In18, December, 1893. - Report of the “Head of the District for Mountaineer Population Affairs”,
the officer Abayve to the Section Commander Ekatirenodarski about his impressions on the life of Mountaineer population and the poor economic situation for “a miserable people in every sense of the word – the Bjedogh people” and harassments caused to them by the Administration of Public Properties.
the officer Abayve to the Section Commander Ekatirenodarski about his impressions on the life of Mountaineer population and the poor economic situation for “a miserable people in every sense of the word – the Bjedogh people” and harassments caused to them by the Administration of Public Properties.
Based on the second and fifth paragraphs of the instructions given to the heads of the Provinces of Kuban Region, determined by the Commander of the Caucasus Military Administration in 10, July, 1893, I have the honor to inform you the following Based on what I had received in the past about the territories and forests located beyond Kuban, large size livestock called the Black Sea livestock as well as courage and arrogance of Circassians who are invincible and they strongly cling to their national traditions, I thought when I received the commandant of the province that I will find well-organized villages, with good buildings of Asian-style if not European, their population live in prosperity and they perform looting and theft, just to show their courage and so on, but I was completely disappointed when I found instead of the villages, parishes or even manors consist of rotten houses with no clay and barely covered with straw located in small meadows in the forests and got mainly un-fenced courtyards, and got high incidence of weeds with cattle and horses as well as some homeowners, while the entire livestock did not equal the number of livestock were not equal to the property of a well off person, and were meager, as well as people with despicable look who are dressed unidentified clothes – Is it Caucasian, European or Turkish? Their looks got awfulness, fear and mistrust. There is nothing in the meadows but trace of tobacco as if people and animals are fed on this drug, and the entire area is covered with remnants of few oak forests, few ???? shrubs and useless others that grew in meadows were used in the past, but later neglected. In short, the picture looks as if the people deported from its homeland and pursued by the enemy has took refuge in these places but has not yet decided whether to settle or to continue on the way.
Throughout a year, I tried to understand the life and status of the inhabitants, and to inquire about the causes of moral, ethical and economical degeneration the of the miserable people in every sense of the word, so I reached the following: When invading the Mountaineer population of beyond the Kuban, the Bjedogh tribe had surrendered which they are the indigenous Mountaineer population residing in the Ekatirenodarski Section before others, leading to hostility with the Abadzikh tribe that is close to them, but also the Bjedogh did not obtain the full confidence of the Russians, which got caught between the two fires and their life become extremely unstable. Then Deputy Mohammed Amin had come to them and created an internal class split among the population by intolerant religious calls, and the upper classes that did not subordinate to the Deputy have resorted for the Russian administration support on one hand, and the people on the other. Finally, the issue of deportation to Turkey had always worried the population and still puzzles them until now.
Majority of those who immigrated to Turkey are the best and the richest people, whether they were of the Bjedogh or the Shabsough. The rest here are continuously joined with them inhabitants from all over Kuban Region in which the worst elements of the Mountaineer population have settled here. These scums who have no good leaders had not yet decided whether they want to emigrate to Turkey or stay at homeland, they do not care about what they have of buildings and hardly left the agriculture and livestock, although livestock is difficult to practice on a large scale due to the nature of the ground. Nevertheless, life must continue, as part of the population who are the most energetic and capable, and they have some money are engaged in little trade while the other part which is not less active than the first one, but they are corrupted and have taken the practice of robbery and looting as a profession for them, in what has become the third part, who are numerous, but they are involved in black acts although they are not able to recover their previous status being exploited by the first part, which are the kulaks and thieves, in which villages’ officials are often elected and appointed from them, due to their relative development. I use here the term “Kulak” because usury is widespread in the villages on a large scale unparalleled to any other place, as the Kulak for an example, when lending a commodity or cash-for-grain for the value of one ruble they demand from 2 to 4 “Mate” (Mate equals approximately 8 Russian official units), and the amount of 3–4 rubles for 10 rubles are considered as regular annual interest, which means that the actual annual interest rate equals to 30-40 rubles, and this interest is deducted by the creditors in most cases when giving the loan, therefore, 40% is calculated as interest, not from one hundred rubles but from 60 rubles, and someone might wonder how could the residents bear the expenses of villages’ administrations and their staff and how they can pay government taxes and other taxes? The answer is that almost all villages lease most of the territory, that is the forests’ meadows to strangers and relatives and these funds go to pay the dues and administrations’ spending.
In response to my question, why they are still living like that and why not taking an example of the neighbors’ model ... etc. They were replying everywhere one answer that Turkey and the Department of public properties are the two obstacles, that is the issue of alleged deportation to Turkey is the main reason, and in the last two years, the Department of public properties has become also a reason no less important to take restrictive measures that planted in the hearts of people almost convinced that the government intends to plunder lands and forests from the Mountaineer inhabitants and get rid of them themselves, and the evidence on that, they refer to a single important fact, that the victims of the fire in the village of Punjoqai which are 20 families cannot obtain wood to build houses for them since 7, March, of current 1893 year up to now, and some of them motivated by the need have cut the trees themselves, which of course led to refer them to the court. However I cannot delve in these subjects, but to say that, firstly there is currently no one who want a sincere desire to emigrate to Turkey with the exception of some individuals, depending entirely on the intention of the government and the local administration and, secondly, must decide on the issue of whether or not carry out deportation as soon as possible and must take urgent measures for either deportation or to install the population in the region through the allocation of plots of land and forests to them.
District Commander, Officer Abayve
In 18, August, 1894. - A letter from the Russian ambassador in Constantinople to the Deputy of the Foreign Minister on the affairs of deportation of Mountaineer inhabitants to Turkey.
I had the honor to receive earlier from Your Excellency letters No. 4414 and 4502 of 15 and 23, of the recent year 1893 and No. 1661 of 21, April of the current year 1894 on allowing a number of the Mountaineer population from Tereskaya Region and Batalpashinski Section of Kuban Region to immigrate to Turkey.
Before responding to these messages, I solicit the permission from Your Excellency to remind of the outlines for the conduct of the process of deportation initially approved by the Turkish government, which include 24 thousand of the two sections’ inhabitants of Ekaterinodarski and Labenski of Kuban Region.
After the first batch of these inhabitants had emigrated with a number of more than 9 thousand people to the Ottoman territories, the Turkish government expressed its acceptance to receive another number that reaches 24 thousand from the mentioned sections under the condition that immigration doesn’t take place at one time but through 3 consecutive years and in 3 equal batches. However, the issue of deportation had faced since then a slowed down by the Turkish government. It is true that migration of the first batch of those 3 batches did not take place on time (in the year 1892) due to the spread of cholera, but when the Empire Embassy at the request of the Caucasus Commandant had addressed the Turkish government to get the permission to deport the remaining two parts instead of the single part of the mentioned inhabitants in the year 1893, the Turkish government rejected this demand after procrastination, and did not allow immigration except for a thousand families, were unable to immigrate in the year 1893.
Thus, there is a significant decline observed in recent time for the local authorities on the issue of deporting the residents in the Caucasus to Turkey.
Therefore, the matter was about the deportation of residents of the sections of Ekaterinodar and Labenski the time of my reception of the mentioned these letters 4414 and 4502 from Your Excellency and the reports attached to them, issued by the Caucasus Military Command Headquarters In 15, July, and 21 and 29, September, 1893 under the numbers 11444, 15517 and 15961, containing the applications to allow the displacement of some residents of Tereskaya Region. Despite the mentioned decline by the Turkish government on the issue of displacement of the Mountaineer inhabitants, it did not take me long to correspond did not about what stated in the reports mentioned above.
But now, after the elapse of about 6 months, the Turkish government in its reply memorandum, requests which contains no positive response, but a question to the embassy only in addition to the earlier letters about who should bear the expense of the displacement, or at the expense of the migrants themselves or not.
Although this inquiry got nothing behind it except the desire to delay the matter, but I think it must be responded to, so I solicit the mediation of Your Excellency to propound the issue before the Ministry of Military Affairs and the Caucasus Command, I also add that no filing had been in the archives of the embassy of any trace of those negotiations that took place between General Malama and the Committee of migrants, which means that the mere mention of the previous examples, without direct reference to the conditions of new displacement will not be enough for the embassy.
As for the mentioned letter sent by Your Excellency In 23, April, under No. 1661 attached to it, the report by General Tateshve No. 3220 issued in 8, March, in regard to requesting the permission to the displacement of the residents of Batalpashinski Section of Kuban Region, the Embassy of the Empire has not been able to conduct this process, due to the delayed of the response of the Turkish Government on the previous requests – on one side, and taking into account that in this case, a new major issue will be raised on the displacement of the Muslims of the Caucasus, and their number is 12 000 families or 6,000 persons of both genders (it seems there is an error in the figures in the Russian text - Translator's Note) and put forward this issue will slow down the process of displacement of 24 thousand of the inhabitants of the two sections of Ekaterinodarski and Labenski of Kuban Region - on the other, which should draw the attention of the Caucasus authorities to.
In the opinion of General Tateshve stated in my report No. 3220, the continued existence of the population of the 5 villages of Batalpashinski Section in the Caucasus serious consequences for the Russian residents living in the neighborhood, which makes their displacement very desirable. However, the Embassy of the Empire does not know that from the standpoint of the Caucasus Command, it is better as a start to get rid of the inhabitants of the sections of Ekaterinodarski and Labenski or leave the question of their displacement aside for a while in order to obtain the approval of the displacement of Batalpashenski section. For the reasons mentioned above, I solicit Your Excellency to work on the verification of this issue through your contacts with the Military Ministry and to inform me of the results in order to guide efforts in a specific direction.
In the letter No. 1661, Your Excellency mentions by the way, the decision taken by General Bankovski to dispense the mandate of commissioning a special envoy from the Caucasus to Constantinople to perform negotiations with the Turkish government about the expected displacement of the population of Batalpashinski Section, and I am in favor of this resolution. As I stated in my letter No. 496 of 10th of August, 1889, only in the last phase of the displacement, that is when transferring batches of immigrants directly, their reception and stay in the designated areas, it is inevitable to use an experienced activist from the Caucasus and preferably a Muslim. And to conduct beforehand negotiations, it is expected for the attendance of the envoys of the migrating groups’ population themselves a great benefit. I have already stated in previous correspondence that such envoys usually find the sympathy and support in local government circles, particularly those where there is male and female representatives from all tribes of the Caucasus.
Therefore, if the case of assertion that the displacement of the residents of Batalpashinski is of a priority matter, perhaps we will need to bring special envoys of the population in the hope that they will be able to give the necessary impetus to the new displacement process.
After informing the Imperial Ministry of the mentioned above in response to the letters 4414 and 4502 of the year 1893, and 1661 of the year 1894, I am honored to return the four reports of the Caucasus Command attached to the mentioned letters.
Correct: Head of Department
In 15, October, 1894. – The letter of the Commander of Kuban Region to Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Military Administration on the deportation of the residents of the Caucasus to Turkey
It has been appeared to me from the copy of the letter of our ambassador in Constantinople to the Deputy Foreign Minister, attached to the letter of Administration Headquarters No. 16112 of 28, September of the current year, among other matters that the demand of the Caucasus command to deport 1000 families from the residents of Batalpashinski Section to Turkey was accepted by the embassy as a new and major matter exclusive to deportation of the Caucasus Muslims, that the embassy found it difficult to put it forward for discussion before the Ottoman government, mainly because the previous negotiations on the approval of the deportation of 24 thousand from the inhabitants of the two sections of Ekatiranodar and Labenski to the Turkish territories has not yet led to a positive and desired outcome despite the initial approval of the Turkish government in principle to accept 24 thousand immigrants. Based on these data conclusions, the Ambassador considered to inquire before giving the green light to the issue of the deportation of 5 villages from the residents of Batalpashinski, whether the best from the standpoint of the Caucasus Command get initially rid of the inhabitants of the two sections of Ekatiranodar and Labenski or leave the question of their deportation aside for a while and to work on the deportation of Batalpashinski population.
From this perspective, which our embassy looks through to the issue of deportation, I have the honor to inform Your Excellency that when I have solicited the deportation of the residents of the villagers of Volni, Konokovski, Korgokovski, Wurobski and Karamorzenski, I explained the reasons for the deportation of these people in the first place (Report No. 1154 of 31, January, of the year 1894), and I mentioned that it is possible to postpone of the deportation of the residents of the two sections of Ekatiranodar and Maykopski due to changed circumstances that made the local administration is seeking to deport them.
This is still my point of view I'm also so far, and if the Turkish government has been able in some way to implement its initial decision to accept 15 thousand of the Mountaineer population, I will renew my plea deport these mentioned villages in particular. With this, the issue of deportation of the Mountaineer population to Turkey ... As for the opinion of the Ambassador stated in the same letter for the necessity to send representatives to Constantinople for those wishing to migrate in order to ensure the success of the negotiations, the mentioned villages have taken this into account and was implemented earlier. For example, the Commander Labenski Section in his report No. 5742 of 3, November, of the year 1893, that all the 5 villages, had sent representatives to Constantinople for personal mediation before the Turkish government, but did not culminate successfully, as part of the representatives had returned and the other part had
Remained to wait for the final decision of the Turkish government which did not ascertain whether to approve or not to approve the displacement.
Your Excellency can conclude from these events that the initiative in this case belongs to the Mountaineer people themselves who are eager to emigrate, and the matter got nothing to do with any pressure by the administration.
If I am asked to express my view on the question of the Turkish government of who bears the expense of displacement, as based on what happened in the year 1890 of the displacement of 9,100 persons of former Labenski Section residents, I can say that the population can migrate at their own expense, especially as they cannot get any benefits from the Treasury, for the fact that the immigration is optional act and it is not a mandatory or compulsory.
For my part, I solicit from Your Excellency to inform me about the following matters: Is the Turkish government approval issued late last year to receive 1,000 families of Kuban Mountaineer residents of a practical importance and in effect in the upcoming 1895 year and was the High approval issued on displacing the five mentioned villages? The General
In 22, January, 1895. – The report of Labenski Section Commander to the Commander of Kuban Region on the envoys of the two villages of Konokovski and Korgokovski to the Commander of the Region in Ekterinodar “to hear from directly from you, the instructions related to immigration”.
The residents of the two villages of have made to the residents of the two villages of Konokovski and Korgokovski requesting permission to send two envoys for them, who are Yousef Kudayev and Ibrahim Mamshayev to Ekterinodar in order to personally hear from Youe Excellency, the instructions issued on the displacement of the Mountaineer residents to Turkey. During my conversation with mentioned envoys, I pointed out that residents of the villages belonging to Labenski Section have their enthusiasm decreased much toward the idea of migration to Turkey as well as the agricultural crisis experienced by Russia, has also reflected on the Mountaineer population, causing to them a major imbalance in their economical situation, that would push the population hesitant Whether they can afford the emigration expenses.
In order to end this hesitation that appears on the Mountaineers when asked about their desire to emigrate to Turkey, I have allowed the above mentioned envoys to travel to Ekterinodar to meet Your Excellency to hear directly from you those instructions relevant to migration, which Your Excellency deems of duty to inform the Mountaineers with. Also please inform me of these instructions to implement.
In 15, February, 1895. – The letter of the Commander of Kuban Region to the Command of the Caucasus Military Administration on the number of residents of Labenski Section who are wishing or not wishing to immigrate to Turkey.
In addition to my letter No. 14427 of 24, December of last year, I have the honor to inform the command of the administration that as soon as I receive a list of the residents of the village of Volni of Labenski Section sent to me attached to the Command No. 20692 of 10/14, December, I immediately issued orders for establishing lists of the families of the inhabitants of 5 villages from the mentioned section wishing to migrate to Turkey. It wasnecessary to issue these instructions because the list mentioned and received with the mail of the Turkish Ambassador, was set in Constantinople as it seems apparently based on the words of the ambassadors, which may not be reliable because it may be that some people who have requested immigration previously have changed their minds.
Recently lists have reached me lists, were prepared by the local administration after applying a survey for more than once among the inhabitants of the villages the 5 shows that among the 1226 families resident in the villages the 5 there are 598 families expressed a desire to emigrate, including 185 families in the village of Volney, and 154 families in the village of Konukoukski, and 76 families Karamorzynska in the village, 102 families in the village and Robiska. As for not wanting to migrate stands at number: 33 families in the village of Volney, and 74 families in the village Konukovski, and 129 families in the village Kurgokovski, and 192 families in the village Karamorzynska, and 208 families in the village and Robiska, and the total number of 636 families. However, may not be the adoption of the numbers listed below has a final number of people wanting to emigrate from that later. Thus, there is a shortage of 400 beds to complete the number and the Turkish government agreed to receive him it is 1000 for the rest of the family can measure the number of residents Micobski section.
It is my duty to add to what was previously said that the village of Volney has land area of 5233 Dissatana and. 157 Dissatana land is valid, and have the village Konukovski 5973 Dissatana and 436 will go mad, and of which 93 Dissatana and 436 will go mad land is valid, in the village Kurgokovski 5317 Dissatana and 425 will go mad and 97 of Dissatana and 425 go mad land is valid, in the village Karamorzynska Dissatana 6913 and 1202 of which 161 will go mad Dissatana, 1208 will go mad land is valid, in the village and Robiska 7255 Dissatan 1150 will go mad and 31 of them will go mad and 1150 Dbsattina land is invalid. Overall, the village has 530 152 Dissatana of arable land and 540 Dissatana land is invalid.
At present I do not issue any instructions to prepare for migration, as I do not have information yet if the approval was issued on the displacement of residents of the High Commissioner for Labenski Section.
In 29, April, 1895. - Report of the Commander of Maykopski Section to the Commander of Kuban region on the intention of the inhabitants of Bshezovski village to immigrate to Turkey.
Your Excellency had already allowed me in February of this current year in Armavir to put in place of the Mountaineer individuals who refused migration to Turkey in the section assigned to me other persons who are wishing to migrate to Turkey and will include them in the batches of the inhabitants who are intended to be deported from Labenski Section.
Who expressed their desire to immigrate to Turkey until now, are all the residents of the village of Bshezovski except for 10 families, in which 6 of them from the Bshezove family and 4 other people who are very poor. This distinguished village with having unrest due to the villages’ mullahs is favored to be deported to Turkey with the inhabitants of Labenski. As for the other villages of the Section assigned to me, 100 families have expressed their desire to immigrate to Turkey; but in my opinion, displacement should be only to those who are known for their bad behavior and they practice theft, and that is what I told the inhabitants of the villages of the section assigned to me. Furthermore, I solicit from Your Excellency to inform me about the number of families or individuals who can be added to the batches of Mountaineer immigrants to Turkey from Labenski Section of the inhabitants of the villages section assigned to me.
General, Section Commander
Sergeant, Senior Deputy
In 25, May, 1895. - Report of Labenski Section Commander to the Commander of Kuban Region on permitting displacement of families of "non-trusted" to Turkey
This is to inform you that among the residents of the village Volni, there are 10 families who are unwilling to migrate to Turkey, which are: the families of Abat Narov, Jorok Meretukove, Jambar Telisheve, Ahmad Shokove, Hajimit Kuashve, Medaleh Shoshokove, Aslanbek Utelve, Aughrol Beyeve, Vasletel Hatkove, and Jefij Hatkove, but it is better to migrate the first seven families or at least the first three families of them since the first three families are characterized by poor ethics and that applies particularly to the two older sons of Narove who are Byook and Toghoj as well as Tsoghan and Mehemit Mertekove who are administrative exiles for their cover up on the fugitive exiles fled from Armavir prison, and Jambar Telisheve fugitive from justice who is wanted for the security agencies, in addition to that the rest of the four families have expressed their desire to immigrate earlier and keeping them within Russia will not help stabilize the situation among the Mountaineer population.
Based on the stated above, I solicit from Your Excellency the permission to add seven or three families from the ten families remaining families in the immigrating list, although they have not shown interest in immigration, in this case there will not remain of the inhabitants of Volni village who are not-trusted in Russia, except three or seven families at the most.
Section Commander, Colonel Savetski
In 1, June, 1895. – The report of Maykopski Section Commander to the Commander of Kuban Region on allowing inhabitants of the villages to migrate to Turkey “instead of the inhabitants of Labenski Section who refused immigration”.
The number of families in the village of Bshezovski located within the section assigned to me, 146 families, of whom125 families have requested to migrate to Turkey, while the 21 families have refused to immigrate.
Among the population of the 6 cancelled villages in the year 1890, there are 51 families who did not migrate until now and they do not belong to any of the villages, and they are living in the villages of the section assigned to me. Thus, it has appeared now that the total number of families of the village of Bshezovski who are wishing to immigrate to Turkey, but did not migrate in the year 1890 is totaling176 families.
If Your Excellency has the will according to the set plan and transferred to me in the letter number 4954 of 2, May, to permit immigration to Turkey for the inhabitants of the section assigned to me, which are numbered 400 families, there are other families interested in migration, they will occupy 224 other vacancies.
Rumors about allowing the residents of the villages of the section assigned to me, to immigrate to Turkey and as the residents of Blechbsinski village have told me, who are of a Beslani origin, were circulated among the population of the section assigned to me, Kebshtak Korghokove, one of the residents of Korghokovski village, and these rumors is that pushed the population of the section assigned to me, to request the permission to immigrate to Turkey.
In conclusion, I ask Your Excellency on how to deal with those residents who were late on migration to Turkey in the year 1890 for various reasons and who - as indicated from the list that I received – avoid immigration on the pretext that they do not have sufficient money to execute migration. All of them have left until the end of judicial investigations about them, they live in lethargy, they practice robberies and they set a bad example for young Mountaineers, therefore, to remain in Russia is undesirable and very harmful. In my view, those people should be told to prepare for the migration in the autumn period, and if they do not do that, they will be deported from the region to Eastern Siberia, under the consideration that they are abusive inhabitants, which is the only way to force them to migrate to Turkey, as they are healthy people and they can earn the money necessary to migrate to Turkey by practicing righteous job, the work of the benefit, especially that immigration does not require a lot of money.
In 12, June, 1895. – It was requested from the residents of Konokovski village of Labenski Section which are 32 persons of adult males from the Commander of Kuban Region to allow them to stay in the former places of residence.
We apologize for the inconvenience of Your Excellency with our request that is consisted of the following. With our villager administration placed the lists at the beginning of this year, for residents who want or do not wish to immigrate to Turkey, we have expressed our desire for emigration. When we requested immigration, our hope was that the Turkish government offers us a special financial assistance specifically for migration, while our returnee representatives from Constantinople after setting lists of names of the people who are wishing to migrate, and that immigration should be carried out at our own expense without any assistance from the Turkish government.
Because we do not have funds necessary for the migration, we categorically object it, in desire to stay in the Russian dependency and to join 75 remaining families in the village of Konokovski, therefore, and because the majority of our relatives in the village of Konokovski and other villages are remaining in the Russian state, we solicit from Your Excellency to kindly issue a decision to keep us, we the undersigned by adding up to 75 families from the residents of the village of Konokovski remaining in Russia and keep us in our previous places of residence for the reasons mentioned above. Waiting for Your Excellency’s gracious issuing of the resolution. We authorize Byook Shakhiev to submit this application and to follow up the matter. Konokovski village. 12, June, 1895.
Signed by the illiterate, each of the following: Jamadar Khorolkhove, Tawmerza Kantlokhove, Ghourli Zykove, Yesove Zykove, Bagho Ktawve, Viva Koshve, Zakari Aslanove, Tsughaj Aslanove, Hatsena Yedegove, Salman Kyanove, Khabakhor Khabakhorove, Mehmet Shapsoghove, Bekmirza Blepove, Ghorli Koshmedove, Hajomar Koshmedove, Essa Nadshawve, Pat Zeskove, Yacob Zykove, Bshebi Tlacheve, Beslan Mosove, Saleh Kudayeve, Sa’eed Kudayeve, Mahmoud Kudayeve, Hameed Kudayeve, Ahmet Kudayeve, Aslangheri Shakhyeve, Sa’eed Shakhyeve, Nalo Martove, Mahmoud Nartove, for the illiterates and for himself, signed in Arabic Effendi Yousef Kudayeve.
In 13, June of the year 1895 or late after – The letter of the Commander of Labenski Section to the office of Commander of Kuban Region on the impossibility of meeting the request of 32 families “to stay in Russia”.
With the transfer of this correspondence to the Office of the Commander of Kuban Region to provide a report to His Excellency, I am informing the office that I do not find a possibility to meet a request presented by 32 families from the village of Konokovski to allow them to stay in Russia, and that - first - because the Mountaineer inhabitants were told repeatedly that immigration applications to Turkey must be studied and after the creation of lists of immigrants, applications for immigration or non-immigration from Russia will not be accepted, where the change in the lists of immigrants will eliminate the potential for the development of set accounts especially for transporting the immigrants to their new places of residence, and these instructions have been known for 32 families requesting to stay in Russia, and secondly, because in case of allowing the mentioned 32 families to stay in Russia, it is expected to be followed by other requests from many of the Mountaineer inhabitants to stay in Russia as there is a large movement among the Mountaineer population to back down on immigration and because the process of listing, according to the villages has ended, and now in the process of preparing lists of groups of immigrants to carry them in railroad trains and ships, as well as negotiations with marine navigation associations on the lease of ships, as there is no doubt that any shortfall in the numbers of immigrants will lead to problems and will push the marine navigation association that is responsible for the transport of Novorossiysk to Izmir to demand increasing fee.
Since some of the Mountaineer residents who had previously applied to immigrate to Turkey, who are now requesting permission to remain in Russia may obstinate and refuse to prepare for migration, and due to the need to take action to put an end to the reluctance of the Mountaineer population, the assignee to the administration on the mountainous villages in Labenski Section, Captain Tolmachove was directed collect the money and hand it over to the Treasury to be paid to the associations of shipping and railroads for transporting the immigrants.
Commander of Labenski Section, Colonel Savetski
In 1, September, 1895. - Report of the Director of the Office of the Commander Kuban Region on the failure of Maykopski Section to take required on the set schedule for the displacement of Maykopski residents to Turkey.
Was placed on the report of the Commander of Maykopski Section No. 2982 of 1st of June, which requests instructions on how to deal with those people who were late on migration in the year 1890 for various reasons, introducing Your Excellency’s resolution of 4th of June, in response to demand of the Mountaineer population that “not to displace any person from Maykopski Section except those who were late for the previous migrations, informing them that if they do not leave during the fall period, they may not remain within the Region being delayed for legal reasons. Staying is entitled only to those righteous persons with a testimony of the Section Commander”. After Your Excellency’s return from travel, this report has been transferred with the mentioned resolution to the office in 12, June, and new instructions had been prepared, which were sent to the Commander of Maykopski Section under the number 6850 in 17, June. It is clear to Your Excellency from the copy of these attached instructions that the Commander of Maykopski Section has received a clear and complete answer to his question. The central administration has not received any news from the Commander of Maykopski Section, so it expected that the instructions of 17, June, under implementation. However, the Commander of Maykopski Section has told us in his report of 21, August, that "some of the mountaineer population who were late on the migration in the year 1890, are now demanding to issue them passports to go to Turkey with the people of Maykopski Section. So, I ask for instructions on: What are the documents that the inhabitants must carry for travel and are they passing cards or passports”. The report does not include information of what Maykopski Administration has done, according to Your Excellency’s instructions of 17, June, and even it is expected that the question of displacing the Mountaineer residents was not to be put up until 21, August, which means that in the period between 17 and 21, June, nothing had been done, which is natural that the population of Maykopski Section designated for immigration will not join the groups of Labenski Section which correspondence did not stop on their displacement for the entire length of the summer period, therefore, everything has become ready now.
And thus, the delay causes for the displacement of Maykopski Section residents to the administration of Maykopski Section, as even if the administration did not realize the instructions of 17, June, for certain reasons, it had to ask explanations, not at the end of August, but upon arrival of the mentioned instructions. As can be seen also from the stated above that the report of the Commander of Maykopski Section, presented to Your Excellency yesterday, which points to the instructions on the report of 1st of June, did not arrive before August is not true, as the administration of Maykopski Section did not take into account the letter of 17, June, which included all the necessary instructions.
Date: 1, September, 1895.
5, 16 and 18, September, 1895
Reports by telegraph, addressed to the Commander of Kuban Region from Saviskogo, Ataman of Labenskogo District, regarding the functioning of the Mountaineers deportation to Turkey.
15, September, 1895.
This is concerning the departure of the first part of the third batch of the deportees from the port of Novorossiysk.
Today, departed the first part of the third batch of the deportees - 83 families - 279 men - 253 women from Kongovo to Novorossiysk.
Government Archives - Krasnodar Province
16, September, 1895
This is concerning the departure of the second part of the third batch of the deportees from the port of Armavir.
Today, departed from the port of Armavir, the second part of the third batch of deportees consisting of, 125 families - 411 men - 416 women and from Maykop 6 families 10 men – 13 women, with their belongings. I will accompany them to Novorossiysk.
Government Archives - Krasnodar Province
18, September, 1895
Regarding the departure of the last batch of deportees from the port of Novorossiysk
Now, the last batch of deportees has sailed from the port of Novorossiysk, in which the operation has ended successfully.
Government Archives - Krasnodar Province
In 1, October, 1895. – A list of families from Maykopski Section who are immigrating to Turkey with the residents of Labenski Section in the third batch.
Name and Family Name of Age Name of Female members Age Special notes
Head of the family, it’s Male and their relationship to the
Members and their relationship head of the family
to the head of the family
1. Tyonove Bate 30 His wife Nagho 19 From former Total 3 persons His daughter Nashkho 2 Benokski. He - came to Armavir -
by Maykopski - Section - - Commander’s
- order of 6/9 No.- - 6010.
2. Shebalove Haqar 67 His wife Wajekhan 42 From the village Total 4 persons His daughters, of lachmazevski. - Sewret 16 Came to Armavir Came to Armavir Shokhotej 19 by Maykopski - Section - - Commander’s - order of 6, Sep,--- 1896
3. Blakomashve Shueib 30 His wife Ghoshtsok 20 From the village -- of Benokski. ------ Came to Armavir - by Maykopski ----- Section ------------- Commander’s of - 6/9 No. 6010.
4. Bawnok Ishaq 49 His wife Borash 35 From the village His son Almes 10 His daughter Ghoshkhana 5 of KhatajoKyvski Total persons 4
5. Bjenemokhove Kajerit 21 His mother Azakhan 50 From the village Total persons 2 of Hatokayvski
6. Kwashve or Azamatove 52 His wife Lakhbis 42 From the village
Hussein His daughters: Beghwashehablski
His sons: Khadijet 8 Was sent to
Ishaq 14 + 5 Novorossiysk
Mehmet 11 from the village of
Total 7 persons Mamkheghovski.
Came to Armavir - by an order ------- from…
7. Telfitsejve Merzan 42 His wife Hanif 22 Came to Armavir His nephew Zolhaji 14 His daughter in law 44 by the order of… Ghoshkhan
Total 6 persons Shemghos 13
8. Dokhove 48 His wife Vetsa 45 --//--
His sons: His daughters:
Barakat 13 Napa 17
Natrep 3 Zapetkhan 11
In 23, October, 1895. – Notification from the Commander of Kuban Region to the Caucasus Military Command Headquarters about the displacement of the residents of 5 villages from Labenski Section to Turkey.
In execution for the orders the District Command No. 4918 of 20, March, of the current year, I am honored to inform you of the departure of the last group of the immigrating population to Turkey from Novorossiysk. The Commander of Labenski Section has presented a final report on the entire process that took place under his supervision. The list cited below includes, that is formed based on data information on the population of the 5 villages who are beneficiaries to the right of immigration.
The number before the displacement The number of immigrants
Name of the village No. of Males Females Total No. of Males Females
Total - Families Number Families Number
Volnoya 225 727 680 1407 210 669 649 1318
Konokovskoya 241 704 650 1354 155 465 449 914
Wurobskaya 302 1077 1037 2114 126 406 410 816
Korghokoveskoya 200 637 583 1256 82 267 229 496
Karamorzinskoya 271 786 705 1491 75 233 222 455
Total Number 1239 3967 3655 7622 648 2040 1959 3999
I add to that, that the orders of Kont Tatisheve contained in the letter High Command No. 13159 of 2, August, to the supplement of 1,000 families, who are allowed to immigrate by including a number of residents of Maykopski Section cannot be implemented because by simply informing the residents of this section to be allowed to immigrate, has created a large movement, and the immigration propaganda has taken a large volume, which prompted me to stop the resentment right away to avoid collisions or disorders as a result of the brain eruption by advertising to prevent migration categorically from Maykopski Section. In the meantime, I issued a special resolution to displace the unwanted population elements, represented by individuals who are Judicially accused, but that the time of their displacement with the residents of Labenski Section gone late for reasons connected with prior arrangements, so I solicit from the Command to request from the Commander of the troops to allow the deportation of those inhabitants next spring within the 1000 families allowable for migration.
General Office Manager
In 31, May, 1901. - Memorandum of Sergeant Sultan Aslan Gheri to the Commander of Kuban Region and the Commander of Kuban Cossack Army on the causes of thefts in the region and "what drives the Mountaineer people to migrate to Turkey"
Concerning the question directed to me on what are the reasons for stealing, I have the honor to present to Your Excellency, the following reasons, according to by belief:
The first reason. The lack of prior detention for arrested and convicted thief of the crime and who is transferred to the investigator for the trial. The judicial authority releases this thief on bail also by his thief friend or his relative who is also always covers on the criminal acts his relative commits. The released thief returns to his home and continues his profession in more rebellion than before due to weakness of punishment laws and he threatens persons who proved the theft on him. The thief exploits the pre-trial period to gather witnesses for him and to bring papers to prove that he got these effects in an honest way. These certificates will be presented before the court, certified in many cases by the prosecutor and the security control for more importance.
The second reason. The local residents and travelers passing by from here, they abandon their livestock and horses, and I think that the reason is due to the law which states that anyone who gets a cattle and horses lost or a trace of them found with him must pay its price (that does not apply to residents of Cossack towns). It had happened in the past that a horse or a bull for one of the passing-bye or the inhabitants had remained lost in the forest or returned home and its owner rushes to say that the Asians have stolen his bulls and horses. So the sergeant employs the whole population to look for lost cattle, which distract them from working in the fields. The false complainant does not assume any responsibility for the false complainant and for disrupting the field works for a day or two. Cancelation of this compensation on lost cattle will make everyone keen on his properties and to protect them from thieves. Also the cancelation of this measure will abolish the physical punishment that sometimes all inhabitants unjustly endure. Finally, the cancelation of this procedure will implement equality between inhabitants of the villages and the Cossack towns and settlements’ residents in terms of rights noting that the latter, theft is not less than in the villages.
The third reason. Exile by an administrative order of professional thieves to the interior provinces without identifying the cause of internal exile, which was applied in Kuban Region in the years 1893-1894 had a huge success in the eradication of looting and theft in our area and was preventive for the entire local population. To achieve success sacrifice should be considered one more time, if one or two professional well-known thieves in the villages and towns’ communities and even for the local authorities were extradited from time to time for a period of one or two years by an administrative order, will be of great benefit. This procedure is the most assertive and a demand for the elimination of criminal acts in our region which was characterized in the last 7-8 years from the rest of the Caucasus regions being the safest in terms of acts of banditry, looting and thefts.
The fourth reason. There is nothing wrong from the formation of mobile teams in each section of the permanent Kuban police, provided each team consists of 20-25 people, and these teams divided to 4-5 individuals each, can move from one place to another around the clock to prevent the transfer of stolen cattle and horses to the markets which should limit their number to reduce the theft of livestock and horses, especially at the present time where the importance of these markets have decreased and became in the importance of the holidy markets because their opening in every village and town.
The fifth reason. The presence of police officials in the villages a great harm where they care about complaints and they divide the society into parties and they confront the local police for the sake of authority and they accompany young thieves and often become parties in the filthy deeds for the absence of any monitoring on them.
What drives the Mountaineer population to migrate to Turkey, leaving all their possessions behind them?
First, the lack of clarity with regard to military service imposes a heavy toll on the Muslim population, where the application of the law of compulsory military service with participation in the food and eating forbidden animals’ meat to Muslims will lead to increased migration to the Islamic countries. Sipoi revolution that has occurred in India after the use of bullets painted with pig grease on the strength of religious feelings which Quran teaches in this regard. But if the duty is based on religion’s foundations, customs and traditions of the people, Muslims would eagerly embrace.
Second, the current system which allows for families after certain periods to migrate to Turkey by using passports as a temporary permission would lead to disintegration of the society and weakens the desire to work in the land, as the immigrant asks his relatives and neighbors to catch up with him. If the authorities stop allowing inhabitants to immigrate with their families with passports will turn the population into the practice of agriculture, trade and other works. But when the local authorities open the way for the population to immigrate to Turkey, they leave all their work and cancel their projects, and at the same time they tend to earn easy money, that is theft.
Third, in Ekaterinodarski Section, land has not been organized so far, despite numerous demands by the command of the region, which has agreed to the right of the Mountaineer population to meet their justified demands. The Mountaineer population exploited only places of crops and hays at a time the rest of the land belonging to the authority of the Public Properties Department in Kuban region and the province of Chertomorskaya. This lack of clarity concerning the land of the villages is contrary to the needs of the Mountaineer inhabitants to land.
Fourth, the embarrassing situation for our mosques where the performance of 5 daily prayers is obligatory on each and every Muslim becomes not possible in the absence of Mullah or in case of his illness. These prayers can be performed by anyone who knows of the Quran, where he stands in the forefront at a distance of prostration and recites known Dua’a(s) (prayers) and people prostrate several times, and then they off they go. During these prayers, no speeches are delivered, And it is not permitted to provide any explanations, and they are held in all places - in mosques, on the roads and at homes and rather in every place which not less than two people can meet. This is the freedom of religion and freedom to perform the obligatory duties according to Islamic teachings. But officials do not understand the meaning of Ekaterinodarski Section Commander’s decision No. 4618 of 31, March, 1900 on monitoring speeches in the main mosque on Fridays and force the mullahs to perform the 5 daily prayers in the main mosques. In case of the absence, illness of the Mullah or not present at all, officials do not allow to perform daily prayers in mosques, which offends Muslims to perform their religious duties, and for the public, this phenomenon is considered a kind of religious harassment.
Fifth, the community benefits from the right to choose their mullahs and judges as a formality only and not actually where the officials are often appointing Mullah who is not chosen by the community. In the last ten years not any one of the elected judges had assumed the post of the Mountaineer judge while the election is always held by the trustees of the villages communities who are trusted, who performed oath before holding the elections. This situation disgraces and humiliates the community through their representatives, to the surprise of the population more than that, the individuals who do not enjoy the confidence of the community; the authorities consider them worthy of trust and respect.
Sixth, the decision to build large facilities for the rural administration, grain stores and schools, as well as the cost of constructing buildings for the Mountaineer Oral Court in the city of Ekaterinodar will be heavy Burden upon the population. Instead of building high cost new buildings that outweigh the capabilities of the population, the old buildings can be restored with much less cost. Of course, schools must be constructed where there they do not exist, but without spending large sums of money at the beginning because the inhabitants are in need of schools. As for the construction of a Mountaineer Oral Court, its natural location is one of the central villages, where the population will reach easily to consider their cases and with almost no costs.
As for the cost of travel to the city, it is very sensitive for a simple individual had been called to the court not to mention the waste of time to go back and forth. Other than that, the Deputies of the mountaineer court, who earn lousy salary that is not more than 200 rubles to carry out their duties without departure from this budget. I think that the travel of the Head of the court for a week or two weeks after two months to look into the cases will not be a difficult matter for him out of the sense of morality that he works to serve the people and not vice versa.
Seventh, in his place, there will be the presence of the highest spiritual leader of all Muslims in the region to monitor the work of the clergy in the area based on the instructions of your Excellency.
Eighth, the lack of trustee proficient of Russian language translators has a very negative impact on resolving the issues in all courts and government institutions.
Sergeant Sultan Aslan Gheri.
17, March, 1905
Letter of the Commander of the Kuban Region directed to the Russian envoy to Constantinople regarding solving out the deportation of 31 families of Circassians to Turkey.
31 Mountaineer families (Circassians) Live in Kuban Region, in which these families have obtained in the year 1889, on the approval of the Russian government to resettle in Turkey, and for many reasons they were not deported, and they have become separated from their communities, and because of the confiscation of their village and the formation of Russian villages in their places, the ended up living in the mountainous villages without land plots, and face harassment from the communities in which they live within, and to have the right to use the land, a special budget must be established for these families. And taking into account the difficult situation of those aforementioned Mountaineers, who have lived along 14 yeas without allocating land to them, I request from Your Excellency to resolve their case by deporting them to Turkey.
Embassy in Constantinople
2, April, 1905
The letter of the Russian Embassy in Constantinople, addressed to the Foreign Minister for allowing the Turkish government to resettle 228 families from the Terek Region’s Muslims in the Ottoman Empire in the province of Syria.
Referring to the letter, dated 22, April, 1905, I have the honor to inform you that through the information that we received, the following is concluded:
In correspondence dated 4 and 7, October 1903, talk was concluded about the permission of the Turkish government to allow the resettlement of 226 families and not 260 families from the Muslims of Terek Region to immigrate to Turkey to be resettled in the province of Syria, in addition to 372 families from the Kuban Region.
Government Central Archives - Republic of Kabardino - Balkaria
28, October, 1905
This is a testimony from the office of the Commander of Kuban Region about deporting 3750 people of the inhabitants to Turkey.
I acknowledged that, according to the orders of His Majesty the Emperor, had been allowed as of May 12, 1905, for the deportation of 372 families of Mountaineers of Kuban Region, and it has been announced in the autumn of this year, that 295 families have shown their desire to emigrate to Turkey, in the number of 2060 souls of adults, 560 souls of the ages of seven to 12 years, 560 souls of children up to seven years old, for the total number of 3750 souls of both sexes.
Government Archives - Krasnodar Province
4, December, 1907
Requisition of Army Staff of the Caucasus Region directed to the Commander of the Terek Region on the application of rules and regulations of foreign nationals on the Mountaineers arriving from Turkey.
According to the report of the Commander in Chief of the Army concerning the correspondence in regard to the request of the Mountaineers who returned from Turkey, Chychenov and Kukayva to re-grant them a Russian dependency (citizenship), His Excellency and after accessing your reports, they showed the return of nine other Mountaineers in addition to the mentioned above, and therefore must take into account that if re-subordination of Russian citizenship for those mentioned, it is certain that it will serve as a precedent for many of the deportees wishing to return to Russia, and therefore it is not possible to approve the application for granting Russian dependency for both Chychenov and Kukayva, and ordered to apply the rules and regulations of foreign nationals to them and to all returning families.
Government Central Archives - Republic of Kabardino – Balkaria