Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Documents 101 - 150

November 22, 1851
A Letter from the commander of forces Zavadovski to Lieutenant General Rashpilya on the acceptance of the Shabsough Oath.

As a result of the report by your Excellency, dated November 17th No.4031, in which you permitted the Shabsough who did not take the oath yet, but their situation applies to the article, to participate in the negotiations, who reside on the Rivers: Anthire, Bogundyre, ABIN, and part of Gaple. In doing so the following must be performed:
1) The people mentioned above should take the oath in the appropriate form
2) They should offer reliable levy, not a person from every hundred but a person from every family.
3) Require the conquered to:
- Live peacefully and in no case should they act against us in any hostile way
- Not to accept any fugitives and turn them in immediately
- Not to tolerate nor recognize the power of any people like Haji Mohammad, Selmen Efendi, or Mohammed Amin - Not to participate in any way with a rival tribe or disobedient other tribes in any attack against us.
And then after the Shabsough listed above and the ones residing on the four rivers take the oath and offer levy, we will allow them to sell salt at 28 Silver Koubek(1) per 1 Pood(2) and the trade to take place at the center of Novoekaterinovsk or Olginsk, or any other place you find appropriate until the permission to open special place for trade or free trading.
I would be waiting for the orders of your Excellency on this subject in general and on the amount of salt in particular that must be submitted by the newly subjected, and the arrangement that should be carried out.
RGVIA, f. 13454, op. 2, D. 562, L. 5, 6.

Document 102

29 February 1852.
Report of the Chief of the right wing in the Caucasus Major General Evdokimov, to the Chief of Staff of troops in the Caucasus Major General Gerasimov on the population of in the conquered Temryuk Villages and on Fort Okop
According to VP report of January 30 number 334, I have the honor to submit the number of souls of both sexes that were embedded in the conquered Temryuk Villages of princes: Aslannbek and Kairbeka Bolotuk, also Princess Kasay. Also on the population of Aytek Bolotok, later on I will present a list with the number of souls of both sexes in Prince Bolotuk and Princess Kasay Villages who came to us from the mountains declaring their submission to the Russian Authority. The number of Souls Male Female Prince Aslannbek and Prince Kairbeka 604 390
Villages from the Temryuk Tribe Princess Kasay Villages 279 268 ---------------------------------------------------------------- Total 883 658
RGVIA, f.14257, op. 3, d. 380, 10-11.L. 5, 6.

Document 103

1852 - Statement on the population of the subjected Khamesh and Cherchen villages (indicating the number of people who took the oath and the amount of salt released)
Number of souls of both sexes Tribe Villages
Number of souls who took the oath
Khamesh Village- Sultan Selat Gireya
Saltuk Village- Second Lieutenant Misost Gadjemuk
Gadjegabl- Second Lieutenant Beyslan Ulook
Kozet- Second Lieutenant Tleusten Inarmys
Small Enem- Second Lieutenant Nauruz & Nobleman Muhamet Shumanukoa
Bjegakay- Second Lieutenants Aslan Gireya & Alkezy Boegako
Number of souls of both sexes
Tribe Villages
Number of souls who took the oath
All these villages
Enem - Nobleman Tatlusten Shumanukoa
Tohtomukay - Nobleman Geyslan Tohtomuk
Kushmezukay - Nobleman Pshemafa Kuchmazuk
Shenjou - Nobleman Tarkana Kosoqua
Shagandukay - Nobleman Huseyn Shagandokoa
Tarkanohabl - Duke Kochejuka Tarkan
Number of souls of both sexes Tribe Villages
Number of souls who took the oath
Tugurukay - Haji Gatuzuk Tuguruk
Hatugabl - Nobleman Selim Cheriya Hatuga
Lakshukay- Nobleman Beytluksten Lakshuka
Sentez- Nobleman Abadzejih Sentezy
Krymcheriegabl- Second Lieutenant Prince Injar Krymcheriok
Gadzhegabl - Second Lieutenants Prince Djanklish Gadjiyem
Pshegatlukay- Nobleman Pshemafa Psheshtluk
Krshcheriegabl-Duke Ebich Kremcherioka
Chercheney- Nobleman Zaurbek Berzech
Did not take the Oath
Shebanogabl- Second Lieutenant Magomchery Ahedjakoa
Did not take the Oath
Vochepshi- Nobleman Vosmen Vochepshi
Shagancheriegabl- Duke Abadzejiy Shagancheriy & Nobleman Bogos Tauy
Necherezi- Nobleman Shapsough Besmok
Neshukay- Noblemen Muhamet and Shurukh Neshukoa
Shagancheriegabl 2nd
Asakalay 1st- Nobleman Aslancheriy Asakal
Asakalay 2nd- Nobleman Pshemafa Asakal
Emzukay- Nobleman Kremcheriy Afanuk
Essenogabl- Nobleman Pshemafa Chasebiy
Gobukay- Nobleman Hokuza Ali Chesebiy
Teteregabl- Nobleman Djambulat Chisebiy
Tsitse Gobukay- Nobleman Alkas Cheoebiy
Ponejukay- Duke Tatlusten Elbuzdok
Berzechegabl- Nobleman Pshekuh Berzech
Dedjegabl- Duke Tatlusten Dzhedzhokoa
Konchukogabl and Anchokuaj- Duke Pshemafa Konchukoa
Aladjuka Ahedjakoa
PshekuyGabl- Duke Bichmerza Ahedzhakoa
Konchukogabl- Duke Misheost Konchukoa
Kazaychukay- Nobleman Kazanoka Abadzesh
Edipsukay 1st- Nobleman Magomcheriy Batok
Edipsukay 2nd- Tulpar Batoko
(or Tumpar)
Gobukay- Noblemen Dekuz Boronuk and Shumaf Dekuz
Gatukay- Second Lieutenant Prince Yandarze Kerkanukoa
Duke Pshemafa Kerkanukoa
Corvine- Duke Tatlusten Kerkanukoa
Duke Hatauzuk Kerkanukoa
Shapsoughesk- Nobleman Tremeshet Sheretluk
Temergoevsk- Duke Aytech Bolotuk
Abadzehsk- Nobleman Mahmet Selat
Cheriok adigeh
Total Oaths : 1386
Released Salt: for Adults 10321
for Young 1333
Total 11654
Amount of salt earned for 11654 people is:
824 Pood(1) and 2 ½ pounds a month
è in one year 9888 Pood(1) and 30 Pounds
State Archive of the Krasnodar region, f. 261, op. 1, d. 1263, L. 3-6.
(1) Pood: Old Russian weighing unit that equals 16.38048 Kilograms

Document 104

1852 - A list of the numbers of peaceful neighborhoods within the area covered by Section I of the Black Sea border stations
Neighborhoods and their owners
Number of Souls of both genders
From 1yr to 10yrs
10yrs & up
At distances up to Voronezh
1)Prince Pshemafa Kerkenuh
2)Prince Yandara Kerkenuh
3)Vorony-Prince Patlustan Kerkenuh
4)Gobukay-Nobleman Dekuchiy Baronuk
5)Nobleman Shumafa Dekuchiya
6)Kanchukohabl-Prince Misost Konchukoa
up to Konstantinovsky
7)Nobleman Zaurbek Berchecha
8) Konchukogabl and Anchokokuabl- Prince Pshemafa Konchukoa
9)Echizhukay- Nobleman Mogamcheriy Botakoa
10)Hanh Habl-Sultan Kaplancheriy
Beyond Alexandrisk
11)Dzhebolegabl- Tatlustan Dzhedonokoa
12)Necherecht- Nobleman Shapsuga Bechemoka
13)Touy- Nobleman Bogas Tiuy
14)Prince Aladonuk Ahedonakob
15)Echizhukay- Nobleman Tulpar Gatokob
Beyond Malolagernoy
16)Magamcheriegabib (Chagall)- First Duke Abidoniya Shaganchirioka
Total of all neighborhoods
State Archive of the Krasnodar region, f. 261, op. 1, d. 1263, l. 17
Document 105
November 20, 1852.
A list of the numbers of peaceful neighborhoods within the area covered by Section II of the Black Sea border stations
Neighborhoods and their owners
Number of Souls of both genders
From 1yr to 10yrs
10yrs & up
Tlostengabl - Sultan Sagat-Girey
Soltuk- Second Lieutenant Mishsosta Gad-yasemukoa
Kozet-Second Lieutenant Tleusten
Natasa- Second Lieutenant and Nobleman Mohamed
Bzhegokay- Second Lieutenan Alkas and As-
Langer Bzhegako
Note: Since the following neighborhoods and their owners: Enem, nobleman Tleostena Shumanukova; Tohtanukay, nobleman Beysmana Toh-tonuk; Kushmezukay and Shenzhi, nobleman Tarkana Kusaka, Sha-gandukay, nobleman Husein Shagadyukova; Tarkminogabl, knya ¬ Gia Konchezhuka Tarkanova; Tugurogay, Haji Gatuguzuk Tuguru a; Hatugabl, nobleman Selim Nigeria Hapira; Sentezi, Dvoryanina A'badzezhiya Senteziya; Krymcheriegabl, Prince Inzha Mr. Krymcherioka; Gadzhegabl, Prince Dzhenklisha Gadzhemuko; Gatlukay, nobleman Dzhambulata Chigalashtoka; Pshetlu-kai, nobleman Pshezhafa Pngagatlukaya ; Marzhukay and Krymcheriegabl, Prince Edicha Krymcherioka, are in a remote distance from our border, so it is not possible to acquire information about people.
Head of Section II of the Black Sea border stations, Lieutenant General Rashpilya
State Archive of the Krasnodar region, f. 261, op. 1, d. 1263, l. 23 m. 24.
Document 106
1852 November 20
A Decree of the right-wing leader of the Caucasian front line Evdokimov. E. to the chief of the Black Sea border stations Colonel Kukharenko on banning the Hatoqai neighborhoods to situate between Laba and Belaya Rivers, and to ban their use of the land. Fort Brochwi Okop Confidential
According to known information, the Boron neighborhoods of Hatoqai who settled on the right side of Belaya River are still settled there. Taking into consideration the aggravated desire of the Caucasian Chief of Staff of the Black Sea front in his declaration dated January 2, 1851 No. 3, that the area between the Rivers Laba and Belaya is not to be inhabited not even with the Tribes that made peace with us, and that the mountaineers may never make use of any of those lands. So I have the honor to request respectfully a declaration that contains the approval for those Hatoqai villages to remain on the right side of the Belaya River, and whether the Black Sea border stations are informed about them. Also acquiring a report that includes the number of souls of both sexes of the Boron villages, if known. State Archive of the Krasnodar region, f. 261, op. 1, d. 1277, L. 12.

Document 107

January 19, 1853
Report from the Chief of the right wing in the Caucasus Major General Evdokimov to Colonel Kukharenko for information on sending troops beyond the Kuban River for a joint attack with the Black Sea Costal Troop against the Mountaineers
From the Information I received, I learned about the mutual agreement between your highness and Vice Admiral Serebriakov about sending the entrusted Black Sea Troops beyond the Kuban River to launch attacks against the mountaineers in accordance with Black Sea Coastal Troop.
So if this information is correct, I have the honor to request information about your scheme and when exactly will you be sending the assigned squad beyond the Kuban River to accomplish your intensions.
It is necessary for me to obtain that information, for my own thoughts and suggestions on whether to make a move now in accordance with the movements of the Black Sea Costal Troops.
State Archive of the Krasnodar region F. 261, op. 1, d. 1277, L. 15

Document 108

18 October 1853
Kerch- Decree of the Black Sea Coastline Commander Admiral Serebriakov to the commander of the Black Sea border stations on the mobilization of troops in the second half of November to conduct joint operations against the Natokhawaj. Confidential
After viewing your Excellency’s response no. 6709 dated 10th October, it is clear that the operations carried out by the military troops of your division will continue until November 2nd, and considering that it would be difficult to reassemble the troops for action after being dismissed to launch joint attacks with the Coastal troop during the first half of the same month. So according to my assumptions which I included in the report sent to the General Commander of the Caucasian Frontline and the Black Sea Troops dated 11th of October no. 162, attaching the report to this letter sent to your Excellency dated 12th of the same month, I have the honor to respectfully ask not to object to my request of mobilizing a detachment of troops entrusted by your Excellency, for another period of time, the second half of November, to include 4 battalions and 200 soldiers with artilleries for joint operations with the Coastal Frontline Troops, but if circumstances allowed me to act against the Natokhawaj as I will not be able to inform your Excellency in advance.
State Archive of the Krasnodar region, f. 261, op. 1, d. 1414, l. 20.

Document 109

22 October 1854
Fort Brochwi Okop- From the Chief of the right wing Major-General Evdokimov to the chief of the Black Sea border stations Colonel Kukharenko on their invasion of Klyche neighborhood of the Hatoqai Tribe.
As a response to your Excellency’s reply dated October 16th No. 171. I have the honor to inform you that on the 19th of October I lead the troop-after crossing Belaya River- that attacked and destroyed John Klyche neighborhood of the Hatoqai Tribe. I Found people in total inadvertency so we were able to put our hands on all the cattle and property, and whose who were unable to escape in the dense forest were killed. And although I was two days away from the destroyed neighborhood, the enemy did not take any action against me. A large number of the Faction sent by the troops to burn the Hatoqai grain and fodder between the Belaya and Pshish Rivers had surrendered. The enemy pursued me weakly for a very short distance; today I’ve reached Tenginskui and I will release the Faction. Most probably, that the Black Sea Troop’s position at Konstanti Novska Station paralyzed the enemy, forcing him to be suspecious of an attack from the Nizhny Kuban(Lower Kuban)Side, which allowed me to accomplish my task with great success.
State Archive of the Krasnodar region, f. 261, op. 1, d. 1414, l. 23.

Document 110

February 1857
Report from the Staff Colonel of the 19th Infantry Regiment Kroyefus to the disciplinary Black Sea Cossack Force Commander, offering a View on Major General Wolf’s notes about the system of military operations in the Caucasus.
The current General Chief of Staff annexed notes made by Major General WOlf dated January 25 No. 144, which included a study of the current military system of operations and the anticipation on the future operations in the Caucasus, so that it would be understood.
Appointed by Lieutenant General Kozlovsky –I have the honor to present a copy of those notes for your Excellency to be informed.
State Archive of the Krasnodar region, f.347, op.2, d.31, l.1 Document 111
February 1857, Summery of Major-General Wolf’s memoirs on the subject of military operations in the Caucasus -
The system used so far in the ongoing operations in the Caucasus, the general principles and the general idea are led by two Generals, Yermelov and Villiaminov as first leaders that had taken decisive actions against the Mountaineers, and exemplified in remaining still in the Plains through the construction of forts or subject communities living in these places to the authority of the Russian authorities by force of arms, and not to go in depth into the mountains, not to distract our power, and to be satisfied to extend our influence in the mountains, through the political relations with influential people there, and to support or establish of a local authority of land-owners loyal to us, whose their successors, with some exceptions, have reached the same conclusion gradually, and after their study to the ongoing war here. But of course as we proceed forward, our knowledge of the region increases closer and closer, and time has ensured to change a lot in regards to our dealings with the Mountaineers, this system had developed more and completed did not change in terms of the basic foundations, but in repeated applications. Our efforts have been made wise to achieve the goal specified in advance. Extreme deviation from acts such as those, which had occurred at different times and its consequences have demonstrated the need to return to the real beginning of the Caucasus war, which can be expressed in words:
Owning the plains and have an impact in the mountains.
With respect to owning the plains, the experience of long years has proved that the separation of flat areas from the mountains, which was supposed to have been done from the beginning with small forts near each other, constructed at the exits of the valleys for the intention of so-called: The risk of airtight of the enemy in the mountains, this idea is not achieved which leads to a useless and harmful distraction to our troops, and that it is more useful to construct few strong forts that are able to absorb numbers of the reserve soldiers, with quick movement capability and of significance, in addition to their absorption of garrisons and to pave roads through the woods to the most important fighting destinations, the establishment of good communications and settlement of Cossack villages on these front lines or beyond according to regions, and thus through that we will be able to pass through there plains from anywhere we want at any time of the year and to force the non-subjugated population either to subjugate or expulsion to the mountains, and in the second case we would have been dramatically narrowed on the communities living there.

Impact we can produce in the mountains would be through: First: After taking the possession of the plains firmly, which through that the Mountaineers will be denied of their best farms, grazing lands and a lot of ways of their survival and thus, we make them subordinate to us. Second: By our proceeding towards the foothills of the mountains, it will be easier for us to pursuit closure of the crossings and to set venues of communications at the most important valleys in order to give our forces a chance to enter the mountains and as an instrument to punish the close mountainous non-subjugated communities, and to keep those communities in a state of uninterrupted fear from our weapons and perhaps digging in at several stations at the slopes of the mountains, we prevent the revolution of many of the tribes and we limit the disobedience of some of them within the limits that do not constitute any danger to us, to suppress small communities that will defend their independence in some valleys, and will not require any extraordinary means until the authority of the government in the Caucasus have been established.

This is an expression of the form of our operations in the last two decades from the year 1832 when our general efforts to subdue the Mountaineers had started, but during the first decade of this period, which is from the year 1832 to the year 1842, it was not possible to possess the flat areas firmly because of the lack of capabilities except of what began of resettlement of very small numbers at Labenski frontline. As for our overall and organized efforts to confirm our presence in the Plains, that began in the year 1845 only. It is therefore to assess gains and losses of the method used, we should contemplate in the way it was application, especially in the last decade on our various frontlines.

The situation of the right wing of the Caucasus front line - The most important project we have done on the right wing of the Caucasus front-line is the establishment of Labenski frontline, which was initiated in the year 1839. And to inhibit it with two Regiments of Cossacks, that is the vast swaths of land that we extorted from the population beyond Kuban between the rivers of Kuban and Laba and we did hide the back-line in a safe place between the middle and south parts of Kuban, and we prepared ourselves for more foundation profiting for future operations. But unfortunately to carry out this work did not go in accordance with the insightful draft of General Villiaminov, who was convinced that they should not House the Cossacks on the front lines before they prepare the country that the matter will be occurring at, and before the enemy is grabbed from there, and before securing the new residents in a good form, for the wings of the front line and its rear side. For this, he has been assumed to perform this project after the construction of a line of fortifications between the northern part of both Kuban and Laba rivers at the exits of the key valleys of the mountains, and the placing of a sufficient number of reserve forces on that line and forcing the neighboring tribes to submit, or to empty territory the whole sensing, and so we will put our hands on all areas mentioned and we would secure the Karachay and Kslovorsk line completely as there is no more rest of cross-connections line between the supposed mentioned Kuban and Laba and so it will make us able to cut the road to the upper side of the first river on the enemy. But, since the achievement of this assumption would require a lot of time and very serious means, so by the death of General Villiaminov, the Commander of the right wing, then has preferred to start the establishment of a line from the middle and the center of Laba in order to expedite the matter, and by this form, 24 forts had been gradually constructioned at this Line and for communications with Kuban and 14 Cossack villages have been resettled on Laba, Chalmyk and Urup rivers, and from the year 1852 to the year of 1854 five more villages of low-lying areas of the first river have been resettled, in which the Second Cossack Infantry Battalion has been consisted of, but to the fact that villages are sprawling over large areas very far from each other prevented them from being impervious line and made it unable to give mutual assistance to each other in a timely manner, and since the distance between the upper parts of the Kuban and Laba rivers were not occupied by us, the hostile population who were nesting there, were launching raids continuously in that direction, they need the new settlers, which led to fatigue of Labenski Regiments of heaviness of service and the ongoing warnings, and lacked due to looting of their property and suffered exorbitant losses the fall behind in terms of prosperity and War organization from the First Snezhinsk Regiment, although the latter have been resettled on the front lines in later time from the first. As a result, they tried to fix this deficiency by building forts and the new centers and strengthening of the cavalry forces and infantry reserves especially by building Fort Nezhinskoy (in the year 1843) on River Kevar, and the separation center on Zelenchuk, but a single incomplete castle was not to bring a lot of benefits, our forces were largely dispersed in order to provide protection to all centers and villages that we occupy to the degree that we could not focus on any task force of significance , not for vital offensive operations and not in order to achieve the assumptions General Velyamenov order to enhance our situation on Labenski line.

That forced disorder from us, allowed Mohammed Amin to strengthen his influence on the Abzakh, Shabsough and the rest of the communities living beyond the Kuban and the development of the beginning of the impact on these societies. The basis for this effect was the unity of the rights of all classes of people and crushing groups with privileges such as princes and nobles. His plans have received barriers in the spirit of the people themselves, as the custom of the Mountaineers in the lack of agreement between the interests of individuals and groups, but by the way, using negotiations and force of arms, he was able by using his authority to conquer all the tribes beyond the Kuban with the exception of Naghwey and some of the Beslen residents, as of the Kuban, Bashilbay and residents of neighborhoods, Kabardians residing near our forts.

The growing authority of Mohammed Amin and his intentions with Shamil to work together to spread disobedience among the tribes subjugated to us and uniting Dagestan, Chechnya and the Region beyond Kuban in a single political mass, proved to our leaders the necessity to pursuit decisive actions without delay to prevent the implementation of those very tendentious intentions, by subordinating or exclusion of the population hostile to us from our borders in which Abzakh form the main riot force. In order to achieve this goal, in the year 1849, adoption of strengthening the forces of the right wing with reserves from other centers as possible and to take a step forward by the construction of a strong fortress on the right bank of Laba River and a bridge to cross the river.

At the beginning, Maykop valleys and Kordugen valleys connecting point for that purpose and building the fort in the heart of the rich Abkhaz who enjoy large numbers was to force them either to veer away or to subjugate. But the Commander of the Caucasus Front forces then, acknowledged that the preoccupation with that point where we could most likely meet with stiff resistance from the enemy, will require much more means than can be granted, and preferred to relocate the location of the fort to the depressions of Belaya River amid a broad and open plain and it brings the benefit of building it that it wrested from the enemy a great line of land located between the depressions of this river and Laba River, and offered us the possibility of launching attacks against Abkhaz more often and with more comfort, but could not restrain them, as was assumed from the location of Maykop valleys and thus did not force them into submission. After that, the Interim Forces were returned to support the right wing of the main operations’ theater against Shamil.

- Status of Black Sea coastal front line - Building a row of coastal forts on the coast of the Black Sea in the places most suitable for the anchoring of vessels (from the year 1836 to the year 1840) passage of Black Sea marine fleets to the seas on a permanent basis, especially battleships of Azov Cossacks closer and adjacent to the shore, and who suspended in recent years almost all their trade and political ties with the Turks, the inhabitants of the coast, and stopped to sell prisoners of war and the delivery of arms and war supplies to them and made them entirely subordinate to us, in regard to terms of access to many of the necessities of life, especially salt. Those results were beneficial to us because of that procedure, but many losses were incurred as a result from the actual establishment of the line, as the serious blockade requires that the Azov Cossacks roam near the coasts and therefore, that requests the establishment of forts on close distances for their boats to find shelter in case of bad weather, and that has forced us on dispersal of our forces to the point that 16 Battalions of the line and sometimes enforced with other forces were deploying each Company on its own or every half a Battalion at a distance of 350 Ferst of small forts and they were almost all the time in the status of siege. Some forts, for example, Anapa fort, Novorossiysk and Sukhumi-Kala that were renamed according to the names of cities, were very large to the extent that the protection of each respective one requests two or three battalions. Because of that we stayed here over the past 15 years in which nearly all of it was in a defensive status and we could not collect a strong Division enough to do some separate offensive operations, but if were not for the subjugation its for weakening the resistance of the adjacent tribes and in order to make them feel the force of Russian weapons.

Missions that were taken yearly with units that are not large to Anapa and Novorossiysk against Natokhawaj were not useless, by attracting this tribe more and more for peaceful relations with us and our work to maintain calm in the small space that we occupy in the region. And sometimes offensive operations were conducted with little more numbers, especially by the coastal front line, the Black Sea forces and the right wing, but such short-term campaigns, were not to have important effects, because the teams were not able to go deeper into the region because of their numbers, and they had to return quickly to their front every time because of the absence of presence of any reserve forces there. It was most effective as a result of opening a good way from Novorossiysk to the valley of Neperdjai and to cut forest corridors in the valleys of Adagum and Bakansk and in the famous Setwadzi forest, and the chance has opened for direct contact from the coastal front-line through Abenskoy fortress to Olgeinsk. In Kuban to take the first step to establish a front-line, this would change our situation entirely in the territory beyond Kuban (5). The other good thing that has been implemented from the year 1846 to the year 1853 was the re-construction of the coastal forts gradually by the use of stones, and this procedure reduces somewhat the need for troops to protect and it secures protection for the garrison of any surprise attack by the enemy, but did not rule out the inadequacy of the front- line for the many centers which we occupy.

It is understood that our defensive situation was not to hinder the intentions of Mohammed Amin, one of the most important commanders of Mountaineers in the region beyond the Kuban, who began as an agent under the command of Shamil then ended up to be an independent commander maintaining his relations with Imam of Dagestan on an ongoing basis to conduct joint operations against us. He continued to strengthen his influence among Natokhawaj, Shabsough and Ubykh, making them more and more compliant to his authority and furthest from relations of peace with us. His armed forces increased in a significant manner, even his groups were reaching Abkhazia, sweeping villages adjacent to the border several times and when he broke into the Association of War front (in the years 1851 and 1852) completely looted and forced them to rebel and to move away to the mountains, with the exception of few part of the population who found a haven in our forts.

Conclusion drawn from the results of our military operations that took place in the Caucasus for 25 years: From this presentation of the course of our military operations show that our front-lines are not finally organized yet, even we did not prove our existence on all plains yet, as been indicated, we have to extract from the Mountaineers all the flat places to inflict a serious damage on the enemy to exhaust its forces, and ultimately, where it would allow us, we have to direct all our strength to those targeted places for several successive years steadily and our success would have been guaranteed. If the overall result of long years of conflict and a lot of sacrifices do not coincide fully with all expectations, and if our operations move slowly in some places and if we even have failed in others, we should be aware that our incomplete and non-connected with each other front-lines, were not to provide us with the suitable circumstances to be the fruits of our good beginnings, that are concrete fully and the enemy would have been reached to the extreme degree of harassment.

- Opinions about the future of military operations on the right wing of the Caucasus Front, and the best organization of the right wing of the Caucasus Front: here, to our knowledge, it has been currently initiated for implementing a presumption extremely efficient and exemplified to move the far-left border outposts from Greater Laba to Minor Laba where its situation will be better from all aspects in an incomparable form. If fast return of the forces has taken place from the right wing for the sake of actual war, and supported with four other Battalions, then it will be possible to initiate the implementation of the other assumption, which is to establish a fortified line that connects between the upper side of Kuban and Laba Rivers Nicolayvski Centre (on the Kuban) to the end of the new line in Minor Laba. There are no comfortable transversal contacts between the mountainous valleys, higher than the mentioned, and therefore with our occupation to it strictly, we will cut off on the population beyond the Kuban their passage into Karachay or to the territory of the Labensk Regiments. And for that, we must build a bridge on Kuban River at the center of Nikolayevsk and two strong forts (one on Mourakh River and another on Urup) where sufficient number of infantry and cavalry reserve will be stationed, and three fortified and dividing centers, and by building Tadeogenskoi Fort in a center as well. In the meantime it is necessary to prepare good contacts and to construct wide corridors in the required forests.

For this line, Labenski Cossack Third Regiment must be housed in the good places, which were previewed. The savage tribes, which cannot be trusted, which are living on the slopes of the black mountains, will move into the new line or be forced to stay away beyond the Belaya River.
Only then we can say that we have our feet on firm ground, on Laba and we became the real masters for the region stretching behind, and then the number of the reserve infantry stationed must be to reduced, villages of Labensk Cossack Battalions and in the fortresses of the right wing and Kislovodsk line, therefore, establishing a new front-line will not lead to the dispersal of our forces, but to concentrate them.

action will bring us more benefits of great importance and exemplified in a merger of the two battle fields which we fight in them against the Mountaineers of the Region beyond the Kuban from Chechnya to Dagestan. With that currently separate them between Great Kabarday and Ingush and Ossetian tribes who are subjugated to us. But first ones have very close links with the people beyond Kuban, and the others are dissatisfied with the war, in order to form a barrier in the face of the intentions of Shamil and Mohammed Amin, and they resent their ideas. This is evidenced by not only the continuing relationships with these two leaders but their actions prove it. For example, when Shamil infiltrated in the year 1846 to Greater Kabarday and erected a camp by Terek River, the inhabitants of those areas rose and looked forward to an outright victory of an outright by him in order to join him, at the same time when large crowds from beyond Kuban are preparing to break into Karachay, from Laba River side. However, the expected Shamil’s victory was not achieved, where we have been able thanks to the Fifth Corps, which had not been returned to Russia then, to collection sufficient numbers everywhere and forced the enemy to withdraw without defeat. In the year 1852, Shamil re-emerged accompanied by large crowds in the territory of Galachai near Gruzia combat road, and fortunately, we have been able to incision the road and cross the corridors of the valleys in Vorgangi and Assi and we were able to meet him there, even with not large number of troop. What Shamil received here, is of bad fortune, and of unfulfilled hopes that the Temryuk would go on disobedience, forced him to withdraw again and flee to the Argun’s valleys, which led to the disperse groups of beyond Kuban who had gathered at the Upper River Lapa area. In the end, in the year 1855, Mohamed Amin began the attack. He managed to break into Karachi and only thanks to the courageous and rigorous operations that stopped the Karachi disobedience in the beginning, and forced the crowd to retreat back to beyond Kuban.

All of these events prove that we did not put our foot in the region firmly enough yet, and as it should be also from both sides of the Gruzia combat road, although the intentions of the enemy in this region were not achieved at all, but it is necessary to snatch any capacity to disturb the center front line and even thinking of stirring up resentment of the population and to achieve that, it is better to slam Kabarda, the Angush and Ossetian communities. This is why the utmost importance to restrict Mohammed Amin’s storm to Kuban on one hand, and the other to destroy any influence of Shamil on mountainous regions of Minor Chechnya and on the valley between the black mountains and the snowy plateau. By establishing firmly on Labensk line, we can move forward with a decisive step without apprehension by the construction of a huge fortress on Belaya River at the confluence of Maykopsk and Korzhinsk where the richest important Abzakh live.

Seizing of this point we will master the best of their land, which with no doubt would lead to subjugate a significant number of the population and to the exclusion of the rest to the far forests of Brekobansk plain and from here it is clear to us the most useful basis for offensive operations to come.
But in order for the new fortress to achieve this task, three to four battalions and three hundred or four hundred Cossacks should be positioned in it, and must build a bridge on Belaya River to be obscured of sight, so that the mobile reserve forces will be able to disturb the neighboring localities that are not continuously dominated, and keep them more and more away from our lines. Communications must secured with Laba through two or three strong dividing centers, and in addition, it is necessary to cancel the current Pilarichenskoi fort especially as it is built in an inappropriate place and the river washes away its both banks, so that the building itself has crumbled and the bridge on Belaya River Belaya was demolished and swept away by water.

Preparation for that matter should be initiated, and to start producing wide corridors in Maykobsk and Korzhinsk valleys and on the right bank of the Laba River and if completed ... in the winter, at the same time as the deforestation start along the supposed line on Adagum River, such offensive operations in the territory beyond the Kuban on the Black Sea side and the right wing, after our compelling offensive repositioning over the actual war, will have better impact on us. With the completion of these projects the region beyond Kuban will take totally different form, just by having a small look on the map you will be sure that the tribes that don’t subdue to us have lost a great deal of their best and most fertile land, by making things difficult for them from the Adagum line and Belaya River on one side, and the scarcity of fertility of the northern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains Range from the other side and thus can not take shelter except to the forests of the plains of Brekobansk , which can not feed that large number of the population, so that we can hope that a large part of them will have to admit submission, and the others’ resistance will weaken and would become limited to a large extent, so that future operations against those communities do not require the means of redundant or extraordinary and our backup forces on all fronts would become able to relax without apprehension.

- On the coast of the Black Sea - our re-establishing of our control on the North-Eastern coast of the Black Sea and the effective and rigorous blockade to that coast by Azov Cossacks was to be very difficult, but of necessity must be satisfied for the fleet to cross the seas in the way that the new agreements allow, since the establishment of the coastal front-line on basis of past foundations, and to occupy all appropriate anchors with forts will not have the same objectives, so they would have been impossible matter, where we would have to re-occupy of those points by landing forces with divisions of significance and request that by means of marines that currently can not cope with. We must, without a waiver of this benefit, replace the other as much as possible, namely to prove our existence firmly at the ends of this region Abkhazia and on the extension between Novorossiysk and Anapa.

- The most important points on the Northern tip of the coast: Novorossiysk and Anapa. Although the Gulf of Novorossiysk does not enjoy all the benefits, which we expected and with that bushes that get and controlled sometimes make the situation here serious, but it is the best port next to Sukhum-Kala in addition, centered around a large number of the population, from there and through the main chain declining opens to us an appropriate area for contact deep in the region. Anapa must be our major focal and storage point for operations to beyond Kuban, from the coast side. Renewing forts shall be in these two points, on a very small range, at least in the first case with the not establishing more cities so that we reduce the need for garrisons to protect, and so as not to distract a large number of troops from other duties. In order to provide connections between these forts and the road leading to Kuban, forts of Gastagayvski and Rayvski must be renewed, but on a small scale as well, taking into account that they must become shortly two internal decisive guard centers, after the establishment of the front- line. Within these areas in the villages of Alexandrovskaya, Nikolayvskaia, Vityazeva, Sovorovskaya and Blagavecenskaya, so-called civil settlements beyond Kuban were resettled, which are brought these days beyond Kuban. At the present circumstances, their return to the former places of residence will be very harmful, as without strengthening of our armed forces will require a large number of troops to protect. However, it is very beneficial to exceptionally resettle Cossacks here and the preferred are the Azov Cossacks.

And the obstacles that prevented the achievement of this hypothesis for several years were resolved because of the of the troops command. And among the Cossacks there a lot of migration hunters as well.
And thus the real people behind Kuban, which they are the strong and large in number the Natokhawaj tribe will be deprived of their richest and best land, and they will have to either succumb to or to move to the depth of the country. Most probably, the neighborhoods closest to Anapa will decide on the first choice. The further ones will go to forest before Kuban and by clearing the forests for their farms, they will be working to our advantage that will be a shock far-reaching for all coastal tribes and will work to weaken the resistance Following the strict siege to the coast, paying attention in particular that the areas that will not be under our very eyes are the spaces between the stature Gagr on the former Kabardian Castle, that is the roads least appropriate from the sea into the region through the main mountain chain by the establishment of this line firmly, it will be possible to use spaces in the back, and on lands that will become empty after the uprooting of indigenous inhabitants, it will enable to settle the Cossacks of the Black Sea, the Don and the Caucasus Corps recruits with families and supporters of the service from 15 to 20 years.

To execute the estimated operations, 16 battalions will remain from the battalions of the line of the Black Sea, and if the Black Sea forces and 8 of the effective forces battalions, the matter will speed up dramatically. Of matters that are non-viable for delay, to renew three coastal castles that because those troops will be brought in from Greil, Ghor and Taman, through the rental of commercial vessels hired for work.
Krasnodar Government Territory Archive P. 347, Webcam. 2.31, l.1-19.

Document 112

April 7, 1859
The Commander of the Right-wing Forces Lieutenant-General Philipson’s Position towards issuing Permits for sending 257 Circassian families to Turkey – sent to the Commander Acting in post of the Black Sea Disciplinary Forces 257 Mountaineer families from the Circassian districts in liaison with south of the territories short the Kuban were allowed to head for Turkey, and they are going to Kerch via the territories of the Black Sea Forces in three groups, therefore, I humbly plead of Your Excellency that the Chief of the Black Sea borders section of police stations is informed to appoint 10 Cossack guards and one officer to accompany those Mountaineers during their passing and that Major Yurove -the chief of the center- is informed about their exact route to avoid any clash of any kind during the travel whether with the inhabitants of the Black Sea regions or with others.
RSMHA, f.. 14257, op. 3, d. 429, l.. 49.

Document 113

July 30, 1859
A Letter from the Commander of Forces to the Head of the Mala-Labinsk Line, including the layout of the conditions to be imposed on those who are Leaving to Turkey. The following rules have been laid concerning the expulsion of the subjugated Mountaineers:
1) They must apply for a leave to Turkey and not to immigrate, for in the latter case, their request must be denied, and it must be understood that it is not permitted by state Law, and those who allegiance to other powers will be treated as traitors in case they show up on our borders, and accordingly their properties will be confiscated and their serfs will be liberated.
2) The maximum “away period” allowed for those sent abroad is one year.
3) Those who are willing to stay for a longer period, whether because of illness or for special affairs, to request that through our Councils.
4) Any remaining period longer than the one specified, without permission, will be treated as an illegal resettlement to Turkey.
5) Those who leave to Turkey must conclude, in a proper manner, all their respective judicial and Personal affairs.
6) It is allowed for those who wish to take their family members and slaves, but are not allowed to sell those who do not wish to travel.
7) For the Mountaineers travelling abroad, not to interfere with the sale of their belongings of real estate, that are free from debts and lawsuits, and not to launch any investigation regarding the purpose behind selling their properties, and to avoid releasing any declarations in that regard.
8) The following should be declared to the all the expelled abroad:
A. They can receive their passports from the Governor of the city of Kerchinsk, the military commander of Anapa, or the Commander of Sokhumi, depending on the port that they wish to depart from.
B. They will be given a travel-pass to allow them to reach the farthest Russian port.
C. Passports are given in accordance with the time limit specified by the law, whether to Trabzon or to Istanbul. And one must appear in our embassy or consulate over there in order to receive other passports if they wish so.
D. Cutting off any financial aid disbursed from the Treasury for recipients from the date of their departure.
9) When a large number is leaving from the same region, have the police chief notify me each time with a submission of a name list of deportees in addition to a copy submitted to the Chief of Staff of the Caucasian Army with the group’s departure date determined.
10) When travelers are allowed to depart, they are required to pledge the following:
A) They will not rely in any way on financial aid from consulate, whether for travel or to support themselves, no matter how little the amount was.
B) They do not have the right to go to ports other than the three specific points: Kerch, Anapa and Sukhumi-Kale, to travel abroad.
C) For their journey through the sea, it should be done on board ships that are not prohibited, and anyone caught on board smuggling Turkish boats will be considered a traitor and will be subject to legal accountability.
11) Regarding Handling passports to the Mountaineers deported to Turkey, the Kerch Inekolec chief police have been notified to issue passports using the forms available to him in Kerch, including transit tickets, and passports for this purpose will be sent- upon my request- to the Anapa Head of military, from the civil Governor of Stavropol. And regarding the delivery of passports from Sokhumi, I have asked General Staff of the Caucasian Army to supply the necessary forms, supplying you with these regulations upon your highly respected report which I received on July 8, No. 949.
Informing you that the leader of the Bashilbay Tribe “Osalimbik Zathelog”, and with those under his authority, to seize(use) the Temporary vacation abroad, and attaching with this application a detailed information of his family an entourage, and will be immediately given passes in addition to the permission to our firs port. Arrangements have been made to return the secretariats taken from them this February, and they can receive them during their passing through the Ust-Labu(The port of Laba), as can not be to them are the secretariats cannot be returned earlier than that.

T g a P j, P. 14 257, Web. 3, d. 468, for. 2-4. ..................

Document 114

The year 1859, a list from the chief of the lower districts of the Circassian Kuban, Major Yurov, of the Mountaineers heading beyond the borders to Turkey, with an indication of the number of persons of both sexes. No. No. of Sex Which
District families Males Females Tribe 1. Jansere 158 818 807 Hatoquai 2. Soba 49 206 208 Hatoquai 3. Chomafoqwa 57 351 321 Khamesh 4. Sultan 43 175 182 Khamesh 5. Bidees 108 577 574 Hatoquai 6. Kodz 34 123 122 Bselen 7. Botouqo 84 387 360 Kirchen
Total 533 2637 2574 RSMHA, f.. 14257, op. 3, d. 486, l.. 154.
Document 115
List of statistics for the number of Mountaineers under the control of the Right Wing of the “Caucasus Front Line”, according to the year 1859’s data:

The names of Mountaineer Tribes No. of Persons Males Females
Tokhtamish Police Stations: Naghwey,
Abaza and Kabarday 8200 7800
The ones deported to Mecca 5320 5180
Police Stations of Karachay & Abaza 11210 5150 The ones deported to Mecca 4184 279
Naghwey police Stations and beyond Kuban 5150 5520
The ones deported to Mecca 4184 4098
The Lower police Station 2687 2621
Of Circassian Tribes
RSMHA, f.. 14257, op. 3, d. 128, l.. 3.

Document 116

Speculations on the military operations and the occupation of the right wing Caucasus Line, from autumn 1859 to December 1st 1860, Compiled by General Philipson.
Fighting Operation System on the Right Wing of the Caucasus front Line will remain unchanged, until the projects of the former Supreme Commander of the Caucasus Army are executed. The positive goal of these operations was described in my assumptions for the year 1859, which was submitted to His Excellency for consideration on June 10th 1858 No. 2931.

As in the past year, all our efforts should be aimed at two theaters of military action: one of which covers the area located between Adaghum Line of Lower Kuban and the North-Eastern bank of the Black Sea, and the other one contains the mountainous strip situated between the northern part of River Belaya and Minor Laba.
Therefore, we must act in two separate units: one from the Black Sea and the other from Labinsk District.

Last year’s autumn devastating expedition had left the Natokhawaj people deprived. This frivolous and volatile nation had started negotiations and had accepted submission several times, but did not continue to the end because of the new inspirations coming from Constantinople, or the new fable that SefirBay had innovated, which revived absurd hopes in those people and forced them to postpone submission in the hope of coup occurrence in this province and the arrival of aid from abroad. And to this I must add that Adaghum Line had not yet reached the stage at which we are able to separate the territory of the Natokhawaj from the Shabsough territory. For the Shabsough took advantage of the dissolution of the division since December of last year, and that’s when Karabatyr Zanok began to roam the Natokhawaj territory accompanied by throng of Shabsough, beating all those who were suspected of communicating with us or inducing people to surrender. And many of the Natokhawaj themselves had assisted him, either because of their passion towards predation or because of their inherent hostility towards us. So naturally the Natokhawaj will not be able to take a firm step towards submission in this situation, unless they get rid of the fear of sabotage by the Shabsough. And to move independently the people do not have enough unity and will. Their best natives were either killed or moved to the Shabsough area, and none of the leaders left among them have the inevitable impact on the people. And now are gathering rallies, which upon their invitation, are not only from the Shabsough, but also from the Abaza and Ubykh in order to take decisive actions against the Adaghum Detachment, and if no success was achieved, negotiations on submission will begin. At the same time, the Natokhawaj resettlement to the Shabsough continued in spite of the fact that our division controlled the exits of Bakansk and Nibergansk valleys and had significantly impeded their movement, but it has become clear to me from the reconnaissance which I have done that, they still have two other paths that we have not yet controlled from the Adaghum Line which are through Nibergai, one of them at the entrance of Alfaj (about 13 Ferst from Fort Kremsk) and through what is called “the pasturage of Giorgivsm Forest” (11 Ferst away from Fort Konstanti Novska), where another fort will be constructed within the next year, and as a result all the suitable roads that connect the Natokhawaj and the Shabsough lands will be easily cut off, and by the construction of some separating towers and blockhouses, it will be the completion of the full establishment of the Adaghum Line. And in order to speed up the occupation of the Natokhawaj Strip, it is presumed to hold an intensive winter expedition there.

It can be said with full confidence that the Natokhawaj will speed up their submission to prevent the serious disaster that awaits them, but only the circumstances can determine the extent of the efforts that must be spared for the submission. The view of the famous English Law on our right in the North Eastern Coast line of the Black Sea might oblige us to -in case of the unconditional submission of the Natokhawaj- to change the system in this region, and instead of settling Cossacks, we should allow large groups of Natokhawaj to live in areas we reached, under the possibility of loyalty from these reckless and perfidious people. But because of their extraordinary location between us and the strong tribes that have not yet submitted to us, they deserve sympathy. This Front’s decision to go with another system can only be determined by the course of the upcoming winter campaign to this province.

From the Labinsk Province side, the military goals remain unchanged with the need to strengthen our sovereignty in the area between Laba and Belaya Rivers, to proceed with the settlement of the Cossacks in the front of the latter river from the side of the Cossack troops of the pre-existing Caucasus front-line. Here we must try not to let the indigenous people living permanently on the mountainous strip, between Belaya and Minor Laba, because of the existence of those people in the front with the fact that they are already submitted-in places difficult to access- we cannot ever guarantee the security of the Cossack villages that have been constructed between the Kuban and Laba Rivers, and we will have to keep a lot of troops there to defend them, and secondly, when we accomplish the construction of two other Cossack villages next year- as announced here below- in the year 1861 we will have to move the Cossack population to beyond Minor and Large Laba, which will be difficult to implement, by violating the enemies borders, and even if they are under submission, the indigenous inhabitants remain hazardous, and thirdly, because our expulsion to the Bselen, Mahosh, Egurkay and other non-submitted tribes from the mountainous areas that stay in between the Minor Laba and Belaya, we would not put them in an impossible condition, on Contrary to Natokhawaj who have no place to take refuge to, but pointing to the settlement of vacant land -the highest assigned to the natives - which is located between Urup and the Kuban, and between that river and River Tarso Or Humid Zelenchuk, or at the end, until the empty land between Laba and Belaya north of the straightway that connects Labinsk and Maykop. Monitoring the tribes that have been recently been submitted to us and were repopulated in the large neighborhoods here, easier to be present directly at our grasp.

The fundamental goal of the military operations in the Labinsk Province as mentioned above, remained without change, but the details of implementation must be changed completely contrary to last year's assumptions. The operations of Maykop Divisions that took place in the autumn and winter of last year, was a detailed reconnaissance sightsees for a country that we are unfamiliar with, that is located between Minor Laba and Belaya, and has made clear to us the method of combat operations that we have to follow in this region to achieve the assumed target, and the means which should be at our grasp.

The most important means for the expulsion of rebellious tribes from the mountainous strip mentioned above is undoubtedly achieved by depriving the Mountaineers from basic needs of life, by taking away areas suitable for farming and ranching, as living in impregnable areas will not be enough for life. The crossings, which Maykop and Labinsk Divisions had excavated last year from the Northern part of the woods Strip that is extended from Maykop to the Cossack village Labinsk, had undoubtedly gave us access to many fields that Mountaineers had exploited for farming, but near acquaintance with the edge showed the presence of numerous glades in the forest zone and, finally, for the forests to the south towards the Black Mountains, where the set for numerous native population receives sources of livelihood. The takeover of those rich meadows and the prevention of Mountaineers from cultivation, harvesting and collecting crop means resolving the issue identified by The General(the Commander in Chief).

It is well known that the establishment of Crossings in certain directions will provide access to enter the unruly Mountaineers districts and meadows, and excavate convenient roads for the operations that will serve the objectives of the Labinsk detachment, but the implementation on the ground must be made on the basis of different rules than last year, as the new form of combat operations carried out by the Mountaineers has shown (4) what means should be in our hands in order to avoid falling into the inadequacy of grains, which had affected the Maykop and Labinsk Divisions last winter, where the mountaineers -by destroying their own hay and stock- made us briefly delve into their territories in a short time without doing permanent work that requires long time such as establishing crossings or construction of roads, since we had to get the supplies from Labinsk Line, which is way too far to be a base of operations. Therefore it was not possible to wait for any positive result, according to the circumstances.

As a result to that, and through scrutiny in all circumstances mentioned above, I assume that it is necessary to start the autumn and winter warfare operations on the mountainous strip between the Belaya and Minor-Laba rivers by one independent detachment, focusing in principle, on Minor-Laba and to prepare all precautions in the vicinity of Klagensk, including military and nourishment in addition to a large amount of fodders and by occupying a strong center in the heart of the rebellious population in Uroch Khamket, it is possible to establish a supported camp provides all food, grain and fodders that are adequate for a period of two and a half months depending on the number of members of the detachment and orders from The Provisioning Department. Then, depending on that center, to warfare operations against the Mountaineers must start, by the construction of the crossings and the elimination of their villages and reserves, in brief, to do all actions required by local circumstances.

With the presence of one independent detachment in Uroch Khamket, I do not see the need to carry out the operations by another task-force from Fort Maykop to the top of River Belaya. First, because it will lead to the dispersal of our forces and thus to substantial losses, Second because it is necessary to establish another supported camp in Fyuntfe, and to transport all necessary equipment to it, because our troops will not be enough to do all these projects together, and third, when we lay our feet firmly in Khamket, conditions may allow us to cross to Fyuntfe with convenience and with smaller losses than if we did so from Maykop side.
In addition to that, the autumn and winter operations will be preparing for the summer operation, assuming that in the year 1860, it is essential to begin constructing a strong fortress in Uroch Khamket to accommodate one infantry battalion and two stationary artillery guns that will be directed to the supporting guarding center all the time, in order to achieve supposed goal of the warfare operations on the area extended between the Minor Laba and Belaya rivers. It is obvious that the processing line of communications of that fortress goes in connection with Labinsk front line construction.

There will be no need for Fort Khamket, in any case, to have a permanent large equipped garrison at the highest standards for the reasons set forth above. This fortress must be just a focal point with large stockpiles of artillery and supplies, so that it can be possible to mobilize our forces in it at any time, according to need, whether a large or a small detachment may fit in a camp near the fort that can be a tents camp or temporary wooden houses. The garrison that consists of one battalion and two artillery guns should be only for permanent guard at the warehouse of supplies and artillery. Thus, we will achieve:

1) Reduction in expenses of the fort construction.
2) Providing more dedicated troops when positions in the future become vacant in front of Khamket or from its side.
3) By preparing the fort for a small garrison, we will profit the benefits of the great fortress where there are large reserves; it will be assumed that we will have always -with the exception of the winter- a mobile task force in Fort Khamket in addition to the garrison, similar to what we had in Psebay and Maykop Forts. All what had been mentioned above, will serve the goals of operations of the autumn and winter, for the right-wing of the Caucasian Front, while in the summer of the year 1860, it must be related to the implementation of other projects that are connected with completing what had begun in the fortifications of the forward front line, and building new Cossack villages beside other works, and will be illustrated in the following.... Operations that will be carried out by the right-wing troops in the summer of the year 1860, from the first of April to the first of December, will be represented as follows: 1) The completion of Fort Konstanti Novska and the Konstanti Novska Cossack Sea-side village.
2) The final preparation of the Adaghum Front Line, by building separating fortresses and towers between Kremsk and Konstanti Novska castles.
3) To construct an independent garrison in Uroch Khamket that would comprise one infantry battalion and two mobile artillery guns (3).
4) To cut the crude forest trees of Teberdinsky gorge and the flotation its trees in the Kuban River, and that task will be given to the Teberdinsk Task Force similar to the current year.
5) The unit's headquarters 19th Infantry Battalion on the left bank of Kuban opposite to Tifeliskaya, as this battalion, which has no headquarters, will be satisfied for that.
6) The construction of two new villages for the final unit of our Cossack population in the area between the Kuban and Great Laba. The settlers of these villages will be determined the way that took place the previous year under orders from Caucasus Army Chief of Staff, and for this reason, I cannot define any kind of displaced persons that will be identified for these villages.
7) The protection of our front fortified positions from the enemy, with improvement maintenance and the termination of the buildings and the Kremsk, Maykop, and sevastobolsk staff headquarters, and Kremsk Kopansk and Sivastobulsk of infantry battalions by their garrisons, without the allocation of special teams for that purpose.
8) The protection of the lines of our border posts from invasion of non-friendly parties.
With that appearance, at the end of the year 1860, we would have finally arranged our local militants Great Laba, and set our feet on the mountainous strip between Belaya and Minor Laba, and we separate Adaghum Line which is the Natokhawaj lands from the other nations. The results of those projects will appear shortly, and will show us the form of our future military operations.
In the vastness of the assumed winter warfare troops, almost all fighting forces of the Right Wing of Caucasus Front-line will take part except few of them, whether
by direct presence in the divisions or by having the reserve forces to guard the battalions and so on...
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, op. 2, 39, p. 23-38, .........................

Document 117

1860 21 January - Report from the Commander of the Caucasian Line to the Chief of the Caucasian Army on the construction of roads and firebreaks from Khamket to Maykop and further on Belaya. We also give characteristic frame of mind of the Abzakh (as sincere in Russia).Maykop I had the honor to inform Your Excellency that in the first of January, number 3, I sent a detachment from Khamket to Maykop across the Abzakh, Mahosh, and Egurkay territories.
Hence, the division moved from the Korgips Valley and prepared the mountain crossing, which separates this valley from River Belaya’s valley, and continued the slow move through the latter valley, built roads and slashed off the crossings. The River Belaya’s valley does not pose any remarkable difficulties regarding our military actions, but it is full of overgrown wild fruit trees and thorny plants.
All this forms a continuous Garden at a distance of 35 Ferst. From the mouth of River Chindouq begins the Abzakh neighborhoods, and the higher you go the denser the population becomes. In 14 January, the division had settled between four neighborhoods, on the left bank of the Belaya River, on a distance of 4 Ferst towards the upper side of the river’s estuary.
In the 15th of that month, I explored all paths and crossings across the Belaya River, and in all these areas according to the inquiries , the conclusion we reached was that the advance of the army vehicles’ convoy and even the artillery forward to the stone bridge is impossible. I therefore decided to go there, accompanied by only five infantry battalions, and two hundred Cossacks.

In the 16th of the month, I took this move, and in the evening of the same day I came back to the rest of the division. The road extends a distance of 10 Ferst through some Abzakh neighborhoods, at the beginning, the way was not bad, but to cross two deep valleys of Kodjoho, covered by forests and formed from steep rock cliffs up to 500 feet high. The crossing of these valleys is impossible for the artillery, and the construction of the road would require a lot of efforts because it needs to cut into the rocks. The beauty of this stone bridge is reflected in the unique geological scarcity: Contradicting forces of the black mountains expanding under the angle leading to the main ridge a few hundred Ferst, rises above the natural boundary stone bridge. Once this ridge was cracked by the underground forces and the Belaya River waters rushed into that crack. This Crack reaches up to 350 Sazhen from sides while the depth reaches 75 Sazhen at the stone bridge. Mountaineers call this place the “Two Steps”, and the rough wooden bridge work over the river is on the verge of falling in the Belaya River as an act of the waterfall. On the left side a small meadow is situated on the progressive mountainous forests and is one of the Abzakh tribunals. This square that its side length reaches 40 Sazhen surrounded by a wooden fence where a mosque is located inside, three wooden houses and a pit that would accommodate 30 people accused with various charges.

From the military side, the stone bridge has no value. Also there is no place to build a fortress, as the surrounding highlands are preferred as a suitable place for firing guns. While moving forward to the top along the Belaya River there is no roads for vehicles (carriages), and some of the pedestrian walkways might do as horses paths leading behind the mountain, and in the southern side where water flows from the mountainous defiles, and from the left side to Belaya and Pshahe Rivers there are six neighborhoods for the Khamesh and there is no other residents in the Belaya Valley as there are no other paths that can be used to cross the main chain of this mountain-pass as the fact that the northern side of the Belaya River flows in a similar rift that is similar to the one near the stone bridge. The Khamesh neighborhoods connected pass-ways for carriages with the Pshahe River Valley which starts from Fusht Mountains where Belaya River is originated. There is horses’ walkway on Pshahe River that crosses the mountains to the Ubykh territory. The forests’ strip in this region -in general- is only few Ferst to reach the main chain, but at the mouth of Funtev River, the inhabitants had cut off the woods that anciently thickened in the valleys of Belaya, Korjips, Pshahe, Pshish and Psekups Valleys.

Generally there is building timber in this area that is suitable for construction: The valleys and low-lands are covered with fruits’ trees (the same word "Maykop" means land of the apple trees), and in the mountains dwarf-oak trees and thorn trees grow. The most important point in this region that must be recognized is the mouth of the River Funtev. From there a comfortable road starts down along River Belaya and to the top along River Gelokh and it is possible to get down from Korjips very comfortably and eventually through even though its difficult and uncomfortable way, but it is the only road along River Funtev to Fars then to Korjips.

I chose a place for the fortress to be opposite to Bzupohabl district, close to Hapatche district 2 Ferst above the mouth of the Funtev River, and will be 33 Ferst away from Maykop. Therefore we must have an independent garrison, in the event of a hostile coup that might occur against, and in the mid-distance a separation fort must be built. And under the current circumstances the construction of the fortress near the mouth of River Funtev was postponed. As a result of the continuous rain the soil has been dissolved in full at the beginning of the month of December, and a constructed fortress on that soil would have had collapsed in the autumn, and the garrison would have remained without shelter, it would have been not possible to build a shelter due to the narrowness of the forest and therefore a lack of materials for construction, at the end the garrison was not able to spend the winter in this region without the inconvenience of emergency , which is not comfortable, and nothing was prepared for a similar situation and it would have been impossible to feed the horses for lack of fodder, as the Mountaineers spare much of it because of the destruction caused by locusts.

For these reasons and to save the troops, who, within three months of tireless work, I dared not to totally carry your Excellency’s commandment, dated the sixteenth of December, with the No. 2, and I used the time surplus of the winter campaign, to improve communications along the Belaya River reaching to Maykop, and in particular, to establish corridors through the Pshichegocheche Forest in the land of Egurkay. Thus direct and comfortable contacts with Maykop from Labinsk side and with shorter road by 20 Ferst of the present road, and the establishment of this military road would be of a particular importance because the open areas that the Mahosh, Egurkay, Temryuks, and Kabarday should move to in the spring, and it will be separated from the large forest areas, which had been nesting their villages.

Yesterday a detachment returned to Maykop, and tomorrow goes to the top of Ayryuma River to the construction of crossings through the Pshichegocheche Forest. Most probably, the division will accomplish that work with the beginning of the month of February and will be deployed to the winter apartments.

One more thing remained to inform Your Excellency regarding the actual situation about the Abzakh.
The whole duration of my move on the stone bridge and during my return to Maykop, this nation remained fully confident that after they accepted voluntary submission, they entirely got risk free from being exposed to any hostile operations by us. The neighborhoods that we were passing through were not abandoned by their inhabitants, groups of women were monitoring from far away while troops were crossing, men and children provided the camp with water from morning to evening. During the movement to the stone bridge there were Abzakh people in my division more than the soldiers. Regardless, there are some (who are not few) among the general population who tend to create chaos and even fanatics. During the whole moving process there were three treacherous shootings where our soldiers had been injured and one was killed. But two of those isolated incidents were carried out by a madcap mob from the myrtle black trees side, and was killed in the siege in the 17th of the month, where another suspected Mountaineer was arrested later on by Mohammed Amin and the other leaders and was handed over to me immediately, but due to lack of confirmed suspicions, the representative and the leaders were committed to immediately search for the offender and hand him over to me.

Actually, I believe it is my duty to inform Your Excellency that, Mohammed Amin and the leaders have performed the entire necessary actions humanly, to prevent any chaos during the implementation of the wishes of Your Excellency, which was (2) going to lead to accuse all the people of bad faith.
Leaders sincerely wish to maintain the sacred duties assigned to them by the Abzakh, since they have a strong influence, and even the power over the people as much as possible over a people that had spent thousands of years in unbridled freedom, where its civil structure is similar to the biblical patriarchs eras, than to the ideas of the European ideas of civilization and the state system. I dare positively assure Your Excellency that the submission which the Abzakh had accepted, and with patience and forbearance, will transform into what we call the absolute and unconditional submission.

Regarding the Deputy, it is my duty to repeat what I have clarified in my report. He is a proficient tactful man with strong personality. It is possible to rely on his full dedication to the Russian Authority, but sometimes forced unwillingly to act in a cunning way with his people’s suspicious and recklessness.

The Deputy got one flaw: greed, He has made a considerable fortune which came mainly from his peasants (it is said he has 1000 people). Being constantly at or near the unit, he showed me the patent given to him in 1855 at the rank of Mirmirana by the Turkish Sultan to govern all the tribes from the Black Sea to Chechnya, and the Star of the Order of the Turkish Majidiyah which was granted to him by Omar Pasha. As an intelligent man, he certainly understands that the only hope to retain their wealth and increase his welfare is to be loyal to our government. His mother and many of his relatives are in Andamyale, and he has expressed his desire to keep him at his side as soon as his position is redefined. In these circumstances, he acted vigorously and restless neither day nor night. Actually, I think he can be very useful to us in the final organization of the region, especially that his distinguished position among the people is not based in particular on the tool of religion.

There is no religious intolerance even though this people adhere to Islam more than the Shabsough and the Natokhawaj.
I submit a copy of this report to General Prince Orbeliani.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, op.2, 39, p. 9-13.

Document 118

1860, April 5. - The relation of the Caucasian Army Chief Field Marshal A.I Baryatinsky to Russian War Minister N. O. Sukhozanet on the need to use military force for the complete subjugation of Western Caucasus. .... Even if these people were actually authorized by their people, there are still recalcitrant, namely between Shabsough and Ubykh, and there can be no hope for a unanimous all-people's recognition of the submission, expresses several natives abroad.

The cessation of the war in the eastern part of the region has got certainly great resonance even among the tribes of beyond the Kuban, which was the main reason for the submission of Abaza and Natokhawaj. Yet it was dangerous to trust such a pass too in that state of mind of the seemingly encouraging in this region. And I have set a duty to express openly that the case of Pasha is still far from being considered consummated. There is a huge difference between the peoples of eastern and western half of the Caucasus. In Dagestan we found that they are deeply rooted in citizenship and the habit of obedience to authority, even to the grave and despotic yoke. While in the West people split up into small communities, or family units, unguided by any authorities and do not have any civilian connection to one another.
These tribes are anciently accustomed to unbridled freedom ... the force of arms is the only way to subdue these people.
RGVIA, f, 38, op. 301 286, sec. 869. , 8, p. 12, 19.

Document 119

1860 April 26 - Evdokimov’s letter to Orbeliani with the presentation of terms for the departure of Kabardians to Turkey. Yesterday some Kabardians wishing to resettle in Turkey came to me, requesting permission to use the land route, and I gave them my resolute refusal. I was then asked to allow them to sell the peasants (farmers) who do not wish to travel along with their owners to individuals that would remain here, and during that, they complained to me that the court had initially allowed them to do so, but now it prevents such sale.
I even responded to the appeal court approval of the action, however I hasten to inform you of the following opinion: The sale prevention of peasants (farmers) may lead those troubled people who are trying to move to remain here, and therefore, it is preferable to ease the court's ruling in this case to allow the sale of peasants (farmers) with the requirement that peasants have the right of redemption of themselves from their original proprietors, for what the court would determine or would be agreed upon between the owner and the peasant. Generally, in Kabarday there is more fanatical spirit than in other societies, so I think that it would be beneficial to the people and the authority to deport the disturbing people.
Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 5 and 6

Document 120

1860 April 30 - Confidential notification
From the Commander of Left Wing Forces Evdokimov to the Head of Kabarday Province Orbeliani, on the delegation and the desire of care of the restless Kabardians. Appreciating Your Excellency’s orders about the disposal of the province’s Mountaineers that is entrusted to you, I cordially solicit from Your Excellency that you will announce to the delegates traveling to Turkey, that they are required to seek the consent of the Turkish government for resettlement , which no one will be allowed to move without it. It is wished that Your Excellency will send these delegates to Vladikavkaz, where Major General Zotov will order their disposal to Tbilisi.
In order to be able to dismiss the restless and retain those who only showed interest in moving under pressure of fanatics, I authorize you to grant the request from the owners to retain who accompanied them, and choose -with the direction of our loyal chiefs- from 60 to 100 families of the most turbulent and fanatical and send them by sea to exile during an assigned date that you would determine. CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 4 on.

Document 121

1860 April 30 – Reviewed by VV Orbeliani to NI. Evdokimov on the futility of granting the peasants "the right of self-redemption from their new owners”, because according to these conditions there will be no bidders and sending fanatics to Turkey will slow-down. The prohibition of sale of followers of the Kabarday proprietors, who are willing to go to Turkey, was in accordance to section VI of the General Chief-of-Staff’s letter to Your Excellency dated, 29 April 1859, which I received a copy of.

As to the measures that were expressed to Your Excellency in that letter, in regard to allow the sale of peasants provided that the peasant will be granted self-redemption from the new owner in exchange to a sum of money that the court will specify or a mutual agreement between the proprietor and the peasants, I hereby clearly admit that it is inconvenient. First, There will not be available purchasers in accordance with these conditions and, secondly, that would lead to the slowdown of sending the fanatics who I have already chosen, reaching up to 30 families, that I’m trying to send to exile in one way or another from Kabarday to Taman within a specific time between the tenth and the fifteenth of May. If I would not be able to fulfill extraditing all the fanatics who have been selected, and who would not wish to go without their followers, and to avoid excessive violent actions, I will find a solution to this issue by other means depending on the circumstances in order to send them abroad.
TSGL CBD, f. 2, he said. A. d 465, n. 7

Document 122

1860 May 16- A decree of the Chief of Staff Zotov to the Head of the Province of Kabarday VV Orbeliani on allowing Edik Tokh and the other individuals, who have already obtained passports to go to Turkey, either by land or sea.
Dear Sir, Prince Vakhtang Vahtangovich! The Kabardian Edik Tokh holder of a passport last year from the Passport Center entrusted to me, to go to Mecca, had come to me explaining that his father and some other Kabardians were forced for inevitable crossing through the Right-Wing with those who travel with Pass-Cards only. Therefore, I have the honor to inform Your Excellency that we must not impose inflexibility on those who possess passports, concerning the choice of the way, which they consider more suitable for travelling to Mecca. Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 7 and 7 vol.

Document 123

1860 May 25 - Decree of the Head of the Kabardian Province VV Orbeliani to the Commander of the Left Wing Forces Evdokimov about the terms of deporting 80 Kabardian families to Turkey.
Guided by Your Excellency’s instructions and guidance, which were delivered to me on sending the Kabardians to Turkey, I performed the following: initially I called in the trusted people, who deserve full confidence and I offered them to take an oath in my presence, provided that they answer all the questions they are going to be asked in fairness and without bias, with no prior knowledge of the questions that I would put forth, and thus with the direction of those people, I recorded the names of the most fanatic families, which make the people worried and will try to attract them and I decided to send them immediately to Turkey, and for this I appointed a very short period of time. A list was presented to the members of the Province Court and the trustees of the people who are dedicated to us for the selected to go to Turkey; they all unanimously declared that the selection was successful. Then I informed the fanatics to be ready to go on the fifteenth of the month and set them a gathering point on Malka River, but that deadline was extended to the eighteenth of the month because of the strong flood of the river, and when they told me that the passengers are gathering, I went in person, accompanied by members of the Province court to River Malka, for distributing the cards and to accelerate their travel, and to finalize considerations of cases and complaints whether by the departing people or from the people that will stay in Kabarday, in the 22nd of the month all the issues were solved as possible in my attendance, the cards were distributed, and the passengers that contained 80 families had departed to Turkey on the same day, in two groups: 66 families went through the Kuban Province then to Taman by using the pass Cards, and 14 families went by land transportation through Tbilisi by using the passports given to them last year. I informed General Philipson in advance about the date of departure of the first group and asked to send me the instructions of His Excellency on the route which passengers must follow through the Kuban Province, but the Chief-of-Staff of the forces of the intended province informed me that those who are traveling to Turkey are free to choose their way through Kuban Province and with utmost freedom, and that legal assistance will be presented to them everywhere, No matter what, I previously requested by the Head of the Border Police Posts of the Kislovodsk cordon line and the Commander of the Border Regiment of the Cossack Vladikavkaz front-line to assist the passengers to pursue their way freely.

Some of the followers of the Kabardians traveling to Turkey expressed a desire not to follow with their owners, so with my persuading, I instructed them to their relatives who remained in Kabarday. Informing Your Excellency with utmost admiration, and presenting a statistical list for the members of the Kabardian families that went to Turkey, and I am honored to conclude that the entire people has calmed down after the departure of the fanatics, and I declared for the population to begin immediately the work of agriculture. And those who wish to leave were not to head to Turkey at all, until the delegates’ mission return from there. But according to my knowledge that mission would not probably agree to that, because some of the people do not want it.
A CT CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 9 and 9 on.

Document 124

1860 May 25 - Evdokimov’s letter addressed to Orbeliani, with suggestion of providing him with information about the desire of Kabardians to go to pilgrimage.
Lacking still positive information about the movement of people who wanted to goon a pilgrimage to Turkey, I strongly urge Your Excellency to inform me about their destination:
Will the people who had registered their names earlier for departure, stay in their places? Or are they still hoping to depart to Turkey? And in the case of the latter it concerns me greatly, to know the number of families that intend to depart from your province, and when exactly they intend of depart...

I am particularly interested in knowing if those Kabardians that you intended to expel have departed and the similar number of families that had gathered and whether they have departed to their destination, since the date that you have specified has passed. Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 10-11.

Document 125

1860 May 30- The Report of the Chief of Kabarday Province Orbeliani to the Commander of the Left Wing Forces Evdokimov, with putting forth some information about the departure of 442 Kabardian families to Turkey.
I had the honor of receiving the letter of Your Excellency dated May 25, in 28th of the month, I hasten to inform you that the fanatics that you have chosen which counted 80 families, have departed from Kabarday along the highway at the Taman, to follow in to Turkey by the 22nd May, as I formerly was honored to inform you in my report dated the 25th of the month under the no. 732.
They were not able to depart due to the severe rivers flooding. Even though I had informed you in the same report, I told Your Honor that the rest of the Kabardian people has calmed down or engaged in agricultural work, but now as to the rumors that had reached the Kabardians, I think through the D-goriyu, say that as if any willing of departure will be allowed it would be through the Ossetian military Province, and oscillation had returned to the decision regarding the stay of the 442 families who received Pass Cards in Kabarday.
And those who had calmed down for some time - after the departure of the fanatics - have came to me and requested a permission to go to Turkey without any preliminary delegation mission. Their request was turned down, on the basis of the guidelines from Your Honor of directives, however I have allowed them to choose four people to appear before Your Excellency with that request.

The question that you raised to me in your letter had crossed my mind, regarding the previously registered weather they wish to remain in their places or still hoping to go to Turkey. The government has suggested to allow the rest of Kabardians and not only the fanatics, and if that was legal, let me add that a solution should be found for the request of the remaining of the 442 families, because with their departure no one of the Kabardians will stay here without exception, even those who were until now against this deportation to Turkey, they will follow them without sending a delegation mission to Turkey. So they are consulting upon themselves whether they still want to send a delegation or they would ask permission from the authorities for permission to leave without sending a delegation. But if the authorities’ objective is to eradicate the disturbing fanatics only, then I venture to request from your Excellency that you refuse the request by the four agents who were selected too meet you, and I hope then that everything would calm down, and if the opposite happens, then that portion of the people who did not yet register a request to go to the holy places, will always think that the authorities do not want to limit the number of evacuees and will always resolutely demanding permission to leave.

I urgently ask Your Excellency, to provide me with decisive orders, that I would manage accordingly in this matter, which requires a positive solution, in view of the fact and because of this confusion, context of all the things has stopped to the extent that almost it will not be possible to execute anything else in this Province unless there is a relocations of the natives.
Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 12 and 13.

Document 126

30 May 1860 - Cr. Formidable. The Letter of the Commander of Force of Teresk Province
N.I. Evdokimov to Kabardia Province V.V. Orbeliani on the ban of Kabardians from going to Turkey via the Georgian Military Highway due to their "harmful influence" on the people of Ossetian Military District.

In a report to your Excellency on sending 66 families to Turkey across the province, which you trust, by sea through Taman and 14 families that got passports from last year, by the Georgian Military Road of the Caucasus Region, I hasten to inform you that the mentioned(1) have raised concerns upon the residents of the province when they showed up in the Asitinesc Military Province, while they were heading to Taman, and due to that, my Chief-of-Staff, Major General Zotov is to return them from vladikavkaz to Nalchik. Totally admiring General Zotov’s orders, I strongly look forward of Your Excellency to organize their immediate sending across the Kuban Province, in order to be sent later to Turkey by sea respectively following the first convoy. In conclusion, I consider that it is my duty to request from Your Excellency the inevitability to take into account in the future- if you see the need to exile more people to Turkey- that it should be arranged only by sea through Taman, whatever the circumstances are, in order to avoid adverse impact on the people of Asitinesc Military Province again, which was generated by the 14 families that have emerged from Kabardia.
Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 14, 15. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
(1) Deported Kabardian families.

Document 127

3 June 1860 – Confidential Decree from the Commander of Forces of the Terek Province Evdokimov to the Head of the Kabarda Province Orbeliani on deporting 442 Kabardian families, and on the desire to reduce "harmful population", which affects Chechnya .
I hasten to respond to your letter dated 30 May as follow:
I see that the desire of other fanatics to leave to Turkey seemed to disquiet you. As if you do not want the increased numbers of the deported and the expulsion of total 442 families and those who were previously registered and crossing cards in their names were already sent? It seems to me that if there is a desire of benefit for the authorities and tranquility for the People, it is specifically obligatory to let all those families leave, because after selling their properties, they will not stop complaining about stopping their traffic, which they were ready for. Therefore allowing them to remain is more damaging for us than to make their departure attract few more dozens of other families.

A short time ago, in the capital of Brkhaladna the assassination of a Coachman(1), which surely you know about, and I cannot add to that, except that there had been no assassination incidents in the entire Terek territory for long time, which is a clear reflection Of the sincerity of the Kabardian people to us.
I wonder is we should ever, after this, regret the departure of a single Kabardian to Turkey! Reducing the number of harmful native people of the country, will make us get rid of much suffering and will free the 400 busy Cossacks guarding the border line of the Kabardian alleged dedication. So do not regret for the departure of 442 families and even if triple that number had departed it will not constitute any loss for the region, but most of what I am asking for is not to be sent via Transcaucasia not for any reason, and to pretend when discharged that you allow those wishing to leave, against the wish of the authorities and only through the leniency with applications coming through your part.
None of the Kabardians has come to me.
Assuming in vain the possibility of restoring order after the departure of 80 families, those people will not stop raising people to move through the messages sent until all who wish to leave would do so, and for that it is better for us to end this
................. (1) Probably one of the religious ranks (bishops).

Process as soon as possible, otherwise the people’s tension will last for several years, and we will have to be very vigilant throughout that period. With regard to the seriousness if the entire population had left, and if it happened, they would bring us in addition to the satisfaction a fundamental benefit of disposal of people hostile to us. However, I am quite sure that if Kabardian Princes wanted to stop the people in any way, a large part of the Kabardians will remain under their rule, and will hear their words, and therefore the people staying are the ones able to restore order which we seek.

Remember dear Prince that we have to prepare the armed forces to resist the desire of the popular coalition, and the forces now are busy in serious operations. Therefore, it is more harmful to us to use part of the forces even if it was tiny one, than to make hundreds of families that are not in any way wanted nor needed depart. Let those who wish and capable to leave, with plenty of farewell greetings(2), seemingly the number in comparison with the past has increased…

Note: If someone came to me requesting my personal permission to leave, I would certainly refuse. But requests to you may be granted as a favor, even with numbers that are more than the required amount, whom pass-cards are received with their names, so that you can deal conclusively at this time as you deem appropriate and to allow the depart of all those who might likely to be a source of evil.
Here, in Kabarday uninterrupted messages and various news are distributed which would agitate the Chechens.
Letters are sent from the Great Kabarda Minor, and from there - to Nadterechny Chechens which will be distributed all over Chechnya. I suppose that would stop only when all those who wish to leave are finally gone. Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 21, 22..

Document 128

12 July 1860, a communiqué from Evdokimov to Orbeliani about providing information on the deportation proceedings and how it’s inappropriate to retain a single Kabardian of those who wish to leave to Turkey.

- Wishing to be able to have specific and comprehensive information as possible, about the situation that is currently in concern in which there is now a case of relocation of residents -entrusted to your district-to Turkey. I appeal to you and I deeply appreciate your informing me exactly on the number of families who recently proceeded to Turkey and whether there are still more wishing to leave together with the fanatics who will be uprooted and what are their numbers. I also think that it is my duty to request Your Excellency not to delay the departure of any of the natives who wish to leave urgently, and to be granted pass cards unhindered...
A CT CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 30.

Document 129

14 July 1860 - Communiqué from the Head of Terek Province to the Commander of the Kabarda Province Orbeliani on providing information on the deportees at the time.
To maintain the highest degree of accuracy when deporting the natives of the province that is at your care to Turkey and to avoid mistakes that can be encountered, I strongly appreciate your informing me of all the prematurely departing persons abroad, to be able to communicate with the Chairmanship of Staff of the Caucasus War at thus, given the appropriate opportunity to inform the Turkish authorities about the number of deported families.
A CT CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 34.................

Document 130

15 July 1860 - Military Order of the Minister of Russia, the assignment of the fourtypes of fortifications Neberdzhayskoe, Il'sky, Grigoriev and Hamketskoe
The Emperor has approved on the tenth of July, following the solicitation of Commander-in-Chief of the Caucasus front line, for the following names to be launched at the four forts that are under construction in the Kuban Territory:
1) In the land of Natkhowaj at 15 ferest distance from Karemskoi fortress at the entrance of Neprdjaysk narrow valley, will be called Fort Neberdzhayskoe.
2) In the land of Shabsough, on the River Ile, 30 Ferest from River Kuban, in the place of yempsehyaqo, and will be called Il'sky.
3) In the land of Shabsough also, on the Shepsh River, about 7 Ferest North of Fort Ivanova - previously Ashipskoy, and will be called Grigoriev.
4) In Hamket at the tops of Gubsa Psefira, and will be called Hamketskoe. On any monarch will announce at the War Office for the proper knowledge.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, op. 2, 38, p. 15.

Document 131

July 1860 - Information on the number of Kabardins who migrated to Turkey from May to July Reporting to His Excellency, the chief Kabardian District.
- Since 22 May and in the first group, 14 families were sent with passports, and 66 families (was notified on 25 of May under number 732).
From 12, July and within the second group, 157 families (although a statement was registered in this matter, but that would be sent with the mail that is going on the 16th of the month).
37 Kabardian families Could be called of those who wish to leave to Turkey, and Pass Cards were sent in their names, as per the last perception dated 22 June under number 962, and orders of Forces General Commander outlined in the report of
His Excellency dated 23 June under the number 898, on sending 500 Pass Cards to the province for those who are pressing desire to leave.
Chief-of-Staff (Signed) Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 31.....................

Document 132

17 July 1860 - Letter to Chief of Staff of the army In the Terek Region Zotov to Orbeliani outlining the views of Evdokimov to take measures to alleviate
The "relocation" of the “unreliable "Kabardian People
Although Your Excellency already knows the desire of Count Nikolai Ivanovich, not to delay the Kabardins wanting to move to Turkey under the pretext of worshiping the coffin of Mahomet by sea. But as rumors spread about the obstacles facing the deportees by local authorities, the Count has directed me again to ask you strongly to take all necessary action to facilitate the departure of those who are willing and, of course, they had completed the liquidation of all their accounts here.
The current move in Kabarday shows that this people is not to be trusted at all and we will not benefit from keeping them but on the contrary, the more we instigate them against us, the more and more of them would leave, and we will be left with fewer undercover enemies. Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 28.

Document 133

25 October 1860 – Letter to the mayor of Kerch to the governor of Stavropol to stop issuing tickets for the Highlanders heading to Kerch
I had the honor to inform your Excellency in the 14th of this month under the number 5139, about those difficulties and embarrassment which the Mountaineers may be subjected to, following their arrival here in late autumn, coinciding with the closure of the navigation Port of Kerch, which would prevent them an opportunity to go Abroad. In addition, I asked you to seek coordination to stop giving the natives permits to the province under your guardianship, cards to go to Kerch to receive passports here, until the spring of next year.

The Mountaineers are still arriving here in large numbers, regardless of the time of the year which is the late autumn, but the navigation in the Port of Kerch may stop in the next few days, and then they will have to spend the winter here without any shelter under the dome of the sky due the absence of any buildings able to accommodate them in Kerch. But to avert this, I will prevent bringing the Mountaineers to Kerch with suspension of navigation in the Port of Kerch, and all of them will have to stay in Taman.
Prompt to inform Your Excellency about that, again I ask your honor strongly to accelerate action to stop granting cards for natives in the province entrusted to you to go to Kerch until the next spring of 1861, and to inform me of developments in a communiqué about that.
RTVIA, f. 14 257, op. 3, d 505, n. 32 and 32 vol. ..............................

Document 134

9 January 1861 – Circular order of Chief of Staff Major General Zotov, the Head of the Natokhwaj Province, for the arrest of mountaineers returning from Turkey, and exile them to Siberia.
In the resolution of the question, how to deal with those Mountaineers who are prevented from having visa on their passports according to the periodic decree of our envoy of Emergency Affairs or for the Commissioner of our Minister in the port of Ottoman Porte, who find the opportunity to return home despite all of that, therefore the Commander-in-Chief ordered the following:
The persons concerned must be arrested upon arrival at our borders, and if:
(A) They belong to the submissive Mountaineers communities, immediately to be exiled to inner Russia to settle there permanently.
(B) If it is determined that those persons belonging to the Mountaineers communities hostile to us, they should be detained for three months to be exchanged with our prisoners in the mountains, and when the specific period of three months had elapsed, and had not been exchanged, they are to be sent to Siberia for permanent residence there, and in both cases, in accordance with arrangement with the administration and ratification of the Commander-in-Chief.

With respect to those persons who belong to the inhabitants of the Caucasus in general and were expelled to Turkey for various reasons and they got their passports extended then returned home, if they didn’t present a certificate by the consuls certifying the extension to their leaves or a certificate recognizing the legitimacy of the reasons of extension, with those treatment will be in accordance with Section I of the above mentioned law, which they will be sent into inner Russia for permanent residence there.
- Notifying your Excellency about the advice of His Highness Prince Alexander Ivanovich [Bariatinskii], and with the order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Kuban territory Forces, to be supervised as it should, I have the honor to stress about the request for the arrest of natives who are returning to the Caucasus from Turkey without a document of our consuls in the East on the reasons for the extension of the leave and be so prompt reporting to General Count Evdokia. Krasnodar Region Governmental Archive (5)
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, op. 1, 39, l.3.

Document # 135

20 February 1861 – Declaration from the General Directorate Viceroy of the Caucasus to the commander of the Terek region, on the transmigration of mountaineers returning from Turkey to Siberia.
Last year, the Mohammedan peoples of North Caucasus, seduced by the hope of a better life(*) and greater benefits in the same faith country, had requested the dismissal of them with families to Mecca for pilgrimage, hiding religious reasons a secret goal to settle permanently in Turkey.

The Deputy Prince and with no difficulty to satisfy the desire of Mohammedans to allow granting them permission to leave for Turkey, but these deceived peoples with false hopes, started after short period looking for any way to return to homeland. When the first news came to General Marshall about that desire of the Mohammedans, he acknowledged the need to take all necessary arrangements to block their desire. In that regard during our dealings with our Imperial Council in Constantinople, the Prince Lobanov-Rostov through a publication circular to our consuls in the ُEast to categorically refuse to issue visas on passports for people with North Caucasus origins who have transferred to the Turkish nationality and who wish to return to ancestral lands to become citizens of Russia again.

With regard to those people who find a way to return home despite the mentioned ban, Prince Alexander Ivanovich wanted to enact the rules for the arrival of those people to our borders:
A) The immediate transfer of those belonging to the Caucasus mountaineers communities, into continental Russia for permanent settling there.
B) If those people belonged the mountaineers’ communities that are hostile to us, they should be taken captives for three months in order to be exchanged with our people who are being captivated in the mountains, and when the specific period of three months elapses and they had not been exchanged, they should be sent to Siberia for permanent residency there, and in both cases according to arrangement of the subject by the administration and ratification of His Highness.

As for those persons who are related to the Caucasus inhabitants in general and were expelled to Turkey for various reasons and returned home after having extended their passports there, unless they provide a certificate from the consuls that recognizes the extension of their vacations or to approve the legitimacy of extension reasons, they will be dealt with in accordance with Section I of the above-mentioned Order, which will be sent to Continental Russia for permanent settling there.

Central State Archive of the GRA, p. 12, he was 5, 20, p. 27. ................................ (*) Through planning and agreement between the Governments of Russia and Turkey seek to empty the North Caucasus to their interests, Turkey, was sending inviting missions to convince and seduce the Circassians for the need to migrate to the lands that belong to the Ottoman authority and leave the country of the infidels as they say by all means. Where it intended to use them to protect Turkey by utilizing them as soldiers and to settle them at border points and points of tension and clashes, and to restore the waste lands, and the poor swamp spots, and their use in the Balkan wars would inlay its armies with this fresh blood that it is widely-recognized of its knighthood and capability. (1) As if that was not planned for, and they were not seeking towards it. (2) May mean the regular. (3) To be subjects. (4) Homeland. (5) To be able.

Document 136

23 March 1861 - A message from Chief of Staff Zotov, to the Head of the Natokhawaj District Major General Babich on the arrangement for dislodgment of the mountaineers -" subjecting them to leave immediately without granting annual passport cards."

Confidential, Periodical
His Excellency the Commander in Chief has asked in the 23rd of February of that year under the serial # 1195, from the Army Chief of Caucasus General Staff to mediate with the General Commander-in-Chief to allow the deportation of natives who are traveling to Turkey just to reside and not to mention anything to them about the temporary leave, and to send later on those who have returned from abroad, to the interior regions of Russia for settling there as homeless outsiders, and will be announced to them when they leave this region.

In response to that, on 12 March, under the serial # 479 General Philipson has informed that the General commander in his report to the letter # 1195 was strictly in agreement with the opinion of Count Nikolai Ivanovich [Evdokimov] in regard to the inappropriate of current regime for granting passports for the mountaineers departing to Turkey for the intention of complete settlement there, and may permit: Not henceforth be granted annual leave cards , but are referred to direct leaving to Turkey. I have the honor to inform Your Excellency of the statement of His Highness Prince Alexander Ivanovich [Bariatinskii], with the order of the Commander General of the Forces for you to take note of and to take action as it should be.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, op. 1, 39, p. 10.

Document 137

1 April 1861 – An order to the Caucasus Army about the launch of new names on the Cossack villages which are: Ust-Dzhegutinskaya, Akhmeta, Irisskaya, Little Labinekaya, Gubskaya, Psefirskaya etc. To Tbilisi. In addition to the eight Cossack villages that were supposed to be settled in the provinces of Kuban and Terek, which was announced on the names that were launched according to the army order on October 13 and November 19 last year, with serial numbers 463 and 561, there will be resettlement of 15 more Cossack villages in Kuban Province, and one village in the province of Terek.

The following names were given to those Cossack villages:
1) The Kuban Province.
- The Cossack village near Ust-Dzhegutinskom guard post, which is about 7 ½ Ferst away from Batalpashinskoy village, dubbed Ust-Dzhegutinskaya.
At Nikolayvski guard post, about 17 ½ Ferst away from the previous village and at the same distance from Kardonikokski village will be dubbed Nikolaywskaia.
- Near the previous Ahmadghore Fort, about 24 Ferst away from Fort Kaladzhinski will be called Ahmitoviskaya.
- Kaladzhinski Castle, dubbed Kaladzhinskaya.
- In Upper Andryouq and about 8 Ferst from Cossack village of Besimienskaya on the road to Psepayski castle will be called Kizilbikovskaya.
- Near Chedokskaya Castle will be called Mala - Laybinskaya.
- In the upper section of River Hodz and about 26 Ferst from Fort Psepayski, will be called Areskaya.
- On River Hodz on the straight road connecting between Fort Kaladzhinski and Khamkit via former Cossack village and 19 Ferest from Kaladzhinski Fort will be called Gubskaya.
- On River Psefire and 24 Ferst from the Cossack village of Laybinski, will be called called Psefirskaya.
- On River Fars, 17 Ferst away from Hamkety - Upper Farsskaya
- On Fars River at the confluence of the rivers with Psefirom in 17 miles from the village Labinskaya - Lower Farsskaya.
- On River Kuzhoreat its mouth with Sidal River, will be called Kuzhorskaya.
- On River Ayryume (a tributary of the first), will be called Ayryumskaya.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, op. 2, 44, p. 6.

Document 138

7 April 1861 - A decree from the commandant of the Natokhawaj region Major General Babich, to recommend to the heads of Anapa and Constantine fortresses in regard to sending of the beyond- Kuban who are returning from Turkey to the interior provinces of Russia.

The Commander of the Caucasus Army Commander-in-Chief, Field Marshal General Prince Baryatinsky have allowed, and after the intercession from the Commander-in-Chief of the Kuban and Terik provinces’ Forces to grant those from the beyond-Kuban who accept to be Russian nationals, passports in case they desire to settle in Turkey, provided that they will be sent to live in the interior provinces of Russia in the event if they return to the borders of Russia.
Informing your Excellency of this order, I strongly demand that the arrest will include all the beyond-Kuban when they return from abroad (and all their properties) in case it was not written on their passports that they were demobilized to migration to Turkey, and to report that at the soonest possible time to the military commandant of the Constantine Fort to find out what would be the arrangements followed to send them to Russia.
Krasnodar Province Governmental archive
F. 389, WB, 1, D. 39, L. 9.

Document 139

18 April 1861 - Order of the Kuban Cossack Army of the rules of resettlement of Cossack villages to new locations or to the the evacuated lands "settle ...owner-landlords.
The general commander of the Army, General Marshall Prince Baryatinsky, having considered the petition filed by his Excellency the societies of the Kuban Cossack villages troops: Scher-binovskoy, Konelovskoy, Spitsevskoy, Sergius, Alexandria kaya, and Kruglolesskoy Hrushevsky, renewed to be inhabited this year, taking into account the need to resettle large numbers of Cossack families in the foothills on the slopes of the Caucasus on both sides of Anapa to Anaba, and following laws to are necessary to achieve this: 1) To organize the deportation in the land of the former Black Sea Cossack Army this year to begin with Yeisk, as the most remote from the current theater of operations. 2) After the Yeisk district to evict the family from Ekaterinodar and, finally, from Taman districts. 3) Provide a troop authorities to appoint the village and the number of families from each village societies most families to relocate, on request, for public judgment, or by drawing lots. 4) That is until further notice of His Excellency, determine who will enter the Cossack villages near the sea or bays where the fishing is well developed, till the Kuban, except for those villages where residents want to leave on their own. With time, people will settle along the coastal villages of the Black Sea with the Azov Cossacks at major estuaries to form a people accustomed to the sea. The number of beyond the Kuban Cossack Villages should not be reduced so that does not weaken the border population...

The field Marshal ordered the launching of all of the above, at the same time allowed for a relationship with the Minister of Military to appeal for obtaining the permission to resettle new owners of land in the territories which had been emptied by the Cossacks, the Cossacks and others from the rich. This Can be as an experiment in the first period to offer for sale part of that land to compensate the forces’ expenses, which part of shpuld be granted for Cossacks for land. After receiving this order from the commander of the Kuban and Terek regions -from 15 April number 2520- Brigade, regiment, battalion and commanders are obliged to make the announcement of the general commander of the army, the above-mentioned to the general staff and officers and top police and Cossacks now present in the Service ... In the absence of the Chief of Staff of the Kuban Cossack army colonel Borzykov
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, op. 2, 44, p. 9, 10.

Document 140

24 April 1861 - Letter from Chief of Staff Major General Zotov, to the Natokhawaj Chief General Babich, on the prevention of the Caucasus Mountaineers to go to Kerch and other Crimean ports, in order to keep the resettlement of Crimean Tatars in Turkey. Stavropol Circularly
The General President of Staff of the Caucasian Army informed on April 10 under No. 708, that the commander-in-chief have allowed - taking into account our authorities to take effective measures to keep as much as possible on the Crimean Tatars and to prevent their departure to Turkey, based on the need to exclude the effect of the departure of the Caucasian Mountaineers - that any moves to Kerch and other Crimean ports are prohibited. And therefore, according to the General Commander of Forces I have the honor to request strongly that you will be immediately required to send all the deportees of the mountain region to Turkey, either through Taman, while prevent them from going there from across the Kerch strait, or through Forts: Onabsqui, Konstantiovsqui or Sukhum that is the point Messengers, and not through the Caucasian region.

The addition, this was informed to the governor of Kutayski, and the governor of the city of Kerch and the Office of the President in Russian society Odyssey, trade, navigation and the Black Sea.
State archives of the territory of Krasnodar, P .389, Web. 1., .39 D, l. 24.

Document 141

27 April 1861 - Fort Psebayskoe. Report by the commander at the Labinskaya line front, Colonel Likhutin, to the Force Commander of Kuban and Terek Regions, Count Evdokimov, on giving “Berzekov the Ubykh” extradition ticket to move to Turkey.
Some of Abzakh and Ubykh living in the upper reaches of the Belaya River came to me, as they come closer, with a request for extradition battle over tickets for moving them to Turkey. I found the immediate departure to Turkey very beneficial to us, issued a ticket for Ubykh Elder “Haji Kelemet BörseKov” to relocate to Turkey along with his Society of Dakho.
I am honored to put this issue for your consideration and grant them the passes. RGVIA, f. 14 257, op. 3, d 492, n. 26.
Document 142 1861, May 17. - From the Chief of the provisions of the Caucasian army commander of the Terek region on the Prohibition of mountaineers returning from Turkey, and live in the region.
Resettling these homeless vagrants back in the Caucasus means increasing the voluntary looting and unrest in the province, which had just begun to take a peaceful position.
Central State Archive of the GRA, p. 12, op. 5, 20, p. 39.

Document 143

18 May 1861 - Letter from General Evdokimov to the commander at Labinskaya line for permission to issue of passes to Abaza and Ubykh to move to Turkey. Due to report your honor on 27 April No. 66, I authorize you to grant tickets for Abaza and Ubykh to departure to Turkey, from 200 cards that were sent with Colonel Zavadovski dated the 10th of April No. 2319. P j t g a, P. 14257, B.. 3, d. 492, for. 27. .......................................

Document 144

19 May 1861 - Commander of the Caucasian army Prescription commander of Kuban and Terek areas Evdokimov about the rules of mountaineers returning from Turkey and the obligatory note in passport: "... sent for resettlement"

Imperial and Russian envoy and ministry at the Ottoman Port, from April 18 to number 78, notifies that a significant number of the natives of the Caucasus who were sent to Turkey under various legal pretexts, as, for example on business or to worship Mohammed's coffin. They did not overdue their passports, and turned into our mission insisting on tagging their passports for the reverse route to the Caucasus, and that mission did not find any legitimate data for denial of this request, so they granted their request. Therefore, some of these mountaineers have returned back from Turkey to the Caucasus, and, probably, the rest will follow. But we know that most of these mountaineers, under the guise of a temporary, albeit long vacation was to relocate to Turkey, and to this end has sold their belongings, so Resettling these homeless vagrants back in the Caucasus means increasing the voluntary looting and unrest in the province, which had just begun to take a peaceful position. Therefore, desiring to follow exactly all the schemes, the commander in chief on this subject, I humbly beg Your Excellency, to take all necessary measures upon the arrival of those deported to Turkey: The ones who did not travel for actual trade or similar, and did not sell their properties are ok. But who moved to Turkey in order to leave or to seek citizenship and sold their properties must necessarily be expelled from the inside edge of Russia adopted by administrative order with my permission. However, since the relocation of the mountaineers of our limits in Turkey continues, according to the resolution, the commander in chief (which was notified to Your Excellency by Lieutenant General PhiLipson on March 12, № 479-m ), you need to make a mark on the passports, "go for resettlement," so this will resolve the issue of acquiring passes to re-enter the Caucasus. And Prince Lobanov-Rostov sees this as a necessary measure.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, op. 1, 39, p. 29.

Document 145

June 1861 laws on Caucasian deportees returning to our borders.
(1)The return of Caucasian mountaineers and their families who moved to Turkey is prohibited to our Borders in the cases mentioned in items 2, 3 and 4.
(2) If the Caucasian mountaineers who have received tickets for leaves of absence, more or less prolonged releases under the guise of worshiping the coffin of Mahomet, or to travel to Constantinople and other places in Turkey, on arrival at the limits of the Ottoman Empire became subjects of the empire
(3) Mountaineers who extended their passports.
(4) Mountaineers who did not receive passports before heading to Turkey or with the names personally close to their families, but a collective passports for several families or persons. (5) Mountaineers who before returning to the Caucasus present an overdue passport issued for an individual or with their closest family members and is not convicted of intent to take allegiance to the Ottoman Porte, may return to the Caucasus, but only if they declare that they have sedentary life at home or property. Moreover, our diplomats should precede that, in the case of wrongful testimony, they will not settle in their former places of residence and will be dealt with at the discretion of the Russian government.
(6) Those mountaineers who return from Turkey and the Caucasian Leadership finds it unsuitable for them to go back to their houses in their former residences in the province of Stavropol, will be sent to the Orenburg region, where special places applied for this purpose in accordance with the recommendation of Orenburg separate Corps Commander. On the other hand, other mountaineers that arrive to our borders without permission will be dealt with according to the Caucasian Leadership.
(7) Administration of the Orenburg region occurs in three ways:
a) Sending the mountaineers returning from Turkey via the Black Sea ports, Rostov to go in ships which travels to the Danube and the port board Kalat_evski then go by road from the Anaktap to Tasaretsina and again by sea to Samara on board a ship companies of Volga. b) Returning deportees are sent by road through the province of Erivan, to Baku and from there sent to Samara on board the ship "Mercury and the Caucasus."
c) Returning deportees through the border Kutaisi by road to Poti and from there to the point specified in item "a". d)If, in extreme cases, met need for migrants send to Orenburg in the late season, when the movement of ships along the Volga and Don stops then guide them overland to Samara individual tiyami, no more than 24 families each, according to the attached herewith route.
During the following persons in the Orenburg region both water and land are assigned to them before arriving at the place of placement in the province money and feed carts (when following the land) in the amount specified in the following paragraphs.

(8)When the deportees go to the Orenburg region, whether by sea or land, assign them until reaching their places of resettlement in that region amounts of food and transport vehicles (in the case was traveling overland) defined in the following passages. (9)To give men and women over the age of 14 years, according to the list of daily food for new recruits and ordersو for improved food, 2 kgs per person, as control center of Stavropol War I in 1859, which in money equals, during the last 24 hours In the territory beyond the Kuban 8.5 Kopeck, in the Stavropol province 4 Kopeck, and in Don Forces Ground 4.5 Kopeck, In the province of Ikatirinoslavski 5 Kopeck, In the province of Ostrechan 6.74 Kopeck, in Saratovski 5 Kopeck, and Samarskaya 4.75 Kopeck.
For the children of both sexes aged seven years amounts of unimproved food, according to the list 982. III Part IV control center of war or in 1859, which is half the previous amount. For children aged 7 years to 14 years to take the full amounts of money for food but without improved food as the same list covered 982 of the book, Part III IV Decree of war. Note: 1) The pay for food for the Mountaineers and their families returning from Turkey via Turkey Asian ports on the Black Sea starts upon arrival at Rostov, and returning by land border, starts upon arrival at the border. 2) According to the amounts of food calculated above, food is handled manually for each family of seven days in advance. (10)During the orientation of the deportees to land resettlement in the Orenburg region, a narrow carriage is appointed for every 2 families to reach beyond the basic set.
(11)When you send deportees to the Orenburg region in winter the , each family is paid $ 7 rubles 26 Kopeck in order to obtain short-fur coats in case the deportees did not have winter clothing (the price per coat stipulated in the 1272 page section IV Book III of the ordinance free of war. Issued in 1859, is 2 rubles and 42 Quebec), money given to mountaineers are for a particular purpose. Note: If the family consist of two or three 4 rubles and 82 Kopeck are given to them. (12)To accompany each batch of immigrants from points of departure to the places assigned to them by Permanent placement in the Orenburg region, a trustworthy and competent police officer or a noncommissioned officer is designated, of the duty of supervision to put order in the party during the journey, and on-site and promote consequence as appropriate, through local authorities, so that they will continue non-stop. He will also be handed over amounts of money to feed and for other use according to 9 and 10 rules.
(13)Pay to a policeman or officer class facilities for a total of 15 Kopeck daily sums allocated for food over a period accompanies a return depending on the number of days, in addition to the orientation when granting land amounts to the basic horse for a round trip.
(14)In order to prevent the settlers from any major disturbances during the journey, shoots, willful deviation of the route, an armed guard Shall be appointed, depending on need, from 5 to 10 people per party, which accompanies the party from one station to another or from one stage to another, and will be scheduled depending on the way.
(15)For more security at all times, settlers are prohibited from carrying weapons, and are confiscated on the land border or at those points on which the settlers will receive the money from the Treasury fodder. Weapons are allowed to be sold by the mountaineers themselves, or with the assistance of local authorities.
(16)Deportees will be distributed to spend nights and days either in Mobile camps near villages, or villages in the homes and barns of our population where several families stay together, while some people from those villages wearing special uniforms help guards escort and control the actions of deportees for the duration of their stay in that place. The police or officer at the facilities is imperative to spend the night and day, watching over to protect the deportees from any possible harassment by the population during their stay Under the huge responsibility of the latter.

(17)In the event of illness of one of the deportees and to prevent any delay, the sick is to be put in a military clinic or hospital, taking into account: a) not to keep the patient in the villages, but to take him to the nearest clinic or hospital. b) If a family member such as the father, mother daughter or son, if young, or a sister, daughter, niece or nephew, his family shall remain with him until he recovers, and to give them the duration of their stay as provided by Article 9 of the amounts of food in addition to 1 rubles and 20 kopeck per month in order to rent a house, by local authorities, if not in the open housing. c) When the patient is cured he shall travel back with his family, according to specified stages while maintaining the provision of food under item 9, in addition to the right to obtain one horse from the population as a mean of transportation. d) In the event if the patient died of the family that remained with him, after having the last protocol of the deceased to go immediately to the place specified abiding with the laws of the item (c). e) Funds are requested for the maintenance of the patient in the clinic or the military hospital, as well as to his family to ensure food and essentials, when moving on from local authorities at the closest government Council.

(18)Upon the arrival of the deportees to Samara, they are handed over immediately to the military leadership of the border communities. And the General Command of the Orenburg region and communications will receive a notification in advance on the groups movement to Samara, conducting the necessary arrangements for those groups going to Samara and setting them with accommodation while maintaining article 5 above. And it is also the responsibility of the General Command of the territory to support in the resettlement of evacuees sites designated, as well as the facilities and compensations and acquisitions the future of the deportees to agricultural land.
(19)All costs of administration of migrants from the Caucasus in the Orenburg region, as well as their placement and in the province are on the national treasury.

Early. Chief of Staff of the Caucasian Army, Lieutenant General K a p p a c. RGVIA, f. 38, op. 30/286, sec. 869, No. 4, p. 182-187.

Document 146

6 June 1861 - The Caucasian Army Commander General of the Ministry of War on the need of mountaineers returning from Turkey to settle "in the more remote areas of the Caucasus
A large part of our emigrants from the northern Caucasus, who went to Turkey at various times and in large numbers, as expected, been deceived and disillusioned with a comfortable life under the care of Turkey, while in the recent period they and persistently searching for an opportunity to return Home. Since they all without exception, traveled to Turkey under the pretext of traveling to Mecca to worship the shrine of Muhammad, and we granted them passports for a long-term leave, it was not possible to obstruct that, at least for those who have not been able in one way or another to demonstrate their intention to enter into actual Turkish dependence,

* Obstructing their return home through legal systems. Indeed, as I was informed by our envoy and Ottoman Commissioner at the port, our mission in Constantinople had no legal basis for refusing to grant visas to our emigrants whose passports were not extended, and they had the right to request a pass back to their homeland as nationals of the Russian empire. In the same way 50 Nogai families arrived from Turkey to the Caucasus at the present time, and more is expected to arrive soon, but the resettlement of those displaced, who have been deprived of most of their property when they travelled to Turkey, means an increase in voluntary looting in an area where the return of peace needs lot of efforts and sacrifices. So His Excellency the Field Marshall suggested sending those to live in Russia, where they could form communities within Russian population that are not harmful to the whole territory. This issue is of the highest scores to calm the Caucasus; I have the honor to humbly request Your Excellency to the highest state giving assent of the Emperor:

1 – Send the emigrants returning home from the Black Sea, across the Gulf of Kerch, rather than bring them to Taman or other Caucasian Ports, to go directly to the Don Forces land as far as possible from the Caucasus. 2 – Send the migrants through land tobeyond the Caucasian Lands from the Turkish border, from Krasnopoul and other border points to be transferred to Baku and from there by sea to Astrakhan. Pending resolution of this petition, I informed General Count Evdokimov to resettle the families returning home at the Black Sea in the former Tatar Villages. One of the reasons for the common aspiration of the mountaineers to return is spreading between them in Turkey, a rumor that the Russian government gives money and medals to all those returning. So I sent a request to Prince Lobanov Rostov to announce through our councils to all of our mountaineers, who will be arriving for reviewing their passports, that they will not be returning to their original locations, and must go into exile in Russia. RGVIA, f. -38, Op. 30/286, sec. 869, No. 4, p. 22-24,

Document 147

June 14 – Letter of Commander of Terek Region Evdokimov to the Kabardians County Chief. Orbeliani concerning two groups (321 families and 400 families) deported to Turkey. Stavropol. The translator Tokov, accompanying the Kabardian convoy embracing 321 families to immigrate to Turkey, explained that the convoy set out for the day which is 14th of June, has a day’s rest in Brochwi Akup, adding that on the ninth of this month, 41 family from Brochwi Akup deported from the Great Kabarda, and on the third day of the feast a convoy of 400 families from Great Kabarda will head to Turkey. Curious to have an official explanation from your Excellency, I have the honor to urgently request to inform me with this messenger on the number of convoys that left Kabarda to immigrate to Turkey, the date of departure and the number of families included, as well as to explain to me whether the 400 family, which Tokov informed me about, are actually preparing to go to Turkey. In addition to that, I would like to know whether there is still more resident of great Kabarda willing to do a similar immigration in the current year.

Moreover, my commitment to request from your Excellency to seek guidance -when deporting Kabardians as immigrants- from my previous instructions in that regard , and not to restrict the implementation of their desire.
Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 23 and 23 vol.

Document 148

June 17, 1861-Report of Kabardians Chief District General Orbeliani to the Chief of the Terek region Major Evdokimov on sending two groups of Kabardians to Turkey, accompanied by translator Tokov. Implementing the statement of V.S. dated June 14,number 866, I have the honor to inform you with deep respect that, after Your Excellency’s announcement to the population of the province in my care, which was handed to me personally in Vladikavkaz after your return from the city of Tbilisi this April, which states that whoever wish to leave for Turkey can go there only during the next two months, that is May and June, and that the migration will stop by the end of that period. So the Kabardians – that since the first of May till now - have provided 600 applications asking for permission to leave permanently to Turkey, and as a result of this I assumed that the immigrants will be sent in two groups: one already sent by the end of last month, and the other at the end of this month. The first group of Kabardians Launched on the 24 of May, accompanied by translator Lieutenant Tokov, including 163 Kabardian family and 46 babukov family, who have registered for departure because they excluded from being catogarized as Cossacks,. As for the second group, about 300 Kabardian families gathered, and they must leave as reported by the end of this month, since I could not schedule their departure immediately after “Kurman”(Adha Eid), due to the inability to resolve the many complaints against the deportees by the remaining population, while at the present time the Kabardians still continue to request permissions to move to Turkey, but the numbers are not as much as before.

So I have the honor to tell you that when dismissing the residents of the district entrusted to me to Turkey, I will not forget for one moment the Instructions and guidelines of V.S., that are relevant to this subject and I completely agree with your ideas.
Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 2, Op. A, d 465, n. 24 and 24 on

Document 149

June 17, 1861 - Report of Kabardians Chief District to the Chief of the Terek region, on forbidding Kabardians returning from Turkey from living in areas of the province. If the Kabardians think –by looking at other examples of mountaineers who moved to Turkey-, to return to homeland, and moreover, in large numbers ,then the implementation of the planned procedure in Kabarda will be extremely difficult , because according to my knowledge, the children of Turkish Kabardians would rather hold weapons in their hands and form an open resistance than to an unconditional surrender and voluntary departure to Russia, which they see as a high degree of punishment.

It is therefore necessary that Kabardians returning from Turkey do not reach home and are arrested when trying to enter our borders. And it was a good act to send me a list of deportees to be able to determine which of them can be settled in their places of prior residence and who must be exiled inside Russia.
Central State Archive of the GRA, p. 12, Op, 5, 20, p. 46-47. Document 150
24, June, 1866 – A Royal Decree of Emperor Alexander II, addressed to the Commander of Cossack Kuban Forces General Evdokimov, regarding the stop of moving Cossacks in the current year, and the disobedience of First Khopersky Cossack Regiment and an introduction to the procedures that paved the way to improve the living conditions of the Cossacks.

- Your Honor General Count Evdokimov! I have received with regret your decision of suspending the Russian military colonization of the Western slopes of the Caucasus Mountains led by the Commanding General in Chief of the Caucasus Army following my orders. It was more regretful to know of the inappropriate requests and even the rude ones, submitted by some of the staff of the former Cossack Black Sea forces, as well as the opposition made by the Cossacks of the Khopersky First Regiment against the orders of the local Commandant. Being accustomed to see a true loyal servant in the Cossacks to the throne and to the nation, and always striving for the honor and the glory of Russian arms, I was surprised of their behavior to the maximum extent, and the idea never even crossed the mind, that the Cossacks would rage this wicked disobedience against the orders of their supervisors and the authorities entrusted by me. I owe everything that has happened only for the misunderstanding and perhaps of inspirations of malicious people with malnourished structure. Consequently, with regard to the initiators of that and who are instigators of it, I - and taking into consideration the intercession of Prince Bariatinskii- and with all patriotism, I forgive the momentary excitement for those who were influenced by those people, and have all the confidence that one Tsarist word would be enough for the Cossacks of Kuban Forces of trustees and the brave, to show in every location that requires their presence for the benefit of the government, with their typical dedication.

Looking at that, an essential necessary government action, namely: Colonizing the slopes of the Western Caucasus Mountains and considering that the appropriate time of the year to initiate that procedure has elapsed, it is imperative for me with regret to agree to the matter, adopted with your consideration, to postpone the supposed deportation for the current year, for the villages of First Khobirsk, Stavobolsk Regiments and 770 families from the Besk Providence. However, I remain fully convinced that the lost time will be compensated by the multiple implementation for the set moment in advance of the Russian colonization of the area of beyond the Kuban.

is certain that moving to our front-lines cannot be painless, however, this departure is a sacrifice that faithful subjects would do for the good of the nation.

The Cossack faction is designed in the public life for the protection of the boundaries of the Empire, adjacent to the hostile and anarchist tribes, and to colonize territories extorted from them. The Cossack Forces of the two front-lines of the Black Sea have previously done that for over one hundred complete years, and with the help of the Don Cossacks and the Malarosissk , shoulder to shoulder, they were able to carry out operations to subdue and subjugate the hostile tribes, driving the enemy away furthur to the mountains, and colonizing the territories that they left behind. Let their work be mortal on the banks of the Rivers of Kuban and Terek. Envisaging the new division of the Caucasus Region, I believe that it would be good to form two Cossack forces of the Black Sea and front-lines Cossacks, which are Kuban and Terek forces, named after the glorified Rivers to honor their exploits in the past centuries.
These days, and by God willing, the complete conquest of the Caucasus may be coming to an end.

There are few years remaining of tireless efforts, in order to expel the Mountaineer enemies completely from the rich lands that they inhabit and to settle Russian Christian inhabitants instead of them. The honor to perform this glorious work belongs mainly to the Kuban Cossack Forces. The constituent parts of these new forces (only by name with its history as old as mentioned): the forces of the Black Sea and the Caucasus Cossack front-lines forces, and they have mixed now and forever in one unit, and they must complete each other in the common cause, namely, the final subjection of the region with similar efforts and sacrifices to match their old glory with the new service of the throne and the government.
Concerned about the idea of a perfect calm Caucasus, and about the permanent welfare of the brave Kuban Cossacks, I wish that colonizing the front areas would go for their own benefits. The vast lands they own now mostly consist of flat areas, and many of which are scarce in water, and almost all are devoid of forests. The new lands allocated to them in the foothills of the Caucasus are rich in water, pastures and forests. These lands subsequently and with the existence of such intelligent and work-loving people can secure the forces with complete affluence.

Thus, I order you to proclaim to the Kuban Cossack forces entrusted to you, as an award for their continuing brave service to the throne and the nation, presented to the benefit of the troops, the liberated territories from the mountainous tribes in the Western slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. New lands within certain borders, where nature had endowed gifts at utmost generosity, and can be colonized by those Cossack forces gradually according to these main bases:

1 - Colonization goes on an annual basis according to a certain number of families, and preferably from the hunters. Where the shortfall of families will be compensated later at the discretion of the General Command of the Caucasus Army, but preference is to the Cossack remote village away from the front line.
2 - If the number of hunters is not enough, it will be permitted for the Cossack villages’ communities to choose the families appropriate to leave the village either by lot or by the community ruling, without compromising the retirees to migrate at all without their permission.
3 - In addition to financial aid and the privileges granted from the Treasury until now to the departing from the forces of the former Cossack front-line, from now on a more money is granted to the Troops’ Families moving to Kuban:
a) Compensation for house owners who cannot sell their houses themselves before leaving, and the price should be specified to equal the price of the house left behind.
b) Additional funds for the benefit of the departing Don Forces, in which part comes from the amounts allocated to the troops and part from the villages’ allocations with the amount of 75 rubles per family. c) The amounts allocated for food during the road travel and in the new accommodation locations, on the same basis as to the Don’s evacuees both for using the apartments as developed by the local elected council, or for transportation means of patients, and pastures.

Furthermore, as a good gesture towards the Cossack Kuban Forces, they are granted the following distinguished features:

1) Cossack officers and families, who are voluntarily forming the early founding population for these new and important Russian settlements will be awarded, after they are called to migration to the slope foothills of the West Caucasus areas, plots of land are to be privately given to them eternally and are inheritable to their descendants according to possible areas.
2) Those that served for 22 years with a clear record, nobles by heritage and Cossack retirees, will be allowed to obtain plots of land as full private property, from the free military lands, according to a specific annual assessment to those areas, with the payment of military capital. It will be allowed for those nobles and Cossack retirees even to exclude themselves from the military class only by getting: at least 200 Tens for obtaining hereditary and at least 30 Tens for the Cossack retiree. And for the development required for Trade and Industry for the Cossacks, and to make things easier on the troops to their surplus military properties and the Cossack houses, it is considered an advantage to allow people who are not called military, to own houses, gardens, factories, commercial stores and shops, and the initiation to build more of the planned buildings in the city of Ekaterinodar , as well as in those villages where there are administrative services at the discretion of the military Commandant, in the other villages where a population or business boom, provided that those persons are to pay the civil or rural amounts annually either by Sazhen or Tens according to an amount that is verified and, with a particular form.
All those laws of the Kuban troops were approved in the form of an exception to the general conditions of the Cossacks, and is not an example to the rest of the Cossack troops, it was the equivalent for the Kuban forces precisely because of their presence until now to some extent, face to face with the wild and predatory enemy, permanently and over 70 years as well as the efforts and losses made during that period and that will pay in the future.
I am still completely confident that you, from now on, and through your smart procedures will not let any issue to lead to any misunderstanding or wrongful meanings with Cossack Kuban Forces, but on the contrary, you will enable me to enjoy seeing the system and processing with all their comfort facilities always accompanying their experienced courage, perseverance, and dedication.
I remain supportive to you.
In the original hand writing of his Imperial the Emperor: "Alexander" 24, June, 1861. Given to the Tsarist village.

State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, 40, p. 15.16