their movements, in case they return to their former residences, the guilty will be punished according to law, and starting from the 14th of September, the troops will patrol the areas located from Napergayvskoy way, down to Kaberdenskojo old fort, stationed on the left side through the corridors and reaching to the Shapsug peaceful villages, and from the right side, it is from Mortkhotko and Ketsigoro. Down to Khabel River, and they will be expelled to the villages that had been subdued or to Turkey, but as those who will go in large numbers to the previous Shapsugs’ areas, they will be confined between the Gelin Giskom River and Bashadoi River. Signature
General, Mayor Babich -------------------- Government Archives – The Krasnodar region, P .325, B .308, to .111, 112.
19, September, 1863 Message of The Kuban Region forces’ Commander, General Yevdokimov, addressed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army Lieutenant General - Kartsovo on the need to deport the Mountaineers from the Kuban Region to Turkey, and to take necessary administrative and financial measures to achieve that.
I repeatedly had the honor to convey to Your Excellency information related to the importance and the need to deport the indigenous people from the Kuban Region to resettle in Turkey, and to achieve that, it they should be assisted not only from the administrative aspects, but also give them material aid to be able to carry out the sea trip, at the expense of the Treasury, in accordance with the Supreme decisions issued in this regard (Conditions No. 10 issued in May 1862). In regard to the deportation at the expense of the treasury, I believe that we should distinguish between rebel and non-rebel indigenous people, and that because it is necessary for us to reach satisfactory outcome that is obtained from all the indigenous people residing in the Kuban Region, for the deportation of only the dissatisfied persons with the current circumstances, those who are because of their rebel nature, they could have a negative impact on the rest of the indigenous population, and we should keep in the province the people who are "unlikely want anything but only a peaceful life. The military difficulties that faced us during the subjecting of the Western Caucasus, it can be said with certainty that they had been subjected, and the settlement process in the coming year will end peacefully, but the remainder have a lot of work to be settled in the region and to lay the foundations for the development of the social life of the indigenous people, and make them non - malicious for Russia forever. If the Mountaineers had a clear idea about the concept of civilian life and a genuine desire of a peaceful life, it is natural to be arranged without causing trouble, and they would be able to safe haven to us in the time that will when some field work available, and the possibility that will have access to large tracts of land, other than those that have been allocated to them, that there is plenty of land, which is still vacant in the territories of the Kuban Region. But because of their rough manors, lack of confidence in us and wild desire to freedom, all of these things as a whole will form an obstacle to their integration in our society and loyalty to our country. Because of their concern about various rumors that arrive from overseas, they sometimes show their readiness to move to within our regions and at other times seeking to move to Turkey, they are either hoping for procrastination or to find good land for housing in Turkey. Due to the difficult conditions, they are in fact forced to implement all of our demands, and to move to wherever we order them to, but after their departure to new places of residence, they will not easily forget their old places of residence and with their naiveness, they believe the promises given to them generously by Turkey. As long as the military forces are stationed here, and as long as the political circumstances dispel the different rumors, there is no doubt that the indigenous population would be peaceful, but when the show is a pretext for the foreign intervention, like the machinations from Constantinople, the nature of case, these things will draw the consideration of the large numbers of indigenous inhabitants, all mobilized forces will be directed to affect us badly. We believe that these ill effects do pose a serious threat, however we have to keep extra troops in the region, and possesses special potential to oversee and control the West Caucasus, thus, it would employ on us additional expenditures. And even the simplest unsuitable conditions for us, will lead to an unexpected increase in the budget’s costs of the Kuban Region’s treasury. That the rumors about some of the looting by some young people, worked to shake up the public confidence in the security and tranquility in the region, which in turn will cause to delay the delivery of food and other essential items for our troops, and to put an end once and for all to the Western Caucasus, I think it's necessary to weaken the indigenous people residing in the Kuban Region to the extent they cannot provide appropriate conditions for the establishment of foreign conspiracies and the provision of low quantities of food for the population and the deportation of the indigenous people living on the sea coastlines, and this forms an utmost importance for us and for the state. In this sense, I think the deportation of ten thousand families from the indigenous population will serve our goals, and to implement that we need to exploit favorable conditions for us, and to pay them small-scale financial assistance, and force them to move to Turkey, in order to avoid further significant costs due their deportation at the expense of the state-treasury in the future. I do not know until now how will the sizes of this displacement would be, but based on available data we have, the displacement will be in large numbers and with the assistance of the state treasury.
Please be inform Your Excellency, that with the requisition directed to me in 28, December, 1862, No. 2827, ten thousand silver rubles has been sent to me, in order to help the indigenous people who have been deported from the mountains into our territory, and has noted that the money is spent carefully and to the poorer people, and after that, according to the orders of His Majesty the Emperor, mentioned in your requisition on 5, May, No. 874, for allowing financial aid to the deported Natokhaway and Shabsough to Turkey for the value that does not exceed ten rubles per family and also to be spent carefully and the conditions listed, for the remaining they will be deported on their own expenses. Although permission has been granted, these funds are not sufficient, because of the requirement encashment of financial aid for poorer families only, as this matter is difficult, in fact they are all poor, if aid was disbursed to some, and others will demand equally optimum treatment and this will lead to delay their deportation to Turkey. As for the deportation of the Mountaineers from the region, it is necessary to resolve all unsettled issues on the ground immediately, so I think it is useful to pay ten rubles for each deported family as an aid, without going deep or into verification of their financial status, especially the (citizens) residents living near the sea who want to move to Turkey. And for the deportation of ten thousand families, we need hundred thousand silver rubles acted immediately, and thus that will rid the government’s treasury of Firstly: The very high costs, in the event they are paid to the Mountaineers in case were deported towards our areas, where they do not have any possibilities to move on their own expenses during the winter, Secondly: the result of deporting them from our region, will be to reduce military forces in the region, and that will save money to the Treasury. In addition, I did not mention that political benefits as a result of that, which I mentioned earlier, as well as the large amount of money that will be provided by the transfer of ten thousand families at the expense of the Treasury to Turkey, and to do that, there will be a need for thirty thousand silver rubles.
Based on the above, I hope that my request to go the extra mile and particularly to His Majesty the Emperor, to allow for allocating the amount of twenty-five thousand silver rubles as a first installment, at my disposal as aid to deport the indigenous people to Turkey, where ten thousand rubles will be added to them and the total will be thirty-five thousand rubles, and would like inform you the need to send me an additional amount of sixty three thousand silver rubles. And when needed to let me borrow in the event that only thirty-five thousand rubles were given from the account of the staff, and do not hesitate to give me additional necessary instructions other than those to which you referred to in the requisition No. 874 of 5th of May. Finally, I would like to add that I will do the necessary action to prevent the disbursement of any unnecessary amounts and to achieve the goals that have been developed. We should take into consideration the interest, to be gained by the Treasury.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b, 139, for .2-4,
20, September, 1863 Letter of Chairman of the General Command, General Zablotskojo, directed to the Natokhaway provincial governor on the discharge of additional funds to distribute, as aid to Mountaineers (so that their deportation does not stop) Stavropol.
In addition to the letter, dated on the 19th of September, No. 1714, at the direction of the Commander General of the forces, I would like Your Excellency to know that if the amount of five thousand rubles is not insufficient, which were sent to you for the purposes of deporting the Natokhaway to Turkey, then you can go to the commander of the Kuban Region forces, in accordance with the approval number 1714, to disburse to you 10 thousand rubles, in addition to five thousand rubles, and in case that the sum of money that was put at your disposal is in the amount of 15 thousand rubles is not enough to transport the Mountaineers across the sea to Turkey, it is compelling, that you do not wait until the consumption of the amount in your possession, and to send an officer to my General Staff to receive an additional amount of 10 thousand rubles, and the total amount in full, a total of 25 thousand rubles. Note: In addition to all mentioned, it is possible to disburse 10 rubles for each deported family, if they were in need for assistance, and in the extreme cases only, in order not to stop the process of their deportation to Turkey. You must provide an account statement of expenses that were paid and recorded in the accounts ledger as well as the names of families that funds had been disbursed to. Major General
Zablotskojo -------------------- Government Archives - the Krasnodar region, P .325, and by .1, 301, up to .337.
27, September, 1863 Address by Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army Evdokimov regarding the approval of the latest request of allocating 100 thousand rubles for the disbursement of aid to the Mountaineers deported to Turkey. At the request presented from Your Excellency to place 100 thousand rubles at your disposal to spend as aids to the Mountaineers, who are in your region for the purpose of deporting them to Turkey, I am with the consent of His Majesty the Emperor, the General Commander of the Army, I will ask the Army Commander of Supplies Administration, to allocate this amount from the budget that was approved for war expenses for the current year amounting to 25 thousand rubles, and to be sent from Tbilisi to Stavropol, that is if General Kozlovsky deemed the possibility of transferring this sum of money right away from the Administration of Stavropol Province to the General Staff Command of the forces under your command. As for your request to place 75 thousand rubles at your disposal there will be a request of approval for this amount from His Majesty the Emperor. Besides, His Majesty the Emperor has allowed you to disperse the mentioned sum of money amounting to 25 thousand rubles, and instructed me to ask you that you submit a report on how to spend this amount to the General Command of the Army with the requirement to keep records of that. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .136, for 1.
September, 1863 Certificate issued by General Evdokimov to the chief of the Southern Abaza tribe, Anchoko-khabel Effendi , in concern to allow them to enter the province of Bjedoghski until the date of March 10, 1864, and then migrate to Turkey or to beyond the Kuban.
The chief of the Southern Abzakh tribe, had been notified that this tribe is allowed to enter the Bjedoghski province and stay there until the date of March 10, 1864, and after the expiration of that period, they must head to the port of Oastu – Dajawibgy, or to any point on the sea coast at the option of the tribe to board the ferries to move to Turkey, to be resettled. At the end of the set time and in case that some families of this tribe, show willingness to stay in our territory, to live permanently, there must be identified places intended for them to live within the district and within the strip of land that was allocated for the resettlement of the indigenous inhabitants. To allow for temporary housing in the province of Bjedoghski, their chief Gaoan Effendi Bejev must put detailed lists of the names of all families within the tribe, with indicating marks next to the names of those families who wish to migrate to Turkey, and those families that will stay with us, and to attach to these lists, a list of the amount of money allowances that were paid for transporting the Mountaineers on board ferries to Turkey, with the exception of the children under 4 years of age, and to be submitted to the commander of the Kuban Cossack forces, Major-General Count Sumarokov Elston on his part must issue the necessary permits for the tribe to move freely to the marine point that has been selected by the tribe, to sail from that point to Turkey. And must immediately inform the Captain, merchant Fonstein about that, who had taken upon himself, the transfer of all Mountaineers to Turkey. For the transport of each soul, through merchant Fonstein, the government will pay the amount of 2 rubles per soul. If allocated money was not enough for that, the amount will be fulfilled from the tribe members upon boarding the ferries, when sailing to Turkey.
-------------------- State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 327, Arch. Number 8, St. 1, l. 63-64.
The following information is about the numbers of Abzakh population living between, the Pshish River and Psekups River. Dwelling places of Population
Mountaineers Number of Farms Number of Houses
1. On the left bank of Pshish River, 28 898
from the Bjedogh’s borders, reaching
Khotkhah River that got the ributaries:
Adgoy, Bseh-Bako, Toghoj, Boko, Upper
Bkhaftel, Lower Bkhaftel, and
Fotseh Bseh. 2. In the vicinity of Pseh-tseh River, 9 312 from the mouth, reaching Upper Khotkhah
3. In the vicinity of Umbyeh River, and 14 250
Tributary of Martey River (from the right
Side) from the moth until the upper side of
4. In the vicinity of Shakhto kho Kolyach 2 57 (over the course of Umbyeh from the left side).
5. In the vicinity of Bezay Fokay (over the course 4 89 of/Umbey River, from the left side)
6. In the areas, in the vicinity of Martey 27 536 River Valley stretching from the Bjedogh boundaries as far as the upper stream of the river.
7. In the area located in Bashak River Valley, 29 373 stretching from the Bjedogh boundaries as far as the upper stream of the river.
8. From the Minor Shylok River’s mouth located 7 310 on the left side of Bashak River, Khotej Summit.
9. In the areas located from the right bank of 25 875 Pseh Kobsa River until the Bjedogh Boundaries towards the top as far as the headwaters of the mineral waters with tributaries of Psetil, Chotkha- Nashkhwa, Psheh Nashok, Chip Lunako, Chip Yoke, Pseh Sho-jojo, Chod Jako, Jan Beach Yako and Boda Gajoj.
10. In areas located across the course Pseh Kopseh 5 97 River and Chip Setel River, stretching from the mouth until Khotkha.
11. In the upper part of Pseh Kopseh River, from 27 850 Khotkha, until the headwater of the river and its tributaries, Chepsi, Billy Djayex, Koghibs, and Bsef.
12. In the areas located on Khoti Pseh River, and 6 250 the tributaries of Pseh Kopseh River located on the right side.
13. In the areas located on Atchako River stretched 3 60 from the tributaries of Pseh Kopseh River from the left side.
14. In the areas located on Khotseh Pseh River, in 4 50 in addition to the areas along the tributaries of Pseh Kopseh from the left side.
15. In the areas located on Cheh Pa Pseh River 4 50 stretching from the tributaries of Pseh Kopseh from the right side.
16. In areas located on Foti Pseh River stretching 6 200 from the tributaries of Pseh Kopseh River from the right side.
17. In the areas located on Gepsejay, extending from 7 230 the tributaries of Pshesheh River.
18. In the areas extending from the upper reaches 3 40 of Minor Sukholok reaching to the mouth of the river.
19. In the areas located Sh’khepseh River reaching 4 60 down to Bshesheh River.
20. In the areas located on Chepoy River, stretching 6 120 from Pshesheh River course, reaching to the mouth of the river.
Total 220 5798
Note: This information shows only the numbers of indigenous people, but the families that were deported from areas of Pshekheh River and Korjips River, in addition to the areas located near other rivers that did not show here, because of the inability to gather information about their numbers. The Abzakh people say that such families reside among them, and the number is 3000 families and a large portion of them, have moved to stay beyond Khotkh.
General Staff - Captain Lebedinsky
-------------------- State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 327, Arch. Number 8, St. 1, l. 59-60.
6, October, 1863
The conditions for granting Russian citizenship, to the Northern Abzakh population: 1. All Northern Abzakh people, residing in urban areas between the foot of Mount Khotkh and the new Russian road across Pshisho, and between the Shabsough borders and the course of Psekups River offer allegiance to the Russian state, according to the conditions below, up to 1st of February of next year, 1864, that is, four months minus seven-days, and that is in exchange for allowing them to stay,
to live in the mountains, between the new Russian road through Pshisho, and the course of Psekups River and the Hoth River, reaching the Shabsough’s boundaries.
2. Until the date of February, 1st, the Abzakh people are committed to leave their territories, and go to the places that will be told about by the Russian authorities.
3. Those who are wishing to be accessed in the Russian citizenship, will be given a piece of land for housing with the right to inherit, but those who are wishing to emigrate to Turkey, there will be lands allocated to them on temporary basis, after the 1st of February, but not for more than two months, that means, to 16, April.
4. The Abzakh people will be committed, to live subjugated and to obey the Russian leadership to take responsibility of any robbery or theft, and will extradite criminals.
5. The Abzakh people will immediately be committed, and without any delay to hand over all prisoners of war to the Russian state.
6. The Abzakh people will be committed, not to allow anti-Russian state, to penetrate between them and if such people appear, they would have to hand them over to the authorities.
7. The Abzakh people will be committed, not to block the military troops and factions, to move within the area inhabited by Abzakh, as well as not to hamper the work related to roads and pathways, and the establishment of military stations and military fortifications.
8. To monitor the strict implementation of all the mentioned above, there will be a chief in charge, who will be appointed a deputy by the Russian government and from within their dignitaries.
9. It is not permitted to have any person of the Abzakh, to cross the borders that have been developed for their areas, and bear arms without a permit, and if any person is held holding a weapon without a permit, he will be considered an enemy and to deal with him as prisoner of war.
10. The Abzakh, who are temporarily residing on the space, set within the mentioned rivers, have the same rights given to other Muslim tribes, that belong to the Russian State, Moreover, the deportees to the places allocated to them, have the right to reside and to move to Turkey for a period of one year.
11. To be sure not violate the mentioned conditions, all the dignitaries of the tribe will be sworn in, not to violate the Convention, and in case of violation of the stated, they will be denied the right to emigrate to Turkey, and the right to live with their people, and they would be exiled into continental Russia, and consequently the Abzakh people will be deprived the right to move to the strip of land that was allocated for them, and they will have to move to the territories situated to the right bank of the Kuban River. Signed,
General Count Evdokimov
-------------------- Government archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .134, for .1-2.
9, November, 1863 Report of the Commander in Chief of the Kuban Region Army, General Evdokimov, directed to the Commander of the Caucasus Army, on the admissibility of the Abaza, the conditions that have been put forward, by the Russian administration and in regard to the military pressures. In previous mid-September, I informed Your Imperial Highness, and through the military record on an urgent request from the Abaza people, in regard to submitting the obedience to His Majesty the Emperor. Upon returning from the city of Stavropol, I headed immediately to the Abaza, for the signature of those conditions, that through them, their submission and obedience had been accepted, but, and until now, signature on those conditions has not been obtained, due to the incitement of Ubykh who went inside the Abaza fortification to hide from our strikes, and they incited the people for resistance and to convince them of hope and help arriving from Turkey. I received a report from Pshekhskojo Battalion Commander, and Dakhoveskojo Military Battalion Commander, on their implementation of that part of the general plan, that had been developed this year, and that to clear up the territories situated in the mountainous strip of Indigenous inhabitants by October, extended between the Belaya River and Pshish River, which I have written to these two battalions, to station on 30, September or 21, October in the Hadyzhi area, and wait for my arrival there. Upon my arrival late at night, on date October, 1 to the two mentioned battalions, I stayed two days in the Hadyzhi area, and I have informed the Abaza about my arrival, and I offered them to speed up for the adoption of the final decision to implement their obligations. In addition to that, I have taken positive and immediate action to end the Abzakh topic, then I advanced in the third day, accompanied by 17 battalions, 4 cavalry teams, 400 Cossacks and police from the indigenous population, and 16 cannons towards the Upper parts of Pshish River, and I traversed a distance of 20 Ferst, and I have set up a military camp on the left bank of this river, in Melgoshiba with for a distance of 14 Ferst from Tuapse Valley’s corridor, which lies on the border between Abzakh and Shabsough.
In the next day, the notables of Southern Abazians, who live between Pshish River and Psekups, South of Khotkh mountainous chain, and they signed up to the conditions that I proposed on them, and they sworn not to violate the substance of these conditions until the time part of them be deported to Turkey, and the other part to the areas that had been allocated for the resettlement of the indigenous population to the West Caucasus that had been subjected. With the advance of military factions to the corridor of Tuapse, in 4, September, a large part of the North Abzakhians, living in the mountains between Upper Pshepsheh and the course of Psekups River, on the border with Shabsough and Khotkh mountainous chain, and requesting the permission to join the Southern Abzakhians. In fact, after conclusion of their meeting between each other, they came on 6, September, to the camp and signed up to the terms of submission presented to them, and they sworn the oath, not to violate these conditions and for the same period that had been identified for the Southern Abazian. After that, 500 families of the Abaza living in remote areas barely accessible to be reached, had announced a condition to declare submission, that is to remain in the places of their residence until the spring of next year, which I entirely refused this request. By informing Your Imperial Highness with of all of the mentioned above, I add that the area that the Abaza will stay within until February 1, 1864, does not pose any hindrance, compared with what the troops had experienced to date, and by surrounding the Abaza from all sides by the military factions, they are deprived of their means of survival, and thus to subject the areas located on the north slope of the Western Caucasus Mountains, could be considered to be over, given these facts, a major temporary defensive line across Pshesho have been established, because with the beginning of our progress from the Northern Slope to the South, it was found that it necessary to work to change our defensive lines, and to be moved in parallel to the direction of series of the main Mountains, and I will provide you with any new developments on this subject.
-------------------- Government archives - Georgia, 416, up .3, B .134, for .3-4.
13, October, 1863 A list of Kabarday going to Turkey for pilgrimage, for one year. Passport number Name Date of passport issuance
10725 Haji Ali Jaji Schiff September, 13 10728 Yago Jiroko Morzaev September, 13 10727 Ibrahim Keshiv September, 13 10726 Candar Jarmanov September, 13 10722 Haji Elias Keshiv September, 13 10721 Moses Djelkov September, 13 10720 Islam Morza Karegiv September, 13 10719 Andrew Zack Matejev September, 13 10712 Eideik Gelakhajev September, 13 10715 Ibrahim Mirzaev September, 13 10714 Ainaloko Aujov September, 13 10718 Mistira Batirov September, 13 10717 Enos Ivanov September, 13 10716 Moses Joboroff September, 13 10713 Neve Arkvasuv September, 13
-------------------- Government Archives – Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, P-.2, up .1, B .564, .29 for
13, October, 1863 Report of the Assistant Governor of the Province of Natokhaway, directed to the General Commander of the Kuban Region Army, General Evdokimov, on the completion of the deportation of the Natokhaway, to the places that have been allocated to them, and regarding the transfer of wheat and grain to the new premises. In relation to your instructions directed in your letter No. 1490, and letter No. 1608, they were implemented: that the remaining wheat and grain on Cossacks land after the completion of deportation of the Natokhaway to places that have been allocated to them, they had been transferred on 11, October with difficulty, but what left over that was not transferred to this date, it has been burned. I would like to inform Your Excellency that extreme measures have been taken, for the Natokhaway not to be able to return to their former residences, and they have implemented all of our orders and demands, during their departure across the lands of the Cossacks. Attachment: A copy of the letter of the Commander of the Cossack Adaghom Regiment dated 12, October, No. 4548. -------------------- Government Archives - The Krasnodar Region, P .325, B .308, .102 for the web.
7, November, 1863 General Evdikamov’s message addressed to the General Commander of the Army, General Kartsovo on the conditions offered by the merchant Vaughan - Stein for the transfer of Circassians. In my letter to His Imperial Highness, the Commander of the Caucasus Army, dated 6, November, No. 2100, on way of spend and preparation of the accounts of funds allocated to help the poor indigenous population, to resettle them in Turkey, I remind that under the agreement between the merchant Vaughan - Stein and a representative of His Imperial Highness, who acts on behalf of the Abzakh people, it is agreed that the first party will provide ferries for the transporting the Abzakh who are wishing to travel to the Turkish ports, for the purpose of resettling them for the cost of 5 rubles per soul. I hasten to inform Your Excellency to clarify these conditions in the report submitted to His Highness No. 2100, that, when Vaughan - Stein carry the Abzakh to the Turkish ports, for the cost of 5 rubles per soul, the Treasury should pay an additional 2 rubles in aid to the indigenous population on top of the amount in their possessions, except those rare cases where we will have to pay the full amount for the poorest. To facilitate the case for the indigenous people, Vaughan - Stein had pledged to get from the indigenous people the value of the transportation expenses, in exchange for transporting them across the sea to Turkish ports, of cattle, flour, of their weapons, and any other properties, that to be estimated by both sides, and the value of 2 rubles will be received from every soul for transporting them to Turkey.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .136, for .5
10, November, 1863 The requisition of the Commander of the Caucasus Army, Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich, addressed to the Minister of War, General Milutin on the need to expel the Adigha coastal areas. The success that was achieved by our forces in the Western Caucasus, had forced part of the Mountaineers living on the Northern slope of the Caucasus to declare their submission, and full commitment to move to beyond the Kuban plains by the spring or to move to Turkey, but the other part, they will move to the South-western slope of the mountains, where the population has doubled currently two times, because of these outsiders. In order to implement the comprehensive plan for the invasion of the Caucasus, we have now to begin, the process of evacuation of coastal areas. Our troops have been stationed right now, at the crossings leading to Tuapse and Dzhubga. In which the local residents feel vulnerable and disable. There is no doubt that, with the first step for us, they will submit obedience for us, if we allow them to stay in their residences. But how could it be allowed for the Mountaineers to stay in the coastal strip, which is contrary to the adopted plan for the settlement of the Western Caucasus, so it is necessary to evacuate the coastal strip of the indigenous population. In the same time, the nature of the territory of the coastal strip and numbers of indigenous people do not compare, with what we have offered them, which is to leave for the purpose of living in the plains beyond the Kuban River, and the majority of the population would prefer death to agree on the implementation of our demands. In these circumstances, it is better for us to take advantage of the desire of these inhabitants to move to Turkey, where they would be deported there and they will not wait for the arrival of our troops. As a result of a lack of means of transport on one hand, and the lack of funds to pay for the transfer of Mountaineers across the sea on the other hand, all that would stop the deportation process of the Mountaineers.
To remove these obstacles, I ordered the warships not to intercept ships carrying the deported Mountaineers, and the necessary measures to put these orders in the hands of the owners of ships engaged in maritime navigation and known to us. But these measures alone are not sufficient to reach the desired goal, so I think it's necessary to grant financial assistance of a value not to exceed ten rubles to the families of the Mountaineers who do not want to submit to us, and who are living on the coastline who came to our ports to depart to Turkey. I am convinced of this measure to get rid of those individuals who preach intolerance and negative impact on their countrymen, and therefore, that will lead to speed up for the end of the war and the reduction of costs. I had the honor to submit these proposals in person to His Majesty the Emperor, in levadi, and already, His Majesty the Emperor's graciously has approved that and permitted to pay me the amount of 100000 silver rubles for the implementation of my proposals from the budget of this year, 1863, with taking into account that the remaining amount can be determined only by the end of the fiscal year, which is not before next June, and during this year, and because of the case emergency of the army, I had to allow an increase of military expenditures. Therefore, I request that Your Excellency to demand from the higher authorities to approve, placing the above mentioned amount, totaling 100 thousand rubles at my disposal, and if there is remaining amount in the budget, this amount will be placed in the accounts. -------------------- Government archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1184, for .1-2.
13, November, 1863 to 20, May, 1864 From the letters of the Russian counsel in Trabzon, Moshaninia, addressed to the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo, on the displacement of the Mountaineers to Turkey, and in regard to their harsh fate. 13, November, 1863 ... Based on proposals of the Caucasian leaderships, the Turkish ships’ owners were informed, that the Russian authorities will give permission to the Turkish ferries to dock in the Caucasian ports to transport the Mountaineers from there. Accordingly, forty Turkish ferries had sailed to the Caucasus coasts for the transfer of Mountaineers. Turkish ships’ captains are still afraid of going to the shores of the Caucasus to transport the Mountaineers, but this fear dissipated upon the return of some of them safely. ... With the strong support provided by the Polish agent, Podaiski, who has a strong friendship with the English Consul, Stevens, 1000 barrels of gunpowder, were carried to the Eastern coast of the Caucasus Region. 22, November, 1863 ... Out of 42 Turkish ferries, which headed to the shores of the Caucasus, 24 had returned having on board, seven thousand Circassian deportees, and the majority of them are Shapsugs. The majority of those deportees were sent to Constantinople, and the other portion of them had been resettled near the Ziromeskoy road. As for the dead Circassians, the decision was made to bury them in the vicinity of the city and not inside.
28, November, 1863 ... From 22 to 28, November, 16 ferries were sent to the Caucasus coasts, and despite the bad weather, five ferries had returned with 1200 Circassian onboard, and approximately 1000 Circassians were sent to Constantinople. The Pasha has expressed surprise of the migration of Mountaineers, and attributed that to Islamic fundamentalism and to our achievements. ... The huge crowds of Mountaineers can lead to serious consequences, and as I know some of my colleagues, had written about it to Constantinople, to stop the deportation. Their purpose about that is clear, where I learned that upon the arrival of the news to Trabzon, in regard to our accomplishments, Podaiski and those who work to protect him, will assist the Circassians who arrived to Trabzon to defend their independence. Because the Turkish government and with plots of our enemies can indirectly stop the deportation, and cause troubles by preventing captains from sailing, to our shores, for my part, I circulated a rumor, that the displacement will continue only until the spring, so as to force the local captains to sail to the Eastern shores of the Black Sea. 6, December, 1863 ... Eight ferries have arrived with one thousand Circassians onboard. Today, Turkish ferries will transfer 400 of these deportees to Samson and one thousand to Varna. The Turkish Special Commissioner has arrived here, in order to monitor the situation of deportees, and instructions were issued from Constantinople, requires that the all Circassians who arrived to Varna should be re-transported, and to achieve this, two ferries had been allocated. That the English consul and Podaiski are not satisfied with this shift in the course of events, and they disservice to our operations and they are trying to stir up troubles towards me. 11, December, 1863
... In the past week, 1600 Circassians had been sent to Constantinople, and recently, two ferries had arrival, carrying 400 Circassians. ... The English Consul and Podaiski seek to stop the displacement, where they instigated the Pasha and other consuls, by sighting the serious consequences that can result due to the spread of diseases during the spring season, the local Muslim inhabitants who fear the consequences of this displacement, are gradually incited, and they bounty themselves by buying slaves which dropped their prices a lot. I have been told that the Pasha has purchased the most beautiful eight girls and paid 60 or 80 rubles for each one of them, to be sent as gifts to some Pashas in Constantinople. In any case, it is possible here to purchase a 12 years old of both sexes, for thirty or forty rubles. ... From the Poles currently available with the Ubykh, one of them came recently to Constantinople, that the conditions of the European gangs present with the Ubykh, are not going so well, to the extent that they are waiting for the right time to return, however, the Pasha and according to an advice from the English Consul and others, has decided to stop the process of deportation, if possible, until the onset of the spring season. At present, the number of Circassians living in Trabzon is between four and five thousand. 29, December, 1863 ... A large number of ferries (approximately 70 ferries), had sailed to fetch the Mountaineers. During the month of November and December, the number of Circassians in Trabzon has reached ten thousand, in which 4500 of them were sent to Constantinople, Samson and Varna, almost an average of forty persons a day, and currently, approximately 3050 persons reside in Trabzon. That the Turkish government as I know, is very pleased with this deportation, and honesty, it is possible to say that the Turkish government has taken necessary measures, for the completion of the deportation of those deportees and as soon as possible from Trabzon. Unfortunately, the local Governor-General is neglected and with empty content, who has the responsibility of the diseases that the displaced suffer of, which are typhoid and smallpox, and here we are faced with situations in daily mortality ranging from forty to sixty people or 1.4%. 30, January, 1864 ...One thousand Circassians had been sent to Varna. ...Also 1500 Circassians are brought to Trabzon.
18, March, 1864 ...There are 20 thousand Circassian deportees in Trabzon, and since the month of November, 40 thousand Circassians were deported from the Caucasus. ...The cost of living expenses incurred by the Circassians, that the Turkish government bears has amounted to a one thousand golden Mejidi a day. 8, April, 1864 ...The Turkish government will not send the deportees to the city of Varna, because the residents of the city of ROMILLY are not satisfied with the resettlement, and they have organized a complaint number 15, April, 1864 ...Ali Pasha has arrived here, he is of a Circassian origin, and dispatched by the government to oversee the resettlement process. 22, April, 1864 ...Among the conditions set by the Turkish government to receive the Circassians, is to exempt them from Compulsory Service (conscription), for a period of twenty years. At the same time, and due to large numbers of Circassians, the Pasha came out with an idea of the composition of military forces from them.
27, April, 1864 ...This assignment is the responsibility of Ali Pasha, who arrived from Constantinople, and he is from a Circassian origin, which holds the rank of Lieutenant General. He was able within few days of his arrival, and in a short time, to convince 500 Circassians to volunteer for military service. Our consular saw the Circassian faction, and those who had been recruited, and here, to be fair with the Turkish government, good clothing was presented to them. This faction will go to Constantinople. ...To raise th
e desire of Circassians to join the service in the army of the Sultan, a restriction on males’ was implemented in Constantinople, and as a result, the trafficking of women has highly developed. Hundreds of women are sent to Constantinople to be sold. ...Recently, approximately 25 thousand Circassians had been transferred; Most of them were taken to Samson. When the population of Samson expressed their displeasure at the large numbers of Circassians in the city, the Turkish authorities had instructed the ships carrying Circassians to be directed to Sinop. 13, May, 1864 ...In Sreder (an hour away from Trabzon), there is camp that is inhabited by 23 thousand people, in Calais Achkan (three and a half hours away from Trabzon), a camp that is inhabited by 17 thousand people, in Kerasunde (three and a half hours away from Trabzon), a camp that is inhabited by 1300 people, Samson inside the city, a camp that is inhabited by 70 thousand people, and in Sinop, a camp that is inhabited by 4800 people, and all that totals 76140 people.
1300 people were enrolled in the military service. 12300 people have been sent to Varna and to inner Anatolia. The number of death cases since the beginning of deportation until now is 30 thousand people. Total 160 thousand Circassians. ...As Your Excellency is aware, all those deportees were transported on board means of marine transport of Trabzon, with the exception of few of them, that were Russian ships, and without bearing any cost on our government and under bad conditions that had surrounded the deportation campaign: being the onset of winter and the imposition of quarantine. Residents in Saradir camp are mostly of the newly arrivals, where the Pasha plans to send them to be resettled in Bascelik Trabzon, especially in the areas surrounding the road of Erzurum. If this process turned out successful, the majority of the commercial convoys will pass through Georgia. The camp in Acka – Calais, will be destroyed and the remaining Circassians there will be deported into Bascelik. The aim is to prevent the spread of diseases, because Acka - Calais had suffered the brunt of the Circassians’ diseases. And it is not possible to pass from there. It was learned recently that the Mountaineers had hidden the corpses if the dead in their tents for several days, they had even buried them there, in order to get the shares of the dead. ...The Circassians living in Trabzon had exhausted their strength, due to the negligence of the Turkish authorities. That led to chaos and severe misery. In the previous week, there was a shortage of bread, as the bulk is sent inside Sivaski Bascelik. ...There are many who wish to join the military service, but the Turkish authorities classify them and to choose the right people. In any case, I think that it is not possible to form regular troops of those Mountaineers. ...The cases of death among Circassians have decreased significantly, with the exception of Samsun; where there are 200 people die every day.
...The poor conditions of transport, from the coasts of the Caucasus, onboard the Turkish military vessels is not in our interest. Where the majority of the deportees onboard these ships, are the notables of the Mountaineers and their rich people, and they bribe the captains of these ships to achieve their interests, and the imperial government is compelled to bear the costs of the transfer of the poor deportees, which would lead to the delay in our plan to deport the Mountaineers. ...To avoid delay on our part and to accelerate the process of deportation, our consular suggested that we made an offer to all deportees that will be transferred at their own expense and the amounts that would have paid will be returned to them upon their arrival to Turkey. Moshnina has given hints about the usefulness of this measure to the Governor-General who, although he agreed, but decided to wait for approval of his Government to direct the implementation of this measure. ...According to the available information to the Circassian Mission in Trabzon, 160 thousand Mountaineers have arrived from the Caucasus. 01, May, 1864 I am very happy because the deportation process is approaching an end, and there is no need to go to Constantinople, where the client that I had sent there earlier, had sent 50 sailing ships to bring the displaced. Within the previous days, several thousands of the deportees have arrived here, and so have the number of deportees who are currently in Saradir are approximately 40 thousand people. In Acka - Calais the number has reached 30 thousand people. Thus, the overall total of displaced Mountaineers has exceeded 200 thousand people. The doctors follow with interest the spread of dysentery disease, especially this time is the season of fruits. We ask God that this disease is contained, as it will not have the Mountaineers only suffer of it, but we will also suffer, because when it spreads among a large number, it will become a epidemic. --------------------
Government archives - St. Petersburg, 1-9, 1863, up .8, b .19, l .37, 47, 49, 57, 92, 59, 101, 103-109, 111-112.
22, November, 1863 Letter of the Deputy Russian Consul in Trabzon, Moshanina, addressed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, Lieutenant General Kartsovo with a presentation of the policies of the European countries regarding the deportation of the Circassians. In addition to my directed letter No. 476, dated November 14, I see of my duty to inform Your Excellency, that in recent weeks, that 27 ferries out of 42 that were sent to have returned from the Circassian coasts to the port of Trabzon, which I have previously reported to you, and those 27 ferries had brought about 7 thousand Circassians, most of them from the Shapsough tribe. According to the information that I have received from the costs of Anatoly, the ferries reached Trabzon in different places, despite the bad weather and obstacles that were placed in front of ferries destined to bring the displaced, and in any case, during the period from 15 to 21, 12 ferries have departed to bring the Circassians. The failure of the Anglo - Polish alliance has caused of fomenting hostility towards me by three of my colleagues, they are the consuls of England, France and Italy, who are linked with a strong friendship with the so-called Podaiski, of Polish origin, as they seek to seize any opportunity to offend me, so they are trying all means to cajole the local Governor-General who just arrived from Constantinople, where he received the Majidi Medal of the first-class, and third-degree before traveling to Tbilisi. On this occasion, Mr. Stephen and Mr. Pouzyo, did not content just to go to receive the Pasha upon his return from Constantinople (this action should not be done), but they went to meet him aboard his boat, and they fired (fireworks), expressing the happiness for the Pasha’s come back.
Several days later, I received an invitation from Stevens, which I attach herewith the original copy, where it was a trick on their part, to direct hurtful criticism to me, by the Italian consular, which will be transferred to Constantinople. I decided from the outset to avoid company with them, which usually had taken place in the presence of Podaiski, and of course, I didn’t not accept this invitation, especially when I learned by accident, the purpose of this invitation. So I personally clarified to Mr. Stevens, that the Governor-General had promised me to send a large number of Circassians to Constantinople, and part of them are working to fix the road of Erzurum (this is real and true). With regard to the large numbers of deaths, it was decided that they will not be buried inside the city, but outside. Therefore, I told Mr. Stevens that my presence would be unnecessary.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1114, for the .30-30 up.
26 November 1863 Address by Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo, directed to the Commander of the Kuban Region Forces, General Evdokimov, regarding the necessity of settlement of the territories situated in the slope of the South-west of the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea coast as far as the Bzyb River by the Cossack settlers. In regard to your report No. 2988, addressed to His Imperial Highness the Emperor, and your suggestions that you have addressed to me in your letter dated, 17, November, allow me to express the following: 1. Concerning the settlement of the territories situated in the slope of the South - west of the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea coast by the Cossack settlers, His Majesty considers the necessity to do so. If the nature of the topography of these lands would shape difficulty for the settlement of the Cossacks in large military stations, then it is possible be settle them over there in small neighborhoods in the appropriate places, without restricting the number of houses in these neighborhoods, as well as it is possible to take advantage of suitable land located in the narrow valleys, where it is possible to settle the Cossacks settlers in independent farms along the course of rivers. If the residents of these farms are hunters, then they could be allocated portions of land under special provisions. The Cossack colonies must be constructed and they should spaced from each other, so as to enable later, to settle other Cossacks, other hunters, or from any other classes of the Russian society in the spaces that separate between the settlements. 2. In regard to the nature of the relationship between the civilian population and the Cossacks, it can be branded at a later time, when a location and date of settlement is identified for each of them. 3. That the administration of customs control and customs barriers can be established and put into effect at a later date, and currently should only pay attention to road construction along the coast in order to enhance communications between the settlements that are going to be established between the centers of the military posts and for military purposes only. 4. That His Majesty the Emperor recognizes the need of reaching the boundaries of our Russian settlements across the coast and reaching up to Bzyb River, otherwise, the remainder of the Mountaineers on the coast and regardless of the conditions that we have put forward to keep them there, would form a pressure on us in case of war with our external enemies, and in order to facilitate and accelerate the achievement of the target ultimate goal to deport the Mountaineers, His Majesty believes that it is essential to achieve that by next spring, and if we don’t engage in an external war, it is a must to send a military mission to that section of the Ubykh land, that have not been cleansed yet by the troops under Your Excellency’s command. -------------------- Government archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .220, for the .1 - 1 up.
28, November, 1863 The letter of the Deputy Russian Consul in Trabzon, Moshanina, addressed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo, in regard to the Turkish government’s position towards deportation (where the attribute the causes of migration to the Islamic fundamentalism and the Russian success in the war). From dates 22 to 29 of this month, 16 other ferries sailed, despite the bad weather. Seven of which were chartered by the Shapsoughian Hajji Khazpolat Swem, who was recommended by Dakhofiscojo Platoon Commander. Five ferries have arrived over here, loaded with approximately 1200 Circassians; including nearly 1000 Circassians were transferred to Constantinople. The Pasha has expressed astonishment at the magnitude of the Mountaineers deportation, and attributed that to Islamic fundamentalism and our success.
If Circassians had been transported on board all ferries at one time, the process their deportation would have not been harmful to the city of Trabzon, but all captains of vessels did not accept the transfer deportees on board their ships, therefore the Pasha had demanded from the Turkish government to allocate two military vessels to transport them. And gathering of a large number of Mountaineers could lead to serious consequences, and to my knowledge, some of my colleagues had sent letters to Constantinople to stop the deportation. Their aim is very clear where I learned that the arrival of news to Trabzon on the success of our troops, Mr. Podaiski and some of his supporters to offer advice to all displaced people to Trabzon, to return home, and to provide assistance to their brothers to defend their homeland to achieve their independence, and where the Turkish government, egged on by our adversaries, can indirectly halt the process of displacement, which them caused a lot of worries and problems, and to prevent captains from sailing to our shores. In turn, from my part, I deployed a rumor stating that the displacement will continue until the onset of autumn season only, in order to press the local captains to sail to the Circassian coast. And I hope that Your Excellency agrees to this procedure, and when spring comes, we can spread new rumor that claims to allow the ferries to sail to the Circassian coasts. And in all cases, the first concern that worries all captains, however, is thinking about how to sail to the Circassian coasts, because opportunity had not allowed them in the past to sail as it is the case now, and without fear that any state would stop the process of deportation. In Constantinople, the Turkish government and the local governor in Trabzon do not have the slightest idea about the causes and magnitude of deportation, and of course we are not obliged to explain to them right now, until the completion of the subjugation of Mountaineers altogether. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .417, and by .3, b .1102, for .1-1 up.
28, November, 1863 From the report of the Russian consul in Trabzon, Moshanina, directed to the Asian Committee, regarding the tragic situation of the Circassians in exile, and in regard to the Governor-General’s instructions not to intercept Turkish ships carrying Mountaineers wishing to move to Turkey.
In accordance with the Russian government’s desire, I have succeeded to send more than 50 ferries to transport Circassians. I have developed necessary conditions for the captains of the ferries during their sailing, to lift the weight of the stabilizer as a sign to inform other ferries for the start of new voyages heading to Ubykhia. From these ferries, 27 ferries had arrived to the port of Trabzon having on board approximately 7 thousand Circassians, who were deployed in the city and surrounding areas, and because of the influx and gathering of the Circassians in large numbers, that topic was a reason, that pressed Mr. Stevens to call for holding a meeting for the consuls, to discuss this subject. I have received an invitation to attend this meeting. I would like to make a note of, that the Pasha who is coming from Constantinople, has promised me to take necessary steps to remove the obstacles that we face because of the deportation of the Circassians, who have exhausted their strength because of the long journey across the sea. I have amended to attend this meeting in order to avoid political controversies that would lead to the issuance of inappropriate findings towards us by my consul colleagues. The Prussian Consul has expressed that the discussion of the Circassian deportation issue will lead to political controversies. In grace of this comment, the meeting which was held at Steven’s home has ended by put together of Minutes only. To illustrate how bad the way in which the process of burying the corpses, I will mention the following situation as an example: in one of the nearby cemeteries, which is not far from our consulate, and the closest to the Prussian Embassy, the Circassian dead were buried with negligence and temporarily, where, when rain fell down, soil that was covering the graves has washed out, and the hungry dogs in the city, had eaten the exposed hands and feet of the dead. I was told about this incident by one of the witnesses. When we got the information that indicates the failure of the Anglo – Polish incitement for the rebel Mountaineers, His Imperial Majesty, The General Commander of the Army, has delegated me to thank you for your special efforts of preventing the smuggling of weapons that have emerged from our various enemies on the western coasts of the Caucasus, and the weaving of conspiracies. In the same time, the Mountaineers at the present time, who were sent away towards the coastal strip, have expressed a strong desire to emigrate to Turkey, and depending on our vision, this issue would much expedite the completion of the process for the control of the entire Caucasus. The main obstacle encountered in the process of deporting the Mountaineers is the acute shortage of means of marine transport. On this basis, we must by all means, to make it easier for Mountaineers to emigrate to Turkey, and until that time comes, we must make some changes, in our procedures followed for deporting the Mountaineers, thus, the Governor-General, Lieutenant – General, Duke Mirskomo was given the following command: as an interim measure, he must issue the following commands: that our military vessels to stop ships carrying onboard only smuggled weapons, gunpowder, ammunition and shells.
The other Turkish ships, even if they have customs violations, they should not be intercepted to go to any point on the coast where the Mountaineers reside, and should not be stopped in any form, if they returned carrying onboard deported Mountaineers to Turkey. -------------------- AVPR, St. Petersburg., Chief archive 1-9, op. 8, 19, p. 10-13.
November 30, 1863 Requisition of Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo directed to the Commander of the Kuban Region Forces, General Evdokimov on the disperse of additional aid to the deportees and the Abzakh who have been subjugated.
That His Majesty the Emperor, General Commander of the Army, sees the need to allocate additional funds for the disbursement as aid to the Mountaineers who have a desire to emigrate to Turkey, besides, His Majesty the Emperor allows Your Excellency in case you have used 35 thousand rubles that were placed at your disposal, you can at absolute necessity, to pay the essential expenses from the extra amount of 65 thousand rubles, that you requested earlier, at the same time, His Majesty the Emperor allows Your Excellency, when you determine the value of financial assistance, the need to comply with the instructions contained in my requisition, No. 874, dated 5, May, 1863, but however, His Majesty the Emperor wishes that the priority in the disbursement these aids to be to the Abzakh, who have been subjected recently, and the tribes that had been recently subjugated in the coastal strip. By informing Your Excellency of what is stated above, and with the orders of His Majesty the Emperor, it's an honor to request Your Excellency that you provide your point of view about how to pay the aids to the General Staff, and accounting regulatory in special records. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .136, for .6.
5, December, 1863 Message, of the Charge D’affaires of Russian embassy in Constantinople, Novikova, addressed to the Commander of Chief of Staff, of the Army of the Caucasus Command, General Kartsovo, on the outcome of negotiations with the Turkish government on the reception of the deportees, and the conditions set by the Turkish Government regarding the next migration of large numbers of deportees in the year 1864. Upon my return from the Turkish Foreign Ministry, please allow me Your Excellency to present you about the details of my talks with Ali Pasha concerning preparations for the reception of the deportees from the Abzakh and other Mountaineer peoples to Turkey, and I hasten to inform Your Excellency of the most important results of our negotiations. This topic had been discussed at the meeting of the Council of Ministers, and took a decision in its regard at the third meeting, and I was intimated about the resolution by Ali Pasha, and the most important features of this resolution: The Turkish government does not mind to receive Caucasian Mountaineers, wishing to immigrate in large numbers within the limits of its territory. Of course, allowing them to emigrate in large numbers depends on the two basic conditions, and without them the implementation would be almost impossible: 1. That Constantinople and Trabzon should not be identified as sole points to gather and settling them in. Due to the approval of the Turkish government to receive the deportees on its territory, it reserves the right to select appropriate locations for the resettlement of the deportees.
2. To grant the Turkish government a time limit until the month of May, to work on the search for suitable sites for the resettlement of the deportees, to avoid the associated difficulties with deporting people in large numbers. I add that when Ali Pasha had asked me a question about the approximate numbers of the deportees, I didn’t give him an answer and I could not even give him a positive response about that, but I did not want to puzzle him from the first time, and I told him that the number is 50 thousand, and even that number had put him in confusion. And by informing you of the decision of the Council of Ministers referred to above, to be transferred to His Majesty the Emperor, I made it clear to Ali Pasha, that the difficult situation that has been created for us, where, regardless of the required timeout to deport large numbers of Mountaineers, there are permanent difficulties facing the process of deportation to Turkey. I cannot hide on Your Excellency that the plan of deportation of Mountaineers to Turkey, and as expected, has caused confusion and embarrassment for the Turkish government, so the answer from Ali Pasha, can be considered a very satisfactory result. And by informing Your Excellency of all the mentioned of information for the purposes of presenting a report to His Majesty the Emperor about that, and awaiting your instructions to come, I think it is advantageous to continue the negotiations with the Turkish government to this issue so as not to give them an opportunity to change their mind and intent, but on the contrary, we take from them further details of the implementations of their obligations.
In this regard, I would be grateful to Your Excellency if you inform me about your opinion in regard to transferring your point of view to the Turkish Foreign Minister, regarding the appropriate measures to implement the plan of deportation, and the approximate number of deportees to Turkey, and the possibility of providing facilities when the time limit is determined to begin the process of deportation, and so on of other matters.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1097, for .1-2.
6, December, 1863
The message of Russian Vice-Consul, Moshanina, addressed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo regarding the transfer of Circassians from Constantinople to the cities of Varna and Samson, and regarding the behavior of English and the French consuls. In addition to my previous letters on the number of Circassians arriving and departing from Trabzon, I sense it is my duty to inform Your Excellency that the early onset of winter stopped the process of sending the ferries to the Mountaineers, but in any case and since the last message that I sent, ferries had sailed from here to bring the Circassians, and 8 ferries arrived having onboard 2000 Circassians, Currently, the Turkish ships have transferred 400 deportees to Samson and 1000 to Varna. The Turkish Special Commissioner has arrived here to monitor the deportation process, and instructions have been issued from Constantinople to allocate two ships (KARI) and (Malakhov) to transfer all Circassians coming to Varna. The English Consular and Mr. Podaiski are not satisfied with what is happening and they are criticizing our operations and they are looking for an opportunity to stir up trouble against me. Steven was able without much difficulty, to stir the French consular against me, who in turn has raised a complaint against me to Constantinople, where he accused me of insulting his private secretary. Then, Steven tried also to incite the Italian consular against me, which is always drunk, and because of my desire not to deal with those people, hostile and drunk; I try to stay away from them as much as possible.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by 8, b .1114, to .31.
10, December, 1863 A copy of the letter of Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, the Great Duke, Mikhail Nikolayevich, addressed to the Minister of War, Milutin, on the colonization of the Eastern coast of the Black Sea and to be cleansed of Mountaineers, and its importance for the Russian state. All correspondences of His Imperial Highness, the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, have been approved by General - Milutin on December, 1863. The process of final subjugation of the western Caucasus will be concluded only when the Eastern Coast of the Black Sea is fully colonized by the Russian population. And the implementation of this important procedure for the State will take place in the near future. Our Cossack stations have seized the areas stretching from the mouth of the Kuban River to the Gulf of Tsemeskoy, but the coastline, it had been cleansed up the mouth of the River Jodji, and should not keep the Mountaineer people by next spring, on the rest of the spaces that were allocated for the settlement of the Cossack population in accordance with the provisions of the settlement of Western Caucasus, and if external events do not put obstacles concerning my suggestions, I hope by next summer, to cleanse the coast to Bzyb River and the implementation of the contents of the general provisions. In case of the implementation of this plan, there will not be there a presence for the enemy that can impede the resettlement of our population on all the area stretching across the coastal strip. At the present time, I cannot determine the portion of this area, which can be colonized by the arrival of the year 1864, in addition to determining the number of families to be permanently re-settled in this part in the year 1865, and in any case, I am fully convinced that the resettlement of the coastal strip will not take place the same way that was used for the settlement of the Northern slope of the Caucasus mountains’ range.
The area of land located between the main peaks of the Caucasus Mountains range and the sea coast extending at a width of 15 to 40 Ferst. Because of the slopes and the other mountainous highlands that got lots of narrow valleys, that contain a lot of nature's bounties, but there are places unsuitable for cultivation. Under these circumstances, stations cannot be set on the coastline, such as those areas that we have distributed in the North Caucasus, thus the nature of the terrain here, imposes to live in the farms. So the Mountaineers that inhibited these areas had lived. Their villages couldn’t establish communities of large population, but have set up farms spread across the valleys. Therefore the way to establish houses must differ and distribution of land ownership among the individuals who will be resettled within the coastline from those individuals who will be resettled within the stations that were built on the Northern slope. Residents of coastal areas cannot live under the same conditions in which the Cossacks, who settled in the Northern slope and the plains nearby. On one hand, the mountainous nature of the places near the coast will be a hindrance for them to herd flocks of horses and other agricultural necessary matters for Cossacks, and on the other hand, the sea will always force them to engage in works that are not commensurate with the nature of Cossack equestrian. The terrain, climate and marine natural products are all factors that contributed to the development of industrial products here, which Russia needs more than it needs to increase the number of Cossacks, and regardless of the measures taken by the government for the settlement of Cossacks loyal to us in coastal locations, it will not achieve this goal. While, for making them sailors, and to help them develop their marine skills, they are only in need for one thing, that is to give them a great deal of freedom to practice these works and to provide them initially with care. If we take these things into account, I think it is of necessity to direct inhabitants of the Eastern coast of the Black Sea in the future to maritime industries, and to obligate them by Marine Service, and at the same time to identify the places allocated for the settlement of maritime Cossacks, as well as to determine their duties and the type of settlers’ work. The Commander of the Kuban Region forces had been informed of some opinions on this subject in the previous year in order to provide his opinion on that, but General Baron Evdokimov, was not satisfied with the nature of the topography of the places along the coastline which had known before, and believed it was possible to settle these places on the same foundations that have been followed for the settlement of the Northern slope, indicating that the settlers in the beginning until the final expulsion of the enemies “once and for all” they have to establish a security belt around their military stations, and if the terrain of the mountainous places does not form an obstacle for the Mountaineers for riding their horses, that will not prevent the Cossacks from the service in the Cavalry. Now with the approach of identifying the nature of the terrain of places and lifestyle of Mountaineers living near the coastline, the General Commander of the Kuban Region forces has absolutely changed his point of view on this subject, and requests the following: 1. That when completely done and cleansing the close areas of the coastline of the Mountaineers, and when protected from Ubykh side, across Mokupse River or Psezyuape River, through the establishment of strong scope of security, based on two wings, the first from the sea side, and the second from the snowy peaks along a distance that does not exceed 40 Ferst, and it is possible to close the entire strip entirely in avoidance of attacks and robbery.
2. Territories in the vicinity of the coastline stretching from Gelendzhik River until our new borders will be divided to land plots, and to be distributed into private ownership to individuals from different social classes, taking into account that the Cossack element is not useful for the development of industrial products in the region, but in case of war, Cossacks may be a target of hostilities from our enemies, because they are armed, and that the modern concepts of warfare does not give the right to carry out any hostile acts if the inhabitants of the region were limited to the civilian population only.
3. For the future, a resettlement of 3500 families will be carried out, which was decided in their resettlement in the new military stations, in the Western Caucasus, on the Northern slope, on the area stretching between Pshishem River and the Ile River, and therefore, all military stations will be connected permanently with the areas beyond the Kuban by the Cossack population, and then to leave the colonization of the territories situated in the South-west of the Caucasus until the completion of a final resolution of all matters related to this subject. I have written to Baron Evdokimov to proceed with the implementation of the first paragraph mentioned in this proposal, but must also take into consideration the need of not to stop at the borders of the security scope that has been mentioned, and to commence cleansing of the territories of the Ubykh people. According to the information available to us, the majority of this people, and because of the deportation of the Abzakh, the cannot stay in areas in which they live, even if they wanted to undergo our demands, because all cattle belonging to the Ubykh are located on the Northern Slope, which belong to the Abzakh, which is currently located within the vicinity of the Cossack stations. In winter season, the cattle were transferred to the territory located in Psekups valley.
Many of the Ubykh families feel powerless, and they have already begun to move to Turkey, and three or four thousand families who are hostile for us, have remained on the coast, where intolerance had mounted without assessing the consequences. And therefore, any administration they will belong to, they will not change their habits, of robbery and theft, and that would force us to establish a powerful security scope, not only in the coastal part of the region, but also in the stations located on the upper slopes of the Northern mountains. Moreover, in the event of the eruption of foreign war, this population will form benefit for our enemies and a problem for us. To be able to cleanse this area, I suggest that we at the end of next April or early in the month of May, to land troops in Sochi, and from there to attack them, until meeting the troops of Baron Evdokimov, which would advance from Tuapse side or from Pseh Zuwa Pseh. In the same time, if circumstances permit, that a third faction to attack them and to work for establishing roads from Fort Gagri until reaching the land of Mountaineers. Turning to the second and third paragraphs, presented by Baron Evdokimov, I agree with the need to link the settlements located on the Northern slope, with a line of stations on the area stretching between Pshish River and the Ile River, because of the impossibility of establishing stations in the areas of the coastline, that have already been awarded to local communities, as is the case on the North Slope. Are all close areas near the coastline will be granted for the settlement of the Cossack population, or part of it will be granted to the civilian population, and here I think it's important not to keep these areas vacant, and therefore to be resettled if possible by the armed inhabitants, at least in some critical valleys. Without this measure, it is not possible to attract the civilian inhabitants over tens of years. The terrain of the remote places, the lack of communications and the inability of establishing peace throughout the years, will take long to convince the peaceful population to resettle in them, even that there is no doubt that may Mountaineers that had been deported to other locations to return to it, and to the inaccessible valleys, and because of their stupidity, they will come back to looting and robbery. As for the Cossack settlements apart from establishing them as military stations, farms or isolated houses along the valleys, they will form assurance for the security civilian population, and a reason to attract them to these places. Therefore, I wrote to Baron Evdokimov, that settlers, who are numbered approximately 200 or 300 families, should be granted new land plots in areas that have been cleansed that are close to the coastal areas, and to allow them to identify the appropriate way to use these lands. It is useful to us to settle the areas close to the coast by the armed settlers, to develop trade and maritime industries in those places, and I think that the candidates for such a settlement can be attracted from: 1. From Azov Cossack troops, who over the decades had absolutely serviced onboard naval vessels, including many individuals who were accustomed to service at sea. 2. Call the sailors who serve in the fleet and their families on the same basis in which the staff of the Caucasus Army. As those first two landmarks for the Cossacks living on the coast, and those Cossacks with the passage, and gaining experience, to go to serve in the Russian fleet. 3. From the Ural forces who used to catch fish and the individuals who are accustomed to marine life.
Taking into account that the areas near the coastline is not well known to us, and therefore it can be determined by the spring onset, some of the most important points for settlement can be identified, so I think over the next year 1864, 300 families will be resettled, and to postpone the settlement in large numbers until the year 1865, and until that time, this region should be explored in details, and if we can work on the development of communications between its various parts. The settlers who will be resettled in areas near the coastline will not be bound by the Service in the Cossack Cavalry Corps, but make them accustomed to service if possible. To achieve this purpose, I think it is helpful to put them under the command of naval officers appointed by the Ministry of the Navy, and to be placed at the disposal of the Commander of the Kuban Region forces and at least three persons.
Additionally, a boat to be allocated to each Cossack military station, in addition to a neighborhood or a farm located in every valley, when they form teams of the Cossacks to be educated gradually to serve on board naval vessels. When choosing the appropriate places for the establishment of settlements, the places near the sea-shore should be avoided, where the weather is bad due to the rivers’ sluggish water, while the people who live a distance of one ferst away from the Coast, they enjoy a healthy weather. At the beginning military settlements should be settled, and should settle the settlements that are located in appropriate places and enjoy a naval gulf and an adequate space, for the establishment of agricultural land, so that during the first years of the settlement, we do not need the densely populated coast, where we do not face any danger from our enemies. Later on, fishermen can be resettled to this area and gradually, and with their help we can help develop the means of maritime transport at a maximum speed rather than the resettlement of ordinary people. By informing Your Excellency of my put-forward opinions, to be transferred to the high command, I ask you if His Majesty deems this appropriate, to be approved and provide your possible help to engage in its implementation. As for the administrative divisions of the coastal strip, and the duties of service, which will be the responsibility of the coast Cossacks, and on the establishment of a customs line along the Eastern coast, I think it is not possible to develop an idea about that until the settlement of these areas is totally completed. -------------------- Government archives - the territory of Georgia P .416, and by .3, B .216, for .1-8.
11, December, 1863 Letter from the Deputy Russian Consular in Trabzon, Moshanina addressed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo regarding the activities of the named Hajji Khazpolat, related to the transfer of the Shabsoughs and on the English consular’s attempts to stop the deportation. Last week, 1680 Circassian individual were deported to Constantinople, as well as the arrival of two ferries carrying 400 Circassians, and three ferries sailed from here to the Caucasian coast to bring the Circassians, and on board the last ferry left, was the Shabsoughian Hajji Khazpolat, who I had recommended to the head of Dakhoviskojo detachment, and the head of Nagorno Kavkas forces, which had on my way rental of 8 ferries for the transfer of Shabsough. Both the English Consular and Podaiski to stop the deportation, where they instigate the Pasha and the other consuls by presenting the serious consequences that can arise due to the spread of diseases during the spring season. At first, the local Muslim population due to fear of deportation, they gradually accustomed to this issue and have-rewarded themselves generously to this sacrifice by owning female slaves, whose prices declined to a large extent. I have been told that the Pasha has purchased the most beautiful eight girls and paid 60 or 80 rubles for each. To be presented as gifts to the Pashas in Constantinople. In any case, it is possible here to purchase a child aged 10 or 12 years of both sexes at 30 or 40 rubles each, and the Pasha has worked with the English consul’s advice, where he demanded that the port authority stops deportation until the arrival of the spring season if possible. Currently, the number of Circassians living in Trabzon is estimated approximately between 4 to 5 thousand Circassians.
One of the Poles who is currently staying with the Ubykh, has recently arrived to Constantinople, that the conditions of the European gangs who are hanging about with the Ubykh are not going well, to the extent that they are waiting for the right time to return.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1102, for .2-2 up.
12, December, 1863 Message of Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo, addressed to the Russian Affairs Deputy in Constantinople, Mr. Novikova pertaining to the conditions of deported Mountaineers. I received your letter on date 23, November, at the same time that I received a notice from Mr. Moshanina, containing that the deportation process of the Mountaineers from the Eastern coast of the Black Sea has reached large numbers, so that has raised fears among local authorities, which did not understand the reasons for this phenomenon. But because of those Mountaineers (most of them Shapsoughs), who didn’t subjugate to us, who are moving from points that we had not yet occupied, onboard the Turkish ships, our Government cannot and will not assume responsibility for the consequences and the difficulties currently faced by Turkish leaderships. The Mountaineers tried to win the sympathy of the Turkish state and stirring up hostility against the Russians, and their deportation was due to their awful works, and to avoid the difficulties that could face the Turkish government due to the deportation of Mountaineers, they introduced two basic preconditions:
First: to give the government a period of time almost until May in order to be able to search for places for the resettlement of deported people.
Second: Not to have Constantinople and Trabzon, the only places for the resettlement of Mountaineers who will be deported. As for the first condition, we can implement it without difficulty with regard to deportees who have acknowledged our authority, which will be deported via our ports with numbers that will not exceed 30 or 35 soles. As for the rebel deportees, who will leave from points that we did not conquer yet, that our authorities will not be able to determine their numbers, and not the time that they will leave, because their departure will be onboard the Turkish ships. If our government desires to block this departure, the small number of charter vessels and the inappropriate time of the year, cannot succeed in this task. As for the second precondition, what is presented forms added difficulty for us, since our local authorities cannot label or identify the places for the resettlement of Mountaineers in Turkey, and they cannot give any promises on this matter?
In the conception of Mountaineers, particularly those who were deported from the coast, the greatness of Turkey and the comfortable life ahead of them are available in Istanbul and Trabzon, so that every one of them seeks to leave there. We are confident that our local authorities, does not have the capability to prevent the displaced to go to Trabzon and Constantinople, and therefore to determine the places where they will go to, is fully the responsibility of the Turkish government, and here we have only one interest and that is not resettle the deported Mountaineers in those places close to our Caucasian territorial boundaries. I hope to achieve the desire of Your Excellency, by informing you the details of our future plan of deporting Mountaineers. But unfortunately, I can only now inform you with regard to our proposals regarding the Abzakh, because they are the only ones who have declared their submission, and will be deported from our ports, and aboard our ships, and their total number ranges from 60 to 70 thousand soles. I think that at least half of them will decide to move to Turkey, and the rest will be deported to the plains of the Kuban, and I built this assumption on the basis of information that I managed to obtain, but our government does not force any one to leave, and does not force anyone to stay, so it is expected that the proposed numbers could be possibly changed by the onset of spring. After all, we are able to issue instructions that deportee Mountaineers will not be deported from our ports until the commencement of the second half the month of April, and that is during each month to send a specified number of families, for example, that does not exceed 4 or 5 thousand families. In any case, the process of Mountaineers deportation is currently considered the subject of a priority for us. And if it continues without hindrances, we can hope that during the next summer the war will end in the Western Caucasus. Therefore, His Majesty the Emperor asks Your Excellency to use all available means and to develop the necessary efforts so that the Turkish government cannot put any obstacles in order to ensure the success of this matter, which depends fully on your efforts. As for your opinion regarding non-stop of negotiations with the Turkish government, His Majesty the Emperor fully supports them, and views that these negotiations are useful if it is possible to buy time until the spring, where it is expected a final blow to what remains of indigenous rebels. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1096, for .1-2.
18, December, 1863 The report of the Acting Charge Affaire of the Russian Consulate in Varna, directed to the Russian envoy to Constantinople, regarding the poor conditions of the Circassian deportees who arrived from Trabzon. In 11, December, a ship belonging to the Turkish government has arrived to the port of Varna, coming from Trabzon. 850 soles of both sexes and children of anti-Russian Caucasian tribes’ rebels were onboard. On December, 14, another ship carrying onboard 980 soles of rebel Circassian tribes from the city of Trabzon. Initially the Turkish authorities received their brothers in religion with great greetings, for example, when they brought the deported Caucasians to Varna, weather was cold, so the Turks set fire to several points on the ports’ quayside to warm up their brothers in faith who were frozen because of the extreme cold. But when the boats started disembarking passengers, who were naked, barefooted, exhausted, sick and barely alive, and they offloaded about 46 bodies of Circassians who were onboard the ship in a one single night, the Turks dread feared, wondering (aren’t our new guests who are coming from Asia, have got infectious diseases!) And they started to treat them in a cold manner, and Circassians had been placed in the local military barracks at Sinop, and Trabzon stressed, that there are still 12 thousand remaining Circassians, and will be brought later on to Varna, and that has bothered the local population, because the two mentioned ships had sailed back to Trabzon to bring the remaining deportees. I will inform Your Excellency on any new developments later on.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1096, for .3-3 up.
28, December, 1863 Letter of the Deputy Russian Consular in Trabzon, Moshanina addressed to Army Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army General Kartsova, over the number of Circassians who were transported to Varna and Samson and in regard to their bad conditions. In response to Your Excellency’s letter No. 7, addressed on date 9, December, which you kindly mentioned laudatory towards me, by His Majesty the Emperor about my given efforts and discretionary for the deportation of the Mountaineers from the Caucasus to Turkey, I hasten to inform Your Excellency that I always try to be as useful as possible, and currently, I have to double my efforts more. As I have previously informed you, the majority of the mentioned ferries, were sent to fetch the Mountaineers. At the present time, the total number of ferries that were sent from Trabzon to the Circassian coasts is almost 70 ferries, not to mention those ferries sent from ports near the Circassian coasts. I would like to state to you here the approximate numbers of deportee Circassians during the previous two months - November and December: The number of deportees who arrived in the city of Trabzon and the city of Platania is approximately 10 thousand deportees. Numbers that have been sent to Constantinople, Samson and Varna: 17, November 20 persons 19, November 950 persons 01, December 180 persons 05, December, 1500 persons 07, December, 1000 persons 15, December, 900 persons The Total 4550 persons The number of deaths with an average of 40 persons per day 2400 persons
The number currently in Trabzon 3150 persons As I informed Your Excellency earlier, the Turkish government as I know, is pleased with this deportation, and the port has taken the necessary measures to speed up the deportation of deportees from Trabzon, and unfortunately, the local governor is a negligent and careless individual. On his conscience lays the responsibility for illnesses suffered by the deportees, including typhoid and smallpox. Despite that, they have sailed across the Black Sea in winter which made them exhausted of disease, cold and hunger, and did not receive any assistance here, which was important for local authorities are provided. Rather than locating them in suitable and good places, near the city, the put them in worn-out tents in the main square where they are literally drowning in the dirt. Hence caused in the spread of smallpox, typhoid, that they have suffered constantly. Therefore appear the tragic statistics of mortality, which ranged between 40-60 persons per day that is a quarter of the total number of deportees. The bodies of the dead are buried in a brutal and serious negligence, even though if this happened in any other country, a criminal complaint would have been pressed against the local authorities. And here they intentionally bury the dead in the best Christian neighborhoods, and on this matter, the Pasha responds for the foreign consuls’ protests that Circassian issue does not interest them. It is obvious in fact that the issue of these unfortunate people is not of his concern. And all what he is doing here is just for show-off, for example, he wanted to fix Erzurum road with only twelve shovels that were brought from Constantinople. The telegraph communications, they have developed in a manner so bad that at a distance of one station, which is a distance of 6 hours connection has been broken in 18 points, and I take the opportunity to inform you that in recent days, military equipment was brought in for the Anatolia Army for the winter season. -------------------- The Georgian Central State Historical Archives, f. 416, he said, 3, etc. 1096, p. 1-7.
31, December, 1863 The correspondence by General Evdokimov directed to the Head of Natokhawaj Region, regarding the transportation of the Natokhaway onboard the Turkish ferries and aid disburse worth 2 rubles per soul (for the extreme cases only) Stavropol. Depending on Your Excellency’s report of 16, December No. 2554, I hasten let you know that we do not have chartered ships to transport the deported Mountaineers, and an agreement has been signed with the merchant, von Stein and the deputies of the Abzakh People, provided that the latter secures ferries to transport Abzakh who wish to move to Turkish ports, for a value of 5 rubles per adult soul (according to the conditions attached herewith). Under these circumstances, the cost of transporting every adult soul is allocated by the Treasury for 2 rubles, but remaining value is the responsibility of the deportee inhabitants. For information, the conclusion of such an agreement with the merchant von Stein for transporting the Natokhaway to Turkey, will not give us the desired results, because he is obligated to steer the ships to several areas to embark the deportees, time to embark onboard ships for their transportation to new places of residence. I therefore ask you to take the necessary action, and not to wait for chartered vessels, and to force the indigenous population of the Natokhaway Region, to start their leaving to Turkey right away, and if the weather condition is appropriate we should by all means at our disposal, to contract with the Turkish ferries that had been known about, assisted by local chiefs and the protection of the ship owners. As to allow the Natokhaway to hasten take the opportunity to gather their properties slowly and not in a hurry and go to head to Turkey in stages until the commence of spring, so that when there is movement of large numbers of indigenous people, goods prices will be reduced, unlike the prices of transportation, which will multiply. When transporting the Natokhaway to Turkey, there should be a attempt to push the Natokhaway to bear the costs of their transportation at their own expense, so I solicit you to disburse aid worth 2 silver rubles per adult soul when absolutely necessary, and when a reason appears to stop the deportation of part of the Natokhaway to Turkey, then assistance should be disbursed to them. Therefore, I paid special attention to the provision of funds for aid to the deported indigenous people. As these amounts are small, and at the same time we need to send a number that is not insignificant of poor families to Turkey, which is unable to pay any amounts of money for their transportation.
In the end, I add, that regardless of the progress of the deportation of Natokhaway to Turkey on board ferries, you will be able to invite merchant von Stein and reach a deal with him with special conditions for the deportation of that portion of Natokhaway, who do not have the ability to move to Turkey at their own expense until the spring, and this agreement could be reached with better conditions for the Abzakh, because the ships coming from Kirsch to load the deportees, are closer to Anapa or Konstntinovskaya from the side of the mouth of Tuapse River. At the conclusion of the agreement, Natokhaway must depend on own resources and not on the special assistance from the Treasury, which, as mentioned above can be used in extreme cases. Overall, the deportation on board ferries will be more profitable than to leave on board the ships. -------------------- Government Archives - the Krasnodar region, P .325, and by .1, B .301, for .1144, .152 web web.
With respect to the Circassians’ free transportation of Turkey. In case a possibility has developed new conditions for the agreement with Russian marine and commercial shipping companies to transfer all Abzakh and Shabsough wishing to move to Turkey from the Gulfs of Galindjiskoy and Novorasesskoy on board ferries at the expense of the Treasury, so it is likely that most of the rebels would show their interest in free departure and they will leave their homeland without a fight. Russian companies are currently charging 4 rubles per person for the transfer of Mountaineers, but if they reduce this price, it would have annual expenses that were allocated from the annual budget for this purpose, inexpensive, and the best reward was to speed up the end of the war. -------------------- Government archives - the Krasnodar region, P .325, and by .1, b .301.
In the year 1863 Submissions presented to the Emperor by the Deputy of the Caucasus during the Emperor’s stay in the Crimean Peninsula. By the end of the year, in the Kuban Region, on the Northern side of the Caucasus Mountains’ range that we have fully occupied: All territory had been evacuated from the Mountaineers, from the East side as far as Pshish River, and from in the West, from Anapa River as far as Ile River, and the area between Ell river as far as Shepsh River, but had not yet established military stations. And the area between Geybshem River and Shepshem River across the front lines along psheshskoy, reaching to Fort Gregorveskojo in an area of approximately 50 Ferst remained in possession of Mountaineers. The Northern strip of this area, which is near the Kuban River, it is occupied by the Bjadogh tribe that had been subdued, but in the remaining part of this area, reaching the main chain of the Caucasus Mountains, the Abzakh that have not been subjected yet, have gathered there. The topography of the places here, do not create any difficulty for us, in comparison with those encountered near the Beloy River and Bshekheh River, they are open areas and mountain slopes are exposed.
The slope that is located South-east of the mountainous range, we have cleansed and we colonized part of the southern coast, from the mouth of the Kuban River until reaching Gelinjika River, along the extension of more than 100 Ferst, sll the way to the borders of the Ubykh territories and remained 120 Ferst, we did not settle, and to subdue the rebel regions permanently, there are 4 main military faction working on that: 1. Dakhovski Faction from Jeymana Regiment – Battalion 12 are constructing a road from the headwaters of the Bshekheh River to the headwaters of the Bshesheh River, so to be able to climb through the valleys of these two rivers or the course of one of them, to the slope down towards the Tuapse River. Currently it is difficult to determine the time required for this faction to carry out its mission. If it could do that before the commencement of winter, and completed the construction of the road across the tops of the mountain range, and attainment the headwaters of the Tuapse River, it will get by the spring to the sea coast. 2. Bshekhski Faction, from Grabi Regiment – of the 12th Battalion, is working to construct road and to build barriers from Teverskoy station towards, and moves in the coming days towards Pseh Kobseh River, in the center of the Abzakh rebel areas, and will work to cleanse the area of the inhabitants, and will build protection walls and barriers, and to build roads to connect the stations with each other. And can confidently say that by the commencement of winter, Areas will be cleansed of all insurgent inhabitants; living on the Northern slopes of the mountain range, and will be expelled from there. But we will gain ultimate control over these areas, only when military stations would be built on this area, and until then, if hostile residents remained in these areas, there will always hanging around and groups hiding in the forest. 3. Shibski Faction – of 10th Battalion of Gregorveskojo Regiment (Baron Eliston - Soma Rokauf), is working on constructing an upper road, across Shibskomo Valley and should reach by the commencement of winter to the mouth of Gepy River.
4. Adaghom Faction – 6 battalions are working to construct a road from Ervanskoy Station across Mezba Valley slope, and by controlling Galinjek, the road in the direction of Bshadeh River will be continued to construct, in parallel to the sea coast that cleans the coastal areas of the Shabsough inhabitants. We must hope that by the spring that the two other factions will clear the entire area located in south-west of mountainous slope of the Caucasus, until Gelinjika River, down to Gopy River. When this objective is achieved, only then the rest of the Shabsough population of Caucasian, who were crammed into the area located on the south-western slope between Goboy River and Sobashi River, who are threatened by the military forces on one hand, which will continue to move along the Bank until reaching Gopy River, and on the other hand the Dakhovski Faction, that is ready to go to Tuapse River, where They will not be able to resist us. In such cases, the troops that have been landed from the sea side will have the final effect on the course of the war. At the present time is difficult to determine location that landing will be used for, so, Jeyman Faction has encountered a difficulty in road construction by the commence of spring, it will be too far from the coast, and then it would be best to carry out the landing at Tuapse River, and to go from the coast to be met. If the manouvers of this Faction was successful, it would need a support from the landing troops which in this case, landing should take place in Sochi, and take the fight to Ubykh territories, who have not yet experienced until now the actual power of our weapons, who form the main seed of the aggressive direction against us, in support for their neighboring peoples. The settlement of the strip, which we have annexed, it forms for us and without doubt a difficulty, and moreover, the indigenous people residing on these areas, are unlikely to easily agree to move into the plains of the Kuban, therefore we should expect fierce resistance by them, but it is on the other hand, that fact would ease on us, that we will not have to set up many stations and construct many roads, as happened on the Northern slope of the mountainous range, where bordering of the Mountaineers had forced us to be careful, and to establish military stations in a manner supportive of each other. But whatever the difficulties we face when occupying the large coastal areas, they are not comparable to the difficulties that we experienced previously, so we do not have in any way to withdraw from the set plan of occupying the east coast by the Russian military stations, even if the Mountaineers declared their submission to us and without conditions. And the recent negotiations with the Abzakh have proved to us once again, that it is not possible to rely on the conditions or agreements with these peoples. It is enough that we allow, two or three adventurers to spread silly rumors, then they will forget the agreement, but for those who decided to immigrate to Turkey, they have sold their livestock, and they arrived to the coast, then they carried arms again, and they did not just forget their promises, but the horrors of war also, that forced them to leave their homeland. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1176, for .1-3 up.
The year 1863 Project of General Command of the Army concerning the construction of 11 new military stations in the year 1863 in the East coast of the Black Sea. Shabsougsky Regiment 1. Abinskaya Military Station, 250 families. 2. Shabsougskaya Station (near Nikolai military Fort) 150 families. 3. Ayrevainscia station (in the upper Abena River) 200 families. 4. Bshedskaya Station (on the side of Bshade River) 150 families. 5. Bshadeski District (the coastal side at the mouth of Bshade River) 50 families. 6. Bojondrndreskaya Station (in the mountains) 250 families. 7. Antkhrrskaya Station (at the course) 250 families.
8. Khableskaya Station (at the Khabel River’s course) 275 families. 9. Grozneskaya Station (near Khabel River, in the mountains) 200 families 10. Glendeskaya Station 100 families. 11. Kabardenskaya Station 100 families. These families should be resettled immediately.
The total number of families who are residing in the stations affiliated to Shabsougsky Regiment is 1875 families. To the side of Belwi River - Regiment 26 1. Kordjeskaya Military Station (by 22 Ferst of Maykup in the central of the Korjepseh River) 200 families). 2. Dagestanskaya Station (in the upper Korjepseh River) 175 families. 3. Bshekhskaya Station (200 families have been resettled). 4. Kubanskaya Station (in upper Bshekheh, a distance of 8 Ferst) 200 families. 5. Abshirawenukaya Station (on Bshekheh River) 250 families. 6. Samorskaya Station (on Bshekheh River, on the same elevation with Kordji River) 250 families. 7. Berioskaya Station, (half the distance between Kardzhinskoyo and Smorskoyo) 175 families. 8. Jabokayveskaya Station (near Pedsheh River, then to settle in it) 200 families. 9. Bjadoghskaya Station (on the border between the Abzakh and the Bjadogh) 200 families. 10. Bsheleskaya Station (near the Bshesheh River) 250 families. The total of households in the stations affiliated to the Regiment (26) 2100 families. The total of households in the stations attached to both battalions 3975 families. Note: It is necessary to take into consideration that in the year 1863, there will be 3236 families of the officers, Rural Police, and Cossack families to be settled, and in particular 26 families, of the Kuban Cossack Forces officers’ families, 4 families from the Azovskojo Cossack Forces, 137 families of the Caucasus army military personnel, Dunskojo Cossack Forces 533 families, Kubanskojo Cossack Forces 962 families, Governmental farmers 1000 families, according to the instructions of the General Command, Azovskojo Cossack Forces 502 families, Fishermen of government’s peasants, who have applied to General Command of the Kuban Region’s Forces, and they have a permission 33 families, the peasants instigated against the Dunskojo Forces 3 families.
The total 3236 families settlers in addition to the settlers mentioned above, there will be fishermen (or hunters) who have filed a requisition to the Kuban Region Forces Command to join the Cossacks’ category in the new stations, and the fishermen (or hunters) who will come from the various categories of the empire’s society until the date of August 1, 1863. Commander in Chief of the Kuban Region’s Forces
(Signature) -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .250, for up .4-4.
5 January 1864 The letter of the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, Great Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich, addressed to the Minister of War Milutin, in regard to providing possible assistance to the sailors who wish to settle in the Eastern coast of the Black Sea. After the end of the Crimean War, there are large numbers of retired sailors and their families residing in the city of Stavropol and the city of Nikolayev, and they do not have savings or work. For the importance and necessity to accelerate the process of settlement in the coast line by inhabitants that have the knowledge of how to deal with the sea, and knowledge of maritime affairs, and over time the possibility to avail individuals able to work in the navy. I kindly request from Your Excellency to provide the possible support to bring in individuals willing to settle the Eastern coast of the Black Sea from the families of the retired sailors who have children, and if their families are without children, then the members of these families must not be very old. And whoever declares his wish to settle the Caucasus, must be present in Fort Constantine at the end of May 1864, and could be brought onboard government vessels or the vessels belonging to the Russian companies, as for the cost of transportation and feeding them during the process of transportation, will be disbursed that from the amounts that have been allocated from the capital of the Administration of the Black Sea Region earmarked for the construction of rural houses for sailors working near the city and the cities of Nikolayev and Stavropol, therefore who have the desire to move to the Caucasus, there will be the need to build new houses for them. As for the government departments in the Caucasus, in addition to granting lands to settlers, they would present them with aids, rights and privileges mentioned in provisions related to settling the plains of the Western regions of the Caucasus Mountains. I request from Your Excellency to let us know the orders of His Majesty the Emperor.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .221, for .1-2.
9, January, 1864 Letter of the Deputy Russian Consul in Trabzon, Moshanina addressed to General Kartsovo on progress regarding the deportation of the Circassians and concerning the epidemic that has spread among them and attempts to England, France and Italy to stop deportation, and regarding the transfer of and the Circassians, the Poles and the Russians. I had the honor of getting through the previous mail, Your Excellency’s letter dated 10, December, No. 13, and I hasten to thank you for the attention you gave to my letters. That the winter we faced this year, and according to the talk of the ancient inhabitants, we have not seen since 1810, and this matter had slowed the communications with the Caucasus, and communications were completely cut off with the inland provinces, in spite of that, the deportation of the Circassians is going on, but slowly, and in the previous days 4 ferries had arrived, carrying onboard, about 750 persons from the Abzakh and the Shabsough. According to information I received from the Turkish coasts, that approximately 100 ferries had sailed from several small ports to bring deportees, in addition to 50 to 60 ferries had sailed from Trabzon, so with the return of good weather we are awaiting the arrival of several thousands of the Mountaineers. For this reason my English, French and Italian colleagues are not satisfied and are trying by all means to stop the deportation. Because of the narrow and awful houses, diseases such as typhoid and smallpox have spread among Mountaineers, and local authorities feared the spread of diseases and due to the instigation of our enemies, deportees have been placed for a period of 15 days in quarantine. This move itself is a good thing, that is if the objective was good, and not for the instigation against us. Because of our success in the Caucasus, another reason had been added to the mentioned above, that is the fear of the Persian transit, which went to Tbilisi instead of Erzrom. Hence, the new plots to create 15 days of quarantine for the Deportee Caucasians. I declared my protest on this matter, and I do not know what they would reach in Constantinople, and I hope that Your Excellency would comfort me about Mr. Kichmicheva, that I don’t know any news about him or about Kavasi, and I do not know where they spent the winter. Here we have 17 or 18 of our Polish soldier-deserters, who came along with the Circassians; some of them have come to me hoping for amnesty, and declared their intention to return to their homeland. During this time there have been no problems, and at the same time, the Polish fraudster Mr. Bodaiski and the other adventurers, have tried to dissuade them from returning, and I tried hard to gather them all day long, but I did not find any one of them; Some of them are sick and some others do not wish to return, and I have sent on board one of the ships that had recently sailed, three Russian citizens, who were able to escape from captivity to General Chatilovo in the city of Sukhumi Calais. With great respect for you personally, and the absolute loyalty, I have the honor to greet you. Note: Today in the bazaar, a rumor was circulated, that our army was trapped in the mountains stuck between the snow, and without supplies. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1114, for .1-1 up.
11, January, 1864 Requisition the acting Russian government’s Charge Affaire in Constantinople, Novikova directed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus army Kartsovo, on the outcome of talks with Fuad Pasha. I was honored to receive Your Excellency’s letter dated 10, December, No. 14, on the resettlement of Mountaineers in Turkish territory. For my part I believe it is my obligation to convey to Your Excellency a copy of my urgent letter directed to the Vice-Chancellor on January 7, No. 3, on my talks with His Excellency the Minister on this subject. The most important to know of all mentioned above, that I used all the arguments stated in Your Excellency’s letter, referred to above in my talks with Fuad Pasha. --------------------
Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1097, for .3.
13, January, 1864 Letter of the Commander in Chief of the Kuban Army, Major General Zablodskojo, directed to Lieutenant Colonel Chirkisova, with a summary report concerning the discussions in regard to the financial aids to the deportee Mountaineers to the plains or to Turkey, all of them being poor and without exception. Further to your letter dated 31, December, of last year, under number 3048, I inform you that 10,000 rubles mentioned in the letter of Chief in staff of the Caucasus Army, No. 1532, was placed at the disposal of Lieutenant General Kartsova, according to the letter dated 28, December, 1862, No. 2827, for the disbursement as aid to the indigenous population who have been subjected, provided that the disbursement of these funds are done in a proper way and for the poorest families. Lieutenant General Baron Evdakimov aware that 10 thousand rubles is not enough to meet the needs of all deportees, for they are all, without exception, are poor and needed the attention of the command, and the leaders of the indigenous people suggested that they will be given assistance from the Treasury, but the money will remain in the Treasury and would be dispersed in case of emergency cases only, and the proposal No. 159, of Lieutenant General had been approved on 17, January, of last year. Same year, 1863, the order of His Majesty the Emperor, had reached the Commander in Chief of the mentioned army, through the requisition of Major-General Kartsova of 5th of May, No. 874, on disbursing aids to the Natokhaway and Shabsoughs who are heading to Turkey for not more than 10 rubles per family, but without clarifying the source that these aids would be disbursed through. Duke Nikolai Ivanovic (Evdokimov) had ordered to disburse aids to the Mountaineers that are deported to Turkey, from the amounts that have been adopted to assist indigenous people who have been subjected, because experiences have proven that the indigenous people who have been subjected, are in need of supplies and do not in need for the money, and these supplies were remunerated in small quantities that can protect them from the scourge of hunger for several days only.
-------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, B .148, for up .1-2.
January, 1864. An urgent message from Constantinople, concerning to the deportation process. The information sent by me in 11, January, 1864, under No. 16, to Our Charge D'affaires in Constantinople, has led me to discuss the matter directly with the Chief of General Staff, and conveyed to him all the information related to the deportation of new deportees (where the information on the deportation of the Mountaineers to Turkey, has a special importance for the military commandants in the Caucasus). After the implementation of the orders of the Russian affairs deputy in Constantinople, so it honors me to add to the Chief of General Staff that in 20, January, and in addition to the mentioned ferries, the Turkish ferry landed 370 soles of the Mountaineers in Varna, and yesterday (Shakhiki-Dyrya) ferry had arrived to Varna, with also 800 souls onboard. Before the arrival of the ferry, which sailed yesterday, the local quarantine department had received a message from Trabzon that included information about the sail of the ferry towards Varna and all 800 soles are infected. Therefore, and at the arrival of the ferry, the director of quarantine in addition to the doctor had prevented the landing of the infected Mountaineers. But the local mayor had opposed these instructions and ordered the boats to go to the ferry and unload all the Mountaineers right away, and that what has been implemented. But when the boats arrived to the coast and began disembarking inflected Mountaineers, he was keen and unrelenting that they don’t mingle with the local population, so they transferred them immediately to the military barracks.
Because all deportees, and although they are infected with different diseases: typhoid, scabies, and winter fever, and all of them are naked and barefooted, the local Turkish authorities have ordered to prepare old military clothes and to be delivered to them, which were sent from Constantinople. But these precautions did not help solve their tragedy, as the Mountaineers arrive here in a state of chaos and bad health. They will be placed in empty, humid and dirty military barracks and the rooms in poor condition and not equipped with stoves and without appropriate windows. The Mountaineers reside away from the city, and in the wild. With physician comes once a day and in result, illness spread very quickly, where deaths have reached from 12 to 20 daily, and after the weather became warm, those who are in acceptable physical condition, were allowed to go to the city, and the Pasha accompanied by the doctor have started visiting them often. The orders were given to send the cured families to homes allocated to them in the nearest residential community. There is fear of the merger by the both Turks and Christians, because of the experience that they have experienced due to the deportation of the Tatars to Turkey in the years 1860 and 1861, and they view with dismay to their new guests. In one word, the fate of Caucasian Mountaineers is very sensitive in Turkey. --------------------
Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1096, for .3-4
30, January, 1864
Letter of the Deputy Russian Consul in Trabzon, Moshanina addressed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo, in regard to plots of the English Consul Stevens, and concerning the establishment of a quarantine of 15 days, and on the transfer of Circassians from the Caucasus to Varna. In my letter, dated 22, November, I had the honor to inform you that the English Consul, Mr. Stevens, has held a meeting of all consuls at his headquarters, in order to converse about the deportation of Circassians. The objective of this meeting was to present support to Mr. Padayski – and those who support him - in order to halt the deportation process referred to above. Even though the consuls’ meeting did not reach to the result he wanted, Mr. Stevens and his associates, a phrase was written in the meeting’s protocol proposed by the French consul, stating the establishment of 4-5 days quarantine, and not only for the Circassians, but also for the ferries and their crews who brought the Circassians, because of that the Turkish government until now, had included deportee Circassians only quarantine, and excluded the ferries and their crews and even the Circassians who arrived through Russia auth rizations to do business. No one had paid any attention to this sentence that it deserves, as some of my colleagues did not understand its purpose and others did not want to understand this goal. This suggested measure that was suggested, had not been implemented, and that did not satisfy the English and the French Consuls. Shortly thereafter, a rumor was published, that the plague had appeared in the vicinity of the city of Macon between the Kurds among the Jilali Tribe, and one of the most supporters of this rumor, was the Italian consul, who was residing at his home at the time, the Pole who was called Podayski. Despite the fact that these rumors had not been officially confirmed, they arrived to Constantinople in an exaggerated manner, as a result of that, a quarantine of 15 days has been established on the Persian border, where commercial convoys pass. Not too long ago, traders expressed their resentment of the poor condition of Erzurumskoy road, in addition to the thefts which they are exposed to, in recent time, and their dissatisfaction about the 2% imposed tax on
the value of the goods, in addition to including them in the quarantine of 15 days, and as a result they had to send their goods through the city of Tbilisi.
When Mr. Stevens annoyance had reached alarming level, in conjunction with the French consul he convinced the Pasha to take the necessary measures to prevent the transfer of goods through Georgia. There is nothing left for them except only one solution, which is the establishment of a quarantine for the whole Caucasus Region, and that is what they got to, and resulted in consequent establishment of a quarantine through the intrigues and conspiracies for all the products coming from the areas extended from Anapa to Batumi, and from Batumi to the Persian borders, on the grounds that Russia did not establish a quarantine for the Persian products, and I will not mention all the irrational measures, where it is worth to look at the map to make sure that the transfer of these products are not related to the city of Macon which is suspected the spread of plague there. In any case, the purpose of these measures, to achieve two goals: in Constantinople, they wanted to force the traders to transport the Persian goods via Erzurumskoy Road again, and in Trabzon, in addition to the first goal, they wanted to stop the process of Circassians’ deportation. For the first goal, the Turkish government had erred calculations, because the traders prefer to keep the goods for 15 days in quarantine in Batumi under the supervision of our agent and the Deputy of our consul, rather to keep them on the Persian borders, where they may be exposed to looting. For the second goal, Mr. Stevens and his colleagues, they tried to stop the process of deportation, as a result, the ferries and their crews, and the deportee Circassians are subject to a quarantine of 15 days, and that will lead to higher ferries’ rental value terms. All these machinations and the intrigues of my colleague consuls, involved to show their good intentions, for example, their desire to protect Turkey from infectious diseases brought by the Circassians from an infected country. at the same time, all know here that Circassians are brought to Turkey in good health, and that was confirmed to me by one of the doctors of the quarantine and the Prussian consul, during my talk with both of them, as they get the typhoid infection here, due to malnutrition and dirty places of residence. As far as I know, Mr. Stevens was the only consul, that didn’t file a complaint against the Pasha on this subject, and it confirms to expose his intentions, in the end I have the honor to inform you that ing 1000 Circassians to ), for transportCarréyesterday, a ferry had arrived here (Varna, and today, 10 ferries have arrived from the Circassian coast lines, which had 1500 persons onboard, and with the improvement of weather, the ferries sailed again to bring Circassians. As for the typhoid, it is truly widespread here especially among Circassians and Armenians. With my sincerity, and loyalty for Your Highness, and I have the honor to serve you. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1114, for .2 _4.
14, February, 1864. From the messages of the Russian Consul in the Turkish city of Yanin, on the resettlement of the Caucasian Mountaineers away from the Russian borders. In response to the information regarding the bad conditions for one thousand Circassian families deported to the city of Epirus , I received an order three months ago from His Imperial Highness, the Commander of the Caucasus Army, to head to the ports, and to work to facilitate the resettlement of Caucasian Mountaineers in the Turkish Empire, that’s because we are waiting by the arrival of next spring, deportees in large numbers, tens of thousands of Abzakh, and in Constantinople and Varna, up to 17 of Shabsoughs, and that under the conditions of
deportation, we have to verify the readiness of the ports, to achieve the desire of our Caucasus leadership, that we offer the Turkish government, to choose the places that deems appropriate for the resettlement of the deportees, and not to obstruct its fair instructions for administrative grounds, such as those mentioned in your letter. Where Mountaineers settled between Christians, they constitute a significant burden on the country and the local population. On the other hand, it is in our interest that Muslim Mountaineers are not resettled between their brethrens in faith of the local population, where they can become a significant force and in large numbers, and anti-Christians, and not to be resettled in the Christian areas in Turkey, adjacent to our borders. --------------------
Archive Main - St. Petersburg, 1-9. Web .8, b .19, l .19
21, February, 1864 Letter of the Deputy Russian Consul in Trabzon Moshanina, addressed to the the chief of General Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo, on the subject of the numbers of deportees, and the machinations of the English and Italian diplomats for the aim of stopping the deportation, and about the epidemic among Circassians. I take the opportunity to inform Your Excellency that the progression of Mountaineers deportation is going on successfully, despite the obstacles that we face. Since sending my last letter, four thousand deportees have arrived here, and 700 people out of them were deported to Samson, but the remaining, they have been resettled in the vicinity of Trabzon, and inside the city. And currently their total number has reached in the cities of Reese and Platini approximately 9 thousand, and thus the total number of deportees from the month of November until the present time amounted to 20 thousand. We have sent two ferries to bring the Mountaineers, so that we will not miss the opportunity of disabling the quarantine of 15 days, and secret instructions had been given to the ferries for the transfer of goods to Batumi, Sukhumi and other places, and from there, after offloading the goods, to head to the places where Mountaineers are, to transport them. As for the Turkish ship (Khadasti - Boukri), I have not finished with them yet because of the maneuverings of our enemies, since they were not supplied with coal to sail to our shores. And I hope to resolve this matter for our interest. If this matter succeeds, I think we can count on transporting 15 thousand individuals during the summer. In the end, other ferries will follow, where I heard that there are those who want to bring small ferries from Constantinople. I do not know what the Turkish government is going to do with the deportees, as it is paying large sums of money that are being mishandled. That the mountaineers as I stated previously to Your Excellency, were crammed in their homes and as a result, diseases had spread among them, such as typhoid and smallpox, which sustained the local population, but for us living in Trabzon, it a punishment from God. The city, which was previously clean, has become dirty and contaminated in a short time, so that we cannot get out of our homes. The Pasha has received a stern notice from Constantinople, but he didn’t implement any of the orders he received from Constantinople.
Since he got the Majidi medal of first Class in his last trip to Constantinople, he scoffs of all orders which he receives. I would inform you that we are waiting for the arrival of a member of a Committee in Constantinople, in the name of Barutse, an inspector in the Department of quarantine. As for the Polish machinations in Trabzon, it seem to have reached an end as the Polish called Padayski has gone to Constantinople, his properties were sent after him, and his horse was sold, his associates were disbursed, while a room in the French Hotels was left rented in his name, but another Polish reside in it, and maybe he did that in order to disguise his departure, so he departed without saying goodbye to anyone. Mr. Bouzyo, the Italian Consul was faithful to him for the last moment, despite assurances given by the Italian envoy in Constantinople, to our envoy that Italy will does not and will never allow such manipulation, and it appears that Mr. Bouzyo wanted for himself, to create an important status in case he succeeded in supporting Mountaineers’ resistance, but currently, he says that Mountaineers (dastardly and sour people), and cannot rely on them at all. A few days ago, Colonel Shtraker has arrived here, coming from the Arzinjana, which I mentioned in my prior correspondence to Mr. Bataizatomo. According to the assertions of this officer, the Turkish army does not prepare for war, nor there do any intended future preparations, so he has been granted two weeks leave. Mushir Mustafa, who accepts only the fur gifts and sends them to Constantinople, a person is not qualified and was substituted with Darwish Pasha, who recently arrived from Herzegovina. Shtraker told me that there is a rumor that had spread in the Turkish Army, that our Russian troops is gathering in Alexandra-Pole and we are preparing for war, so it's not wise to transfer the command of the Turkish Army to Erzurum as planned earlier. According to the words of Mr. Shtraker, the Turkish troops fear war. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1114, for .5, 4.
4, March, 1864 Letter of the Deputy Russian Consul in Trabzon, Moshanina, addressed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo, in regard to the Turkish ferry (Khedasti Bahri), and in regard to interventions by the French Consul in the deportee Mountaineers’ issue, in order to prolong the time of their resistance against Russia and in regard of the poor conditions of the deportees. I managed yesterday the Turkish ferry that is called (Khadaste - Bahri) to the city of Sukhumkala, where it will go from there to bring the deportees. The process of sending the ferry had been strongly opposed by the local Turkish authorities, most notably by the French Consul who resides here, which currently has a strong influence on the Pasha. Because of the intrigues, no one got the desire to supply this ferry with cool, in case it headed to fetch Circassians, therefore I made a request General - Mayor Shatilova to provide the ferry with fuel at the expense of the commercial centers that belong to our stations, that in the absence of the impossibility of supplying fuel for the ferry in Sukhumi by the traders, because I think that sending the ferry would participate in speeding up the deportation of Mountaineers, especially that citizens of the Russian dependence are considered part of the agreement, which was held with the owner of this ferry and this in itself is a guarantee for the success of the process and our objectives, and if this is not enough fuel, we will make arrangements to bring it from Constantinople, and to dispatch the journey from here to Sukhumi and Tuapse, I have managed to avail a sufficient quantity of coal from a Prussian trader. What I think that it can explain the reason of the French Consul’s interventions in the process of deportation, for the purpose of keeping the Mountaineers as much as possible on the East Coast of the Black Sea in order to resist us. And if we read Mr. Chevera’s (the French Consul) article carefully, we will see that the French wish the continuity of the Circassian resistance, in addition, we should remember that part of the Poles still living with Ubykh. In any case, the Turkish authorities are still under cold-blooded consideration towards deportation process of the Circassians, and now they are afraid of this deportation, or pretending apprehension, and they are trying indirectly to send ferries. However, since the last message that I sent to Your Excellency, there are 37 ferries have sailed again, and presently the numbers of deportees who are here have decreased to seven thousand, due to sending approximately two thousand Mountaineers to Varna and Samson. I have notified Your Excellency and through my previous letters that due to the negligence of the Turkish Government during its processing of housing for the deportee Mountaineers, it led to the spread of typhoid among the deportees on a large scale, so the doctors of quarantine management and the majority of consuls have hastened to inform the Pasha about the adverse consequences that can result by the failure of the local authorities to take necessary measures to prevent the spread of diseases that spread rapidly among the local population of Trabzon. As a result of a complaint filed against the Pasha in Constantinople, which is a fair complaint, the authorities in Constantinople, have sent Prof. Dr. Barutse and was authorized with much authorities, it seems that the authorities took the opinions of the consuls, according to my knowledge, they have received their orders from their embassies in cooperation with Mr. Barutse, and they cooperated with one another to influence the Pasha. It seems that Mr. Barutse had done so in the beginning, but because he is a French citizen, he decided foremost, to have the advice of the French Consul, who in turn persuaded him by the latter not to take the opinion of others.
A week had elapsed since the arrival of Mr. Barutse, and he devotes all his time to meet with the Pasha and Mr. Chaver, avoiding getting to know others, and the first action he adopted was to prevent the spread of diseases, is to deport all Circassians outside the city, and he gave orders to stop bringing Circassians to Trabzon. I think that this action has been directed against us. Mr. Chever fears more than any other person, the death of the French fear of the onset of typhoid, and he has filed a complaint against the Pasha as he feels it is his duty, but now it seems that he is protecting the Pasha. When the Pasha had received a reprimand from Constantinople for neglect, he sent a request to all consuls, he requested to send two deputies from each one of them to meet him, to discuss the measures that must be taken regarding the deportees, and for his desire not to hold responsibility. As far as I know, the Italian Consul, ordered his deputies to keep silent in this meeting, as for the French and English consuls, they did not send their deputies and replaced them by their assistants of Turkish citizenship, who were not ashamed during the meeting of Council to look in the eyes of the Pasha and praise him, and told him that after all what he has done for the mountaineers, there is nothing left to be done for them or for the city. In this case, the meeting adjourned without reaching any result. As for the behavior Chaver, Some clarify that he wanted to get satisfying the Pasha and to achieve a Turkish award, and some attributed that to his ambition of his government’s blessing.
In any case, we can only aspire that the Mr. Barutse will do a good job. As for sending ferries to fetch the Circassians, I am sure that we will succeed to send all means of transportation available in Trabzon, which is not inconsiderable number. The so-called (not clear for the translator) of Hungarian nationality, who participated in the revolution of 1849, who holds a Colonel rank, has arrived here yesterday from Constantinople onboard a Russian ferry, and now presents himself on the grounds that he is a doctor (Podaiski introduced himself this way as well).
I will monitor the movement of this so-called closely, and in case I learn anything about him I will inform Your Excellency right away.
And yesterday General Mustafa Pasha has arrived here from Arzangan, who is from Bosnia-Herzegovinian origin, who was replaced, and who could have a bright future since his youth, but he showed inefficiency when he was commander of a division in the army. He was replaced by Darwish Pasha, Commander of the Reconnaissance Division in Herzegovina, who has not arrived yet. Note: I just received information about the arrival of seven ferries during night time, with four thousand Circassians onboard. The Quarantine Administration by the request of Mr. Barutse has barred them from disembarkation, and then the ferries headed to Aksha Calais. On top of that, Mr. Barutse has insisted to the Pasha not to allow the ferries to bring the Circassians into here, and to be sent immediately to Varna, and of course the ferries do not want an adventure of long trip to that limit, so Mr. Chaver was able to achieve his goal to stop the deportation. I had predicted the occurrence of these difficulties in the past, when I had to suffer to send these ferries to bring the Mountaineers, so I negotiated with my consul colleagues, as I thought it would be useful for the Mountaineers and the Turkish government to send large ships to bring up the Mountaineers, and the Pasha had shared this view with others against his will, I think that what encouraged him to do so is the financial considerations, where the deportation process will bring him a significant financial advantages. Now, when he is placed in a difficult situation between the harassment of Mr. Barutse on one hand, and clean up the city from the Mountaineers on the other hand, in addition to the desire of the Sultan to deport them from Trabzon, the Pasha, as it is said had written to Constantinople to send large ships to transport the Mountaineers directly from the Circassian coasts to Varna. I will convey immediately to Your Excellency the new developments. -------------------- Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1114, for .8-10
4, March, 1864 A letter by General Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich, addressed to the Minister of War regarding the completion of settlement of mountain slopes, and on the success of the Dokhoskoju and Dakobeskoju Battalions’ operations. Handwriting on the document Written by His Majesty Signed Lt. Gen. Milutin 14, March. I hope that Your Excellency would kindly convey to His Majesty the Emperor, that the task entrusted to the Caucasus Army on the settlement of foothills of the Western part of the Caucasus Mountains has been successfully concluded. As the area from the Northern slope until Labe River, and the Southern slope from the Kuban until the former Fort VellamenusKoju had been cleansed of the hostile population to us. The large Shaparov tribe with the exception of that part of them who were deported to the Kuban has moved to Turkey. The Abzakh were pressed by the military stations of the Cossacks, and were separated from the mountains by factions of our military, which they are in a situation that they cannot respond to our demands, and during the month of February, they have left their villages to the last person with their families and their properties to the areas that have been allocated to them, and part of them were deported to the plains of the Kuban, and another part were deported to Turkey. In the second half of the month of February, the Dakhoviskojo Regiment Forces, and Jobskojo Regiment led by Lieutenant General Baron Evdokimov to move into the upper reaches of Pshish River and Psekups River through the main Caucasus Mountains range to Tuapse Valley. Despite all the difficulties we have encountered, including the accumulation of snow, our military convoy arrived on 23, February to Tuapse boundaries, and has stationed at the former Fort Valyamenovsko, and we lost 2 dead and 3 wounded. And all the tribes from Tuapse until Pseh Zwabseh River had been fully subjected, and all cleansed areas, whether from the North or the South of the mountain chain, they will be served by the Cossack military stations with the beginning of the spring, and areas allocated for this purpose had been identified. -------------------- Archive Me Go - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1114, for .3, 4.
13, March, 1864 Of the letter by the Chief of General Staff of the Caucasus Army, directed to the Russian envoy to Turkey in regard to the deportation of the indigenous people from their lands in the Western Caucasus, and the resettlement of the Cossacks in those lands. Confidential ... That Abzakh who were besieged in the areas located from the Eastern and Western borders of the Cossack stations between Pshish River and Shekepsho River, which are separated from the mountainous areas by factions of our military forces, were forced to declare their submission in accordance with the terms of Baron Evdokimov in early February. They left their homes and places of their presence in the Mountainous Straits and moved with their families and their properties to the places that have been allocated to them, in preparation for transferring part of them to areas beyond the Kuban, and the other part to transport them to Turkey. In the previous Autumn 30 thousand souls of Shabsough of both sexes were deported to the left bank of the Kuban River, and had been placed at the disposal of our military forces administration, as for what was left of them, we had deported them to Turkey, and some of them gathered near the sea coast near the Psehzwapseh River. Because of the stringent measures taken by our forces in Tuapse, it forced all remaining Shabsough to submit total subjugation without conditions and they applied to let them go to Turkey. And therefore not a single Mountaineer had remained in the territories located Northwest of the Caucasus Mountains, and concerning the areas on the Southern slope along the sea coast of the Gulf of Novorasesskoy all the way to Tuapse, it has been cleansed of all population, and the Cossack inhabitants will be resettled in these areas at the beginning of Summer, in addition to all areas situated in the North Slope. As for the Mountaineers who did not admit subjugation, some of the Ubykh and of small tribes (Bekho and Akhshebio and so on) have remained and who are living in the Upper side of Bzyb River and Mazimta River, and their total is no more than 20 thousand families. We will send them from all sides, all the forces available from our side at the present time, and in any case we expect to carry out landing operation from the sea side. The Mountaineers know our intentions towards them and they realize the impossibility of resisting such a strong blow. They are willing to yield, but our core of our condition to declare submit is to move to areas located within the inner side of the Kuban, but they expressed their desire to move to Turkey. Our only request from the senior commandants is to allow the resettlement of Russian Cossacks along the Eastern coast line of the Black Sea until Bzyb River that is to the borders of Abkhazia. The time remaining for the end of the war depends on how long the remaining knowing the time required to deport Mountaineers to Turkey, which is providing necessary transportation means for their deportation. Recognizing the importance of completing this matter as quickly as possible, His Majesty the Emperor, the Chief in Command ordered the hiring of all available marine transportation means to transport the Mountaineers to Turkey, as well as the rental of one or two ferries from Russian sea shipping companies. If necessary, it is possible to use the Russian military transport ships. But before beginning this procedure, His Majesty the Emperor wants to know the possibility of facing difficulties by the Turkish government, when the Mountaineers are moved on board the Russian military transport ships or on the private ferries had been chartered by the government. Please inform us about places and points that deportees can be sent to, in preparation for deportation. For us, the place is best suited for that is to send them to Trabzon, because of its proximity to our coastlines. -------------------- Government Archives - St. Petersburg, Archive main 1-2, 1863, up .19, for the .28-30.
18, March, 1864 Letter of the Deputy Russian Consul in Trabzon Moshanina addressed to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army, Kartsovo regarding suspicious activities of Mr. Barutse and the English, French, and Austrian Consuls, and for the immediate restarting transporting the Circassians and places of their resettlement. I had the honor in my last letter of informing Your Excellency about the arrival of Dr. Barutse, and the first action he adopted was the prevention of ferries to sail to bring the deportees several days before the arrival of the Prussian Consul here, where has received a letter from his embassy that contained the following:? The Austria, English, and Italian consuls have received the same instructions. Also, these instructions in addition to the report of the Commission of quarantine in Trabzon have been sent to Khalil Pasha, Head of Quarantine in Constantinople, where a detailed view had demonstrated the indifference and deficiency of Emine Mukhles Pasha, all have thought that the priority of Mr. Barutse are Circassians and the city of Trabzon, but he did not do anything useful thing to them or to the city. As Mr. Barutse operates independently of Mr. Chever, and as one of the French nationals, and the doctor of the French Embassy in Constantinople, he did not until now get to know anybody, and his work was limited only to visit the places where there are Circassians, and he held several meetings with the Pasha and give some orders relating to public health, but not any noticeable improvements has occurred, this matter has drawn the attention of the Quarantine Administration in Constantinople. Among the measures taken by Mr. Barutse, the expulsion of all Mountaineers from the city to the outskirts of the area of Combos, Saradzih and Anchakalleh, and these areas are known for with them a bad idea about Mr. Barutse, and they believe that he received prior to departure from the Turkish government or from the French government instructions to defend the Pasha, if possible, from Consuls attack, and in order not to raise suspicions, he was placed under the protection of the French Consul, that can to rely on and who is considered a friend of the Pasha. With regard to my opinion, according to the actions of Mr. Barutse, that he had received instructions to stop the deportation of Circassians. Because of the strong relationship with Mr. Chaver and his avoiding the acquaintance with the other consuls leads me to think that he was sent here by the French government for the same purpose, which was Bodayski sent for in the past, as well as the machinations of the French consulate clerk - we had exposed - who has presented himself as a doctor, it is clear that the purpose behind all this at the present time can be: trying to keep the Circassians in the Caucasus in the light of political developments in Europe. In any case, I have developed for myself a major task that is to block the measures drawn up by Mr. Barutse on deportation of Mountaineers. And the captains of the ferries are not satisfied with the decision to prevent them from sailing to our shores, and it was easy to give them a tip in the fear that they would go to the Pasha to make a complaint to him about turning them away from sailing. Three days later, they were allowed to sail to fetch the Circassians, provided they do not bring in large numbers, and this confirms the ineffectiveness of instructions of Mr. Barutse especially that of his powers to stop sailing terms of ferries, and he could count on to help of all consuls to achieve that. In any case, the ferries set sail again to get the deportees and their number is 32 ferries; however difficulties still face us, especially with regard to quarantine. Who resides in Trabzon, and sees how the implementation of quarantine measures, will be simply convinced that such measures were not taken to protect the city from the so-called infectious diseases, but has been taken as a measure against us. Currently, 54 ferries were put in quarantine in a state of waiting, and no certificates were issued to them, stating that they are free of diseases and/or to be placed in quarantine. I can give you examples of violation of this quarantine on a daily basis and even by the authorities, as well as examples about filth that plague the city and its inhabitants. The consulate of the Empire is interested in sending ferries, and if conditions remain as it is today, I hope that does not stop the process of deportation. 55 ferries have arrived during recent days with 14 thousand passengers onboard, most of them are of Shabsough, and the ferry (Khadasti - Bakhri) has come back, that I sent earlier having one thousand persons on board. Out of these numbers, three thousand people had been sent onboard eight ferries to Samson in addition to one thousand to Varna, therefore the total amount of Caucasian deportees who are residing around Trabzon at the present time, more than twenty thousand people, but who arrived from the Caucasus during the month of November has numbered forty thousand people. The cost of providing sustenance for all Circassians, costs the Turkish government, according to the accounts of the official officer, 1000 Majidi Golden Pounds a day. The cost of the bread alone is 20 thousand Piasters per day, for feeding the deported people, who reside in Trabzon and its environs. I will go within coming few days to Krasnod and Samson to collect accurate information about the existing maritime transport available there to study the possibility of validity to bring Mountaineers. Note: During this week, some Poles have arrived from Sochi, including the French Divokte, and regardless of the quarantine of 15 days and the instructions of Mr. Barutse, he immediately met with the Pasha, he immediately met with the Pasha, and also he met with the French and Italian Consuls. I learned that the Europeans, who were present with the Ubykh, became worried about the situation became frustrated and ha low morale, and that raised concern of my colleagues mentioned above, who have become aspirants to: 1. Suspension of deportation 2. In the case of the inability to achieve this, to send a number of Mountaineers to Varna and Samson to train them and then the formation of military settlements of them along our borders, and to achieve this mission, the government can request the assistance of the famous Fayez Pasha. The Arzynjana Infantry Battalion has arrived here yesterday, and the objective of their arrival is unknown, where currently 1500 individuals of infantry, Calvary, and artillery reside in Trabzon, and today, the Cruiser that is present here has sailed, and was said that it sailed for the purpose of interception and detention of the ferries that do not hold licenses from the Department of Quarantine and others say that it sailed to bring the Turkish Empire’s Commissioner Rida – Bim. --------------------
Government Archives - Georgia, P .416, and by .3, b .1114, for the .11-14