12, July, 1861 – Reply of Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army to the Minister of War to allow "some Mountaineer tribes" to leave to Turkey.
Some of the Mountaineer tribes living in Upper side of Great and Minor Zielenchuk, Urup, Laba and Hodz Rivers, specifically Kizilbeks, Bashilbay, Bagho, Shagrai and Tam wanted the Forces Command of Kuban and Terek’s permission to move to Turkey. Taking into account the fact that the neighborhood of these semi-hostile tribes to us, usually used to brutality, keeps our Cossack villages, which are located in the mountains, in a worrisome situation, and that to deport them from their dense forests that are difficult to cross to the plains, which can be done only by force of arms and that it is obvious that this will be accompanied by human loss and loss of time, and I allowed Count Evdokimov to dismiss those who are wishing- from the mentioned tribes- to go to Turkey, for allowing them to go to Sukhum-Kala through Tsebeld, and I ordered the Kutaysk Governor to adopt all its proceedings entrusted to him for the deportees to pass to Turkish borders.
Some of the Mountaineer tribes living in Upper side of Great and Minor Zielenchuk, Urup, Laba and Hodz Rivers, specifically Kizilbeks, Bashilbay, Bagho, Shagrai and Tam wanted the Forces Command of Kuban and Terek’s permission to move to Turkey. Taking into account the fact that the neighborhood of these semi-hostile tribes to us, usually used to brutality, keeps our Cossack villages, which are located in the mountains, in a worrisome situation, and that to deport them from their dense forests that are difficult to cross to the plains, which can be done only by force of arms and that it is obvious that this will be accompanied by human loss and loss of time, and I allowed Count Evdokimov to dismiss those who are wishing- from the mentioned tribes- to go to Turkey, for allowing them to go to Sukhum-Kala through Tsebeld, and I ordered the Kutaysk Governor to adopt all its proceedings entrusted to him for the deportees to pass to Turkish borders.
RGVIA, f. 38, op. 30/286, sec. 869, No. 4, p. 69,
24, August, 1861 – A copy of the Journal of the Committee of Ministers dated to the first and 23rd of August about Settling Mountaineers returning from Turkey, who do not have a reference in the region, in the provinces of Stavropol or Orenburg.
Processing review of Chief of War Ministry sent to the Assistant Head of the Committee of Ministers dated 22, July, No. 919 (relating to Administration of Irregular Forces) on Caucasus descent people returning from Turkey to Russia.
After reviewing that issue, the Committee found that, according to resolution of the Committee of Ministers, ratified by His Excellency in July of this year, it was decided to impose on our agents the diplomats and consuls in Turkey to give approval to return to Russia, only to those of Caucasus origin in Turkey, who possess non extended passports to single individuals or accompanied by close members of their families only, and to have proof of no attempt to become a Turkish citizen, and they kept an address or property in the Caucasus, provided that statements should be taking in advance. In addition, and to urge the ethnic people from the Caucasus not to give false testimony in this regard for the purpose of strictness, the Committee recognized the need to send those who departed and returned to the Caucasus, who do not have a permanent address, to the province of Orenburg to be housed in the Ural territories or Cossack Orenburg as the commander of the Orenburg corps sees best, and to act henceforth in the same way with people of Caucasus descent who make false statements to get approval to return to the Caucasus, saying that they have an address there. Agreeing with that and the opinion of the Committee, Mountaineers, who arrived in these days to Kerch who did not keep an address or properties in the Caucasus should leave to the province of Orenburg, to consolidate with those of Caucasus origin who sold all their belongings before they traveled or they took them along with them and destroyed their proof of presence, thus revealing with no doubt their intention to leave dependency to Russia, to return to the Caucasus without any excuse. But with that, the Commission could not turn blind eye, that according to recent news from the Caucasus, the numbers leaving through customs to Turkey, and the returnees, who should be deported to the province of Orenburg, as per the basis of the above, became very large at the present time, therefore, their immediate sending to that remote area presents significant difficulties which will lead the treasury to spend much to allow the accompanying guards and road rations to house the Mountaineers in the Orenburg territories. Apart from that, it will require many prior actions, which will cost a lot of time, to settle those large numbers of deportees. Therefore, and taking into account that according to the approval, Chairman of the Ministry of War, the Caucasus Deputy, acknowledges the possibility of settling the returnees who are ethnic people of the Caucasus, in the province of Stavropol, and the Commission assumes to allow accommodation for those Mountaineers who arrived in Kerch, as well as to the Caucasus who maintained there proof of presence or any of properties, in former places of residence, and to house the others in the province of Stavropol, and the empowerment of the General Caucasus Commandant to conduct an agreement with the separated Orenburg Corps Commander to gradually accommodate them in the vacant land of Cossack Customs Troops in the province of Orenburg with making the cost of that on the Treasury of the government, and then as provided by possibilities those people will be deported in small groups for greater security, in case the General Caucasus Command see the need to exclude them.
His Imperial Excellency has allowed ratifying the Committee's decision.
The Committee decided to inform that to the Chairman of the Ministry of War by 23, August, for the implementation with a copy.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, op. 1, 39, p. 58-59
14, October, 1861 - Letter from Evdokimov to Head of Natokhawaj County PD Babich on steep measures to be taken against the Natokhawaj who do not want to “Subjugate”. I do not expect any negative consequences on us from ill-intentioned trend of the Natokhawaj for their attitude towards the submission to the Russian ruler, and I ask Your Honor not to regret their current ostensible submission, and I request that you proclaim firmly to the Natokhawaj that once they go out of our obedience, you will aim all strength that you have against them, which will oblige them for compliance. The Natokhawaj served their duties since long time ago, and you have every right to punish them while you do not do so now, just for mercy upon the innocent, who are still found among them.
Then to proclaim to them strictly, that we build Cossack villages, wherever we want, and we will destroy all their homes when they first shoot from their side, and that's what I request you to implement as soon as the Natokhawaj give justification for that, so we have to be frightening to the people of disturbance and unruly when we do not get to achieve compliance through the goodness and tolerance, and of course the best time for that is now. Do not waste it, and seize the opportunity to demand unconditional obedience, and when there is no compliance, do announce the denial of their right in land on the left bank of Kuban. As His Honor the emperor did not accept any requests from the Natokhawaj, at least as I have not seen he has done so. Without any degree of grief, with no hospitality and even harshness, this insignificant tribe has received the Ruler.
It is not strange either, even if His Excellency the Ruler has received a request from their part, he would not honor them with his answer, as the ruler has ordered the ruling to feudal estate to give land for all who are obedient to him, sufficient for living, and this is what I will do at the proper time for each tribe as well as for Natokhawaj where their places have been identified for them, but we have not been able to know until now, the actual number of population.
You are asking permission to complete the Gostog road. I agree with that completely, as for your positioning on Psebebs River, it would be easy for you to take your rations from Crimea, but I still ask you not to delay, and to start that now immediately upon receipt of my letter.
Build this road only to Gaya, and then maintain the direct road that extends from Crimea to Fort Varinikovskoi, and when preparing the rations for Varinikovskoi or Anapa, then they built crossings of Varikiqo to Gostog, and leaving part of the troops to build up there a Cossack village, cross with the rest of the troops to Abena. In any case, building the road from Anapa to Novorossiysk may take time until ending the engagement with the above-mentioned, and conditions may change several times and will show you in a better way what needs to be done ...
If it is determined, the presence of Natokhawaj living at Gostog and not result of an explosion in the tribe, keeping them in place until spring, then will be ordered in the spring to move to the boundaries I defined for the Natokhawaj. In general, I urgently ask you to reach a solution with the Natokhawaj’s pendulous submission, as there is nothing more damaging than to have among us, such people you cannot rely on. If necessary, go to them and find a way, or destroy the districts of non-compliant and accommodate them in the swamps of the subjugated of them, by controlling this community, we will act more freely towards those who are in the front. I will allow keeping the Natokhawaj in their places only in case they became residents and obedient and took the oath, otherwise they will leave their places in the spring. I will send you the orders in regard to your report after my return to Stavropol within 3 or 4 days, but about the lack of rations in Varinikovskoi, Temrouk and Anapa, it is obvious that it is not obligatory to keep the two battalions in Gostog. Until they manage the matter, forces on Psehpis will do that.
Please do not listen to the requests from the Deputies of the Shabsough, and proclaim to them that instructions require not to touch them as long as they behave peacefully, but concerning stopping work, it is forbidden and if any of them is to create obstacles, will be punished as an enemy and please behave that way. The day after tomorrow, the division will be heading to construct a road to the upper parts of Belaya River, and it has been announced to the Abaza about the construction of the Cossack villages, until now it is peaceful situation, and what would be in the future, I'll inform you right away through a special or a diplomatic courier.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, op. 1, 36, p. 20, 21, 22.
25 October 1861- Proclamation from Evdokimov to the Commander of Adagum
Division with a View on his intention to initiate colonization of the District of Natokhawaj, and in regard to resettlement of approximately 500 families of the Azov Cossacks in the year 1862.
Complementary to my proclamation dated 7 October, numbered 940, I have the honor to inform Your Excellency that I presume that we are going to start next year, to colonize the Natokhawaj District in general, in addition to the Cossack villages located at Varenikovsk, previously Fort Gastogayvsk, suppose renewal of 500 Azov Cossack families in the form of evacuees required for that purpose, I presented that to the Army Chief Commander, requesting to call them, and I suppose that the distribution of these 500 families, as follows: Housing 100 families of them near Fort Konstntinovskoy, 150 families in the valleys of Ozyreka and Soko, and finally, a small village that reaches 100 houses, near Anapa. And the place of locating the last three villages, are being accurately verified as a result of the detailed survey, I'll be awaiting you proclamation about it, and that's what I told you then.
In order to achieve the implementation of these guidelines of prior planning, construction should be postponed for the road from Abensloy Camp to Gelinchik ,and to send the troops at Your Excellency’s disposal, to prepare the Natokhawaj District for the settlement of assumed Cossack villages, and thus the Adagum Division’s concern in winter of 1861 / 1862, briefed as follows:
1 - Construction of crossings and comfortable communications from Fort Krymsk to the previously called Fort Gastogayvsk, and on previously Fort Rayvski earlier, and from the last point, necessity pressing to build a road to the valley of Ozyreka and Soko towards the sea coast, overall, roads must be extended also to other parts of the Natokhawaj District, and don’t hesitate to send your assumed views for the roads which you suggest to construct in this district.
2 - In the establishment of fences for the Cossack villages. The system and the productivity of the job and details of the work are thus renewed depending on the level of the success of the work and conditions.
With a plan of action as such, it is necessary to secure food for the troops, since double work in the region were not taking in consideration the Natokhawaj District, by the formation of more new ration stores, since multiplier works in the region were not taking into consideration the distributing of reserves of victual supplies and the establishment of warehouses. Throughout the presence of troops on Psebebs for the purpose of preparation of roads from Crimean to Varenikovsk Castle and the previously called Fort Gastogayvsk, to build there the bracelet of Cossack villages and to construct the roads to Anapa, the transfer of victuals from the Crimean Castle will be extremely hard, food must be secured for the troops by establishing a warehouse in Varenikovsk Castle. I have informed the responsible for the vocal supplies of the Province of Stavropol of this objective, to open a store for provisions in this castle of 15 quarters of flour in proportional with 5 quarters of oats, and must bring the designated amount of flour and oats from the reserve, which is available at Yekaterinodar, to the center of Velikola Gurney and Temrkzhe , and add to that 10 thousand meals of dried cabbage, in order for soldiers to find away from their home gardens pickle food. According to the given command, the first convoy of food supplies must reach Varenikovsk Castle by the 15th of November. As much as the success of the job and the movement of the Division forward to accomplish the work specified above in the Southern part of the Natokhawaj District, the vocal supplies must be brought from Varenikovsk Warehouse to Anapa by means of Supplies Directorate or the forces, from the plateau, as per the order to the Forces of Kuban Region dated 9, October and numbered 78 B 1½ Silver Koubek per one Ferst. And this way, there will be in Anapa, reserves to feed the Division of Adagum in the second period of winter operations. In addition to that, to secure feeding the troops in the winter working period with the dried bread contained within the reserves of Krymsk Castle, they must be brought in, either by the Vocal Supplies Administration or the troops from the supposed plateau to where it should, and for the successful transfer of the rations, has informed Major General Ivanov to call one infantry battalion with facilities, and to be used to build a bridge, then to join Adagum Division.
Laying out the general features of the expected operations in the province of Natokhawaj, and to arrange insuring food for the troops in the winter period, I request that from you persistently.
If you have not crossed- Your Excellency- at the present time, accompanied by the Division’s soldiers, to Psebebs River yet, as per my letter of the 14th of the current October, you advance, leaving at Labinsk Camp the necessary garrison, depending on your view for the protection of reserves available there, accompanied by the rest of the Adagum infantry division to Psebebs (with the exception of the Fifth Battalion of Krymsk Infantry Regiment) with the availability of the necessary number of cavalry and artillery, and a large amount of horse food, to avoid the occurrence of difficulties in feeding them. Situated like that, Your Excellency will start in the preparation of roads from the Krymsk Castle to Gastogayvsk and Varenikovsk, then you will get the vocal supplies and forage from Krymsk urgent preparations in the absence of the possibility of fodder in place, and stay in that position to the middle of November, and until that time, the supplies will be brought to advance on costs has brought to Varenikovsk Castle, and you will be able to most likely to link the specific roads to the desired status, and because between 15 and 20 November, troops should move including at least 8 battalions to Varenikovsk Castle and Fort Gastogayvsk previously, to take over the fencing of Cossack villages there, and to prepare the roads leading to the fortress of Rayvsk and Anapa, and if it was possible to complete the roads earlier, then do the fencing of Cossack villages to the 15th of November, in a way that does not accept a postponement. After sending 500 shovels and others from the Shabsough Division, to be under your guidance, there will be no lack of work tools... In the meantime, it should be taken into account that Krymsk Regiment alone has gotten 1500 Axe from the division. Adagum Forces: It was made available to you to direct all of these axes, to the work of the division, by distributing them to sections of the army that do not have axes, for more success in the course of military operations, provided to be kept in good condition always, according to command to Kuban Region dated 10, August, with the number 54, it was entirely the responsibility of the Commander of Krymsk Infantry Regiment which must receive your order in this regard, on how to keep the axes in good condition, according to the circumstances, when delivered to the sections of permanent troops, since the repair is up to Colonel Baron Fitingof. After the end of the fences the Cossack villages of Varenikovsk and Gastogayvskoy, Your Excellency will leave an infantry company or more depending on what you see to protect the latter village and you will cross with the rest of the troops to implement the above-mentioned work in the Southern part of the District of Natokhawaj, in which the circumstances would show arrangements to do so.
Taking into account that when the work of a large number of soldiers from within the province away from the reserves of hasty dry forage, I ask for permission from the Army Commander to buy fodder from the local population, as had happened recent year 1860, when Natokhawaj accepted submission, then the Division acted in the same way, just away from its reserves and I ask you to persistently that you provide me as soon as possible a vision of how you think the possibility of securing food for the Adagum Division troops and dry fodder during winter period of the operations, taking into account the preservation of Treasury’s benefit, and at what prices can buy fodder from people across the Natokhawaj District.
In the end I have the honor to add, for you to be in the picture, the provisions necessary for the departing to the supposed new Cossack villages in the Natokhawaj District and for the forces that would travel to close proximity during the period of summer operations of the year 1862, will arrive in early spring to Fort Konstntinovskoy and Anapa, 28 quarters of flour and a share of grouts equally to both forts. Signed by Senior Guards Chief Count Evdokimov.
I think that road building work will not occupy your division for more than three months, since the places that are supposed to have roads construction within, do not have great difficulties. During that period, you most likely you will be able to establish from Varenikovskoy to Gustogoy, the former Rayvski Castle and the line.
If that is achieved, then I'll have in account, to move the division attached to you, to Abeina to build the road to Gelinchik.
State Archives' Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, op. 1, 36, p. 25-30.
2 November 1861 - Declaration from Evdokimov to the Head of Natokhawaj District on the prevention of Mountaineers to wander with the possession of firearms between Kuban, Laba and Minor Laba (Heads of border Lines Outposts have received a similar declaration). Stavropol.
We have seen from magazines submitted to me on the war facts in the province of Kuban, that recently a group of savages has appeared, managed in many occasions of committing crimes without punishment in the district of the region 5, 6 and 7, I decided, to restore security to its normal status, for the necessity to risk of indigenous population’s wandering while in the possession firearms in the spaces located between the Kuban, Laba and Minor Laba as well as the right bank of Kuban, from Ust Labenski camp along the slope of the river to its mouth, and to allow them, when wandering in defined areas to spend their needs, to be in their possession only a cartouche and a dagger, moreover, it must be in possession cards from their local commandant. As a result, I urgently ask Your Excellency to circulate to the indigenous inhabitants belonging to your district, that in case of roaming around to spend their needs to beyond Laba or Kuban, they definitively should take cards signed by you, and starting in the way without firearms, and can have in possession only a hunting rifle and a dagger, and that of the 25 of November, it will be dealt with violators of that resolution, the treatment of savages that is, in case of the emergence of one of them after a specified date beyond Laba River or Kuban (i.e. on the right bank of these rivers) and there is in their possession firearm, and even without that weapon, but without the card, they would be killed or captured and to be sent without mercy to the detention camps.
Please inform me of your recommendations concerning the explanation of the above-mentioned, for who should be informed. Attached copies sent, entitled and dated for the 18th of November, No. 1083 to the Head of the Adagum line of outposts. And to the initial military departments as follows:
№ 1084 Adagumskogo № 1086 of the Crimean № 1087 Neverdjayevskaya № 1088 of the Constantine № 1089 Anapa № 1010 Varenikovskaya № 1085 of the Crimean regiment commander.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, op. 1, 39, p. 63-64.
7 November 1861 - Letter of Evdokimov to Major General B. D. Babich about the announced on building the Cossack villages Natokhawaj and to gather information on the number of the population, and draft a project related to housing them within the region.
Replying to Your Excellency's letter of recent 27, October, I have the honor to inform you the following:
1) I don’t have the least idea about the request by the Natokhawaj Emperor the Ruler, and I have learned this only through your letter, but even if they may have made a request, I think it hardly will be respected, yet, the ingratitude meeting, which demonstrated by the Natokhawaj to the Emperor the Ruler as he passed across the Adagum front-line, so you had to mobilize more troops to Konstentinovsk Castle, for a reason. In any case, it is not essential for giving hope to the Natokhawaj with wishes impossible be granted, it is best to announce to them clearly and explicitly, and without further talks that will be adoption of new Cossack villages in the Natokhawaj District in places required by necessity, and there will be a selection of land plots to the indigenous inhabitants to inhabit as per their numbers. I told them more than once and I repeat, that their submission will be an illusion until done, under the terms of their submission, and deportation to their assigned places within large communities.
2) On this basis, the limited military administrations must continue, not paying any attention to the Natokhawaj request. With regard to the Union between the Natokhawaj and Shapsugs for a common struggle against us, so I see a great danger of that on us. You have the whole winter before you and you can prepare the crossings and ports to the territory of Shapsugs, through which you will keep the entire population in panic as the Natokhawaj they will stay under your direct hit, and if acted disturbingly, then you will have the full possibility for instantaneous punishment by the annihilation of their neighborhoods and all their properties. The union with Shapsugs, that if it is achieved, it would free our hands, by eliminating on the ambiguous situation in the district, then we will have the right to act with them as we see it, as an enemy to us.
3) It is essential to be devoted to precise gathering of information about the amount of Natokhawaj population, and develop views to be housed within the district, and for that you have at your disposal officers of the General Staff and the Topographers Corps, that can rely entirely on their integrity when designated such as task. It is well known to Your Excellency, as it is well known to me, that population of Natokhawaj as per official communications from the year 1857 to the year 1860 are not based on proven facts and seemed very diverse, so you do not know which to depend on: It has increased within four years from 20 thousand to 65 thousand people of both sexes.
4) With regard to other items to your letter, you will receive special communications about:
a) The purchase of ration pads for employees of Varenikovskoy supplies store for 45 kopeks per person according to scales specified by you.
b) About allowing you to purchase a cost of 10 to 15 Koubek per weight unit of the local population.
c) About baking toasted bread in the Varenikovskoy Castle as you deem appropriate for the operating division and the granting of funds from the Supplies Service. From the quarter if Your Excellency finds that it is not possible to settle the matter without this process. Please accept the emphasis on full admiration and my sincerity. Count Evdokimov. State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, on. A, d 36, n. 51-53.
29 November 1861- Conduct of interim Commander of the Caucasus Army, Prince General F. F. Orbeliani to the Minister of War DA Mile on the status of the Mountaineers returning from Turkey, and on the possibility "to avoid sending them to the Orenburg Region."
- Depending on for the conduct of Your Excellency of 28, September, with the number 7946 on the basis of rules the Committee of Ministers was adopted from the top in the councils held in11 July and the first of August of the current year, which was notified in your declarations with the number 768 and 7836, which has been started in the development of laws related to the return of deportees from Caucasus from Turkey to our borders, as well as to send those who are regarded by the Caucasus Commandant for a reason or another that can not be housed in their former places of residence to Orenburg Region to live there permanently.
Special provisions were included in those laws, which indicate sending the deportees to Orenburg by land, when going to be sent for absolute necessity, in the late autumn or in winter, when transportation on the Volga and the Danube rivers seizes. However I consider that my duty to report that the fact that the arrangement of sending that would require burdensome costs and not suitable for evacuees themselves, the Caucasus Commandant would be keen to avoid, and by the way, for that the law says to prevent the passage of returning commuters from Turkey with their families, across the borders after the month of August.
However, despite the great desire not to allow the return to the Mountaineers to the Caucasus during the winter season, which has been shown in fact the possibility to avoid. So, this autumn, and with missing a few dozen families of the mountain, arriving at the border without passports, but also in a position to deny them that it was impossible to pass, without violating the laws of humanity.
Those puffy Mountaineers due to severity of hunger and barely living in the companion of dying children are willing to go anywhere, even to Siberia, just to save their families from dying of famine. Since their number was not big, it was agreed upon and through a transaction with the Commander of Troops of the District of Terek (those immigrants were belonging to the inhabitants of this district) for the possibility to be accommodated in former places of residence, where they would be able to recover quickly, and be living proof that that living under Russian rule, is much better than the Turkish one, which all their hopes went to a year ago.
In case if the return movement of those who had exited our side from Turkey, does not exceed the number that it has been in the current year, and that is very possible, and as a kind of avoiding the costs, I think that it is even possible to avoid sending them to the province of Orenburg at all as although it was recognized in regard to be housed in the Caucasus on one hand, but on the other hand, the tragedies that they have experienced in Turkey will be a lesson to them to survive, and will oblige them to look at the actions taken by the authority to establish their well-being, with great confidence.
The amount of the aforementioned and attached herewith:
Laws relating to immigrants from the Caucasus returning from Turkey, for the report which all are subjected to, which will be sent to the Honored Emperor Ruler, I have the honor to request persistently from Your Excellency not to miss informing me about your further proclamation in that regard.
Prince General Orbeliani,
RGVIA, f. 38, op. 30/286, sec. 869, No. 4, p. 178-179.
Information on the number of Kabardians deported to Turkey in the years 1860 to 1861. No. Names of Villages No. of Families No. of Persons
Kezelbek Karma 4 37 Noble A. Babouk 24 370 Juncker Ashapa 20 250 Noble Daoud Tram 1 3 Hmorza Agei 2 10 Tlaustan Agubik 1 7 Prince Husni Atajouk 13 175 2nd Lieutenant Lavich 16 150 Kush 3 54 10 - Noble Bikmorza Getej 5 40 Colonel Pat Tambi 8 89 Prince Yanal 12 170 Flag-bearer Sedaqo 7 80 Noble Bjhekoko 6 95 Juncker Beck. Atazhuk 1 8 Breg. Gen. Atajok 8 92 Flag-bearer Kone 1 5 Prince Beck Nawrez 5 49 Staff Captain Jambik 9 78
20 - Seri (7) Tambi 3 25 Lt. Zarakosh Tambi 51 558 Shakman 10 90 2nd Lieutenant Kuchmazok 11 125
Lt. Teague 2 15 Noble Tocktamish 18 108 Breg. K. Kasai 1 10 Noble Altarr 7 59 Lt. Qunash 10 100 Noble Otyan 3 35
30 - Chibs 2 15 2nd Lieutenant Sedaq 4 30 Noble Bishqozaq 13 115 - <- Bert Tambi 7 109 2 <<- Tocktamish 6 80 Haji Qaysen Shogen 22 200 Noble Mohammed Quzanch 4 38 3 <<- Bikmorz Eberkhitch 6 70 4 <<- Doman 1 10 5 <<Altodoqwa 23 297 40 - Lt. Qudanit 15 116 Noble Betrosh Qudanit 20 190 6 <<- Aslamuo Qudanit 23 247 7 <<- Ismail Qudanit 20 156 - <- Molly 10 160 Lt. Shardan 5 57 Noble Qunej 3 179 Cadet Dautoq 5 85 Hireling Koshroq 7 20 Noble Toglan 7 70
50 - - <<- Klishbi 17 120
- <- Codai 15 110 - <- Atlasker 16 165 Agzag 3 25 Cadet Prince Kelichoq 15 179 2nd Lieutenant Hawed 8 115 Flag-bearer Mousa Kajoqwa 5 80 2nd Lieutenant K. Jampolat 26 250 2nd Lieutenant Jampolat 46 478 Noble Albeshaw 12 117 60 - - <<- Zakhuk 12 114 Lieutenant k. Kazi 29 463 Noble Mohammed Doghojoq 16 200 Jankhut 5 50 Qazansh 7 70 Tao 11 190 Prince Jambut Dokshoqwa 3 16 Noble Khost 27
217 2nd Lieutenant Makhar 19 206 Noble Shanpeh 21 340
70 - Mekeen (or Q instead of K) 17 180 Prince Hazi Hamorza 5 35 Noble Albuzdouq 8 95 Prince Telustan Ali 4 95 Noble Kojoqa 2 19 Islamurza Anzor 18 175 Hatokshoqwa Anzor 25 209 Timbut Anzor 44 463 Yesawl Anzor 25 150 2nd Lieutenant Kogholk 10 100 80 - Brigadier Anzor 4 50 Tembut Anzor 5 70
Total 941 10343
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Senior aide (Signature) Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 40, op. 1, 1, p. 28-29.
“Left by the leadership in Anapa, Panchulidze carried out the special operation on Sujouk-Kala road in order to punish the Natokhawaj. Zolotnitsky had invaded them and destroyed about the 40 villages ...”
“The Shabsough were exposed the same fate. Where the Cossack Commander in the 18th of June, accompanied by 5 thousand of the 22nd Cossack Cavalry Regiment pertaining to cross the Kuban River and moved to beyond the Psekups River, and destroyed within five days 18 Shabsough districts”.
“It was possible, from the viewpoint of Count Paskevich, to subjugate the Caucasus in a short time, but it was necessary for that purpose to start of subjugation from the Western section, to cut on the Mountaineers from the beginning the opportunity to conduct relations with Turkey. “Therefore the Marshal said - It should have been built a fortified front-line from Kuban directly to Gelenchik, and the establishment of several forts on the Black Sea, then after preparing all that, to send ten small contingents from Gelenchik front-line side to the west, in order to gather the Mountaineers towards the sea and they will be threatened of extermination , if they do not subjugate to Russian Authorities”.
“Those same front-line Cossacks and the same section of Nizhny Novgorod special forces own in the second of September, by raiding in the same way another time when they found an opportunity open at their return from Gregorevskoy fortress to Ekaterinodar. Circassians accompanied, who are accustomed for long time on the passage of troops from their proximity to almost daily, the advancing convoy for few Fersts, then left them alone, and did not notice that Prince Amilakhvari had crossed Shepsh River in a form that is not visible observers and rushed to the dense forest, to take the herd had gone to the pasture of the forest near the two.................large ones. The Cossacks and Special Forces dashed with their fast arrows. While the Special Forces engaged near the herd, the Cossacks stormed the neighborhood and captured all who were not able to escape, very simply under their strikes. It showed the killing of women and children in the midst of that chaos …
There was a crucial importance for the similar raids in the course of our military operations in the region beyond Kuban. Without them we would not entrenched in the fertile valleys , which used to be yields stores of Mountaineers. And they had to leave these places whether willingly or forced and to flee to the mountains, where they could not survive for long period of time. That precipitated the topic of subjugation”.
After roaming in the vast region, in the month of November, Count Evdokimov submitted his proposals on military operations to subjugate the Western Caucasus permanently, moreover, that the colonization all the area located between the two rivers of Belaya and Laba and the Eastern coast of the Black Sea, with Cossack villages, and the imposition of departure to the plains or exclusion to Turkey, were to be the primary tool for that approval was granted for Count Evdokimov’s proposals, and Adagumsk , Shapsugsk and Abzakhsk divisions were formed, which paved the way to enable for the Russian authorities and the establishment of new Cossack villages. Also the Bashilbay, the Kizilbeks, the Tam and part of the Shahgheri left their places at the times set for them, to Turkey. The Bselen alone have opposed the implementation of the demands. In the 20th of June, 1860, the Bselen have been surrounded by surprise and were transported by force under the cover of the troops, to UrupRiver, and from there, they were deported to Turkey after obtaining permission. (Page76)
September 11, 1861, The Emperor landed at Taman... However, more than 500 peaceful and non-peaceful Circassians, had reached to Taman at the time, with the intention to ask the Ruler not to deport them from the Caucasus. The Circassians’ crowd drew the attention of that standing by idly, not far away, the attention of the Emperor ... and here an event view of amazing scenes indeed had occurred. When the monarch advanced, all Circassians grabbed their weapons as one individual, putting them on the ground, bent their heads respectfully and then their eldest acted a little forward, uttered the following greeting:
“Great Emperor! We are happy for being given your merciful attention, although our happiness is more on your trust precious to us, in spite of our fight against your forces out of time soon. We are, O our great ruler we appreciate that a lot and swear that we from now will be your truthful subjects, and we also know that you have quite a lot of subjects, so we among them, are only as a drop of water out of drops of pouring rain, but we nevertheless ask that you do not offend us and look to us as to the rest of your subjects. It is true that we fought your soldiers until now, but we swear to be in the future a better and more loyal of your slaves. Give your orders Dear Ruler, and we are ready to implement any of your orders with devotion. We will build roads, forts and barracks for your soldiers, and swear to live with them in peace and harmony. Just do not deport us from the places where our fathers and grandfathers were born. From now on we will protect these places from enemies, hand in hand with your soldiers until the last drop of our blood ... just do not deport us and look to us as to the rest of your honest subjects.... ".
“After having received a communiqué about the successes that have been achieved, His Highness the Prince wrote in the second of December, Count Evdokimov saying”: “Your communiqués regarding the Abaza declaration on their submission, and the capture of Pshada and Juba, and the defeat of the Ubykh crowds in Upper Tuapse have introduced pleasure to myself ... The Northern slopes of the Caucasus conquered ... The time has approached that the South Western Slope will be purged from the savage nation that is hostile to us, and the Eastern coast of the Black Sea which we did not snatch yet, for Russian inhabitants to adopt as a real Russian coast. I hope that that moment will come soon, and we will place the West Caucasus entirely at the feet of the ruling Emperor, peaceful and humble”. (Page 94-95)
In the month of April, General Grabbi had received an order, accompanied by the Pshehskim Division, to capture the community of Tuba, displace and exterminate them. Although the Tuba themselves have considered their cause finally lost and almost all of them had moved to Turkey”.
“February 20, Dahovsky Division moved to the mountainous crossing ... The Shabsough elders in the vicinity came expressing their complete submission, and requested to allow them access to the coast without obstacles and to move to Turkey. On the 21st of the month, few columns were sent to monitor and the burn the neighborhoods, time of departure had been scheduled to the sea after two days”.
"On the evening of the sixth day of the month, the deadline designated for Shabsoughs has ended. We had to clean up all the space between the currents of rivers Tuapse and Psezyuape … General Gaiman has moved on the 7th of March to the depth of the country. The troops which were divided to three columns had burnt all the villages within three days and gathered the population to the sea coast …”.
“In the 19th of March, the Division had seized Fort Golovin. Here a bridge was built on Shaha River, and the Division continued to advance. Then burning all the villages of Vardan community continued, including the destroying of Barakay neighborhood”. (Page 106)
The two years 1861 – 1862, a list of Cossack villages and Patrolling Centers set up in the Kuban Region during the years of 1867-1862.
The names of villages and centers
Villages built in the year 1861:
1 - Aust Jevotinskaya 2 - Verhni - Nikolayvskaya. 3 - Kalazhinskaya. 4 - Ahmidovskaya 5 - Bseminskaya. 6 - Andoqskaya. 7 - Berebravnaya. 8 - Gobskaya.
9 - Bromegochnaya 10 - Nizhny - Varskaya. 11 - Kojorskaya.
2. Villages built in the year 1862:
12 - Varenikovskaya 13 - Gastagayvskaya 14 - Anayski Bosyolok. 15 - Reyvskaya. 16 - Natokhayskaya 17 - Anaskaya. 18 - Novoroseskaya. 19 - Blagaveshinskaya. 20 - Verhni - BaKanskaya (1). 21 - Nizhny - BaKanskaya (2). 22 - Neberjayskaya. 23 - Krimskaya. 24 - Belarichnskaya. 25 - Khanskaya. 26 - Yegeroqaysvkaya 27 - Abzakhskaya. 28 - Mahotevskaya. 29 - Tsarskaya 30 - Sivastopolskaya. 31 - Dakhovskaya. 32 - Bagovskaya. 33 - Bseverskaya. 34 - Hamketinskaya. 35 - Bsebayski Bosyolok. 3. Patrol Posts built in the year 1861:
1 – Dagrski 10 - Jegyakski. 2 - Shaholovski 11 - Nizhny - Varski 3 - Ahmed - Gorski (1) 12 - Zamokski. 4 - Bachelbayevski 13 - Kekhatlski. 5 - Birizanski 14 - Anzorovski. 6 - Yeberzandikski 15 - Kojurski (2) 7 - Kizilbekovski 16 - Ayromski. 8 - Biativerstni (Mustoqoy at 17 - Ulski. a Bridge on the River Laba). 18 - Verhni - Gyageski. 9 - Tsohranski. 19 - Vyostyatski.
4. Patrol Posts built in the year 1862:
1 - Bjevitski. 12 - Aust 2 - Yengni - Gyagenski 13 - Kojokski I 3 - Bsenavenski 14 - Kojokski II 4 - Belarechinski 15 - Kaminnomustski 5 - Gorganski 16 - Metyokski 6 - Bestri 17 - Nagovski 7 - Shalokski 18 - Vagovski 8 - Krestovoy 19 - Gurmanski 9 - Bshakski 20 - Iryeki 10 - Ygeroqayvski 21 - Konokovski 11 - Chhavezebski 22 - Beslenivski 23 - Konaktawski 32 - Ugoshukski 24 - Bseverski 33 - Kabardenski 25 - Atovski 34 - Tsemeski 26 - Huwguarski 35 - Sredni Backski 27 - Shidvanski 36 - Beyaybsenski 28 - Jechokski 37 - Djemitiski 29 - Uglovoy 38 - Bebekyagski
30 - Lagerni 39 - Chikobski 31 - Yvagski 40 - Tamovski in (1) 7th Brigade area.
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, 41, p. 18,10,21.
1862, no earlier than January.
Information on the number of resettled Kabardian families to Turkey, 1860-1861. № Name of village № families № ppl
Captain Kaznlbeka Karmoaa 4 37 Uzdenov A. Babukoza 24 370 Juncker Ashnbova 20 250 Uzdenov Dauth Tramova 1 3 Uzdenov Hamurzy Adzhpeva 2 10 Uzdenov Tlostana Agubekova 1 7 Prince Hasayabiya Atazhukina 13 175 Ensign Lafisheva 10 150 Kosheva 3 54 Uzdenov Bekmurza Getezheva 5 40 Colonel Bath Tambieva 8 89 Prince Inalov 12 170 Cornet Sedakova 7 80 Uzdenov Bzhenokova 6 95 Juncker Bekmurza Atazhukina 1 8 Lieutenant-Colonel K. Atazhukina 8 92 Cornet Konov 1 5 Prince Bekmurza Zhauruzova 5 49 Captain Zhambekova 9 78 Captain Tambieva 3 25 Lieutenant Zarakusha Tambieva 51 558 Shakmanova 10 90 Ensign Kuchmazukipa 11 125 Lieutenant Tyzheva 2 15 Uzdenov Tohtamysheva 18 108 Lieutenant-Colonel K. Kasayeva 1 10 Uzdenov Eldarov 7 59 Uzdenov Shipsheva 2 15 Lieutenant Sedakova 4 30 Uzdenov Otpaiova 3 35 Lieutenant Kunizheva 10 100 Uzdenov Beshkazakova 13 115 Uzdenov Bert Tambieva 7 109 Uzdenov Tahtamysheva 6 80 Haji Kaisyn Shogenov 22 200 Uzdenov Mohammed Kazansheva 4 38 Uzdenov Bekmurza Perhncheva 6 70 Uzdenov Dumakova 1 10 Uzdenya Altudokova 23 297 Lieutenant Kudenetova 15 116 Uzdenov Batrata Kudinetova 20 190 Uzdenov Aslamurza Kudpnetova 23 247 Uzdenov Ismail Kudinetova 20 156 Uzdenov Mulaeva Kudinetova 10 160 Lieutenant Shardanova 5 57 Uzdenov Kunysheva 3 179 cadets Dautokova 5 85 Major Kosherokova 7 20 UzdenyaToglanova 7 70 Uz 'denyaKlishbneva 17 120 Uzdenov Kudayev 15 110 Atelaskirova 16 165 Agzagova 3 25 Juncker Prince Kilchuknna 15 179 Lieutenant Haudova 8 115 Cornet Musa Kazhokova 5 80 Ensign Dzhambotova 20 250 Ensign Dzhambotova 46 78 Uzdenov Alpshaova 12 117 Uzdenov Zahohova 12 114 Lieutenant K. Kazieva 29 463 Uzdenov Mohammed Daguzhakova 16 200 Uzdenov Dzhanhotova 5 50 Uzdenov Kazansheva 4 70 Uzdenov Taova 11 119 Prince Dzhambota Dokshukina 3 16 Uzdenov host 27 217 Lieutenant Makarov 19 200 Uzdenov Sheiibova 21 340 Uzdenov Makenova 17 180 Prince execution Hamurzina 5 35 Uzdenov Elbuzduknna 8 95 Prince Tlostanolieva 7 95 Uzdenov Kozhokova 2 19 Uzdenov Aslamurzy Anzorova 18 175 Khatazhukov Anzorova 25 209 Tembot Apzorova 44 463 Captain Anzorova 25 150 Ensign Kogolkina 10 100 Colonel Anzorova 4 50 Tembot Anzorova 5 70 Total: 933 10343 Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 40, op. 1, pp. 28-29. Copy.
1862, no earlier than January.
The report of the Commander of Kuban Region- the Vice Ruler of the Caucasus- on “the repatriation of the Cossack population, and the extradition of the indigenous inhabitants as a result for this”, from the Province of the Natokhawaj.
It is of necessity in the province of Natokhawaj, to house the Cossack population and to extradite absolutely, for the indigenous population as a result for this. That procedure has been actually implemented since the year 1856, but its actual implementation did not start except in the year 1862.
The Russian Commandant, more than once, in the period of the Natokhawaj submission, to turn to the Mountaineers signifying to them the unconditional submission and to move for residence on the right bank of the Kuban, and to allow those unwilling to do so, to leave to Turkey.
In the second of May, of the year 1862, the Natokhawaj announced their inevitable residence in the locations designated for them, but not to be forced on that by force of arms. If the Natokhawaj wished to be deported to turkey by entire communities, we will not only impede that, but we will pave the way for that by all means connected with us always and at any time. The geographical situation of the Natokhawaj province requires, to be secured in case of exterior war, to settle of the Cossack population in, and the resulting expulsion of indigenous inhabitants.
RGVIA, f. BVa, etc. 6696. l. 271-272.
The year 1862, no earlier than January, a list of the names of families of the land -lords, who departed for Turkey"
1 - Chief of Staff Meet Qudenit. 2 - A student at a Military Academy, Prince Qaysen Kelchoq. 3 - Second Lieutenant, Prince Bshimahwa Jambut. 4 - Prince Islam Jambut. 5 - Lieutenant Qazin Hemorz. 6 - Lieutenant Prince Beck - Murza Qazi. 7 - Second Lieutenant Omar Qudenit .
8 - Noble Aslamurza Qudenit. 9 - Prince Jambut Jambut. 10 - Prince Qabamet Jambut. 11 - Prince Qambut Hambut. Central State Archive of the CBD, f. 40, op. 1, l, 25.
22 February 1862 – From the The Caucasus Army Chief of Staff to the Commandant of the Chief Commander of Terek Region, on the arrangement of Housing of the Mountaineers returning from Turkey. From now on, Mountaineers returning from Turkey will not be permitted to go back to their former places of residence, nor return from Turkey in general except for those who express their consent to reside in either one of the provinces of Orenburg or Stavropol, with considering them upon the government peasants …
IGA RIS. f. 12, op. 5, 20, p. 72.
The actions and activities of forces from the Kuban Region from 1, -1 April 1862 April, 1861 to 1, April, 1862 (on the campaigns and building border posts, bridges, roads, castles and Cossack villages).
forces is summarized in the The main objective of the operations of Kuban -occupation of all the area located between the Upper Laba and Belaya and to be reconstructed with Cossack villages. To achieve this goal in addition to other operations of second importance of the rces, 47 Battalions, 22 Cavalry Battalions orders from the Commander of FoCavalry, and 114 Hundreds, 28 Artillery Batteries, 30 Cannons,28 pulled by -horses, 35 Rocket Launchers, hundreds of Police Members and 400 domestic oxdrawn transport wagons were present in the Territory. portion of these forces were concentrated in the area located between the A large Laba and Belaya, and for more suitable operations, they were divided into four divisions: 1) The Abzakh Division, 2) the Upper Abzakh Division, 3) the Minor (Each division contains approximately 20 Laba. Laba Division or 4) Upper-battalions, 6 cavalry battalions, 30 Hundreds, 14 batteries, 18 cannons, 12 horse drawn, 20 rockets launchers and 250 wagons). In addition to these divisions, and for the conduct of operations against aineers in the province of Natokhawaj and for the construction of Adaghum Mountline, Adaghum Division had existed-front (Including 11 1/4 Battalions, ½ Cavalry Battalion, 8 Hundreds, 4 Batteries, 8 Light Canons, and 8 Mountainous, 16 Rocket Launchers, and 150 Transport wagons), in the Shabsough territories on Sup River, the Shabsough Division (5 Batteries 4 Hundreds and 8 Artillery Batteries and Light), a Battalion on Teberda for the preparation of the forest, and a single Division on the Upper Kuban for building Cossack villages. To protect the Labensk District and the defenses of the front lines, two Battalions, 12 Cavalry Battalions, 41 Hundreds and two Batteries, 8 Light Canons, and 4 Horse-Drawn were kept. In the spring assigned forces began its work to settle the Cossack villages, the Abzakh Division had been engaged which was positioned in the month of February at the confluence of Fars and Psefer Rivers, by establishing the line of the Abzakh border outposts between Fort Maykop and the capital of Labensk, and the construction of two Cossack villages on this front, and to cut the crossings in Upper Psefer, by constructing roads from the Labensk capital to Maykop and Fort Khamkit. Opposite the Abzakh Division downward alongside Fars, the Upper Abzakh Division that was repositioned on 20 Jun, near Fort Khamket had managed to carry out the works. The Minor Labenski Division, which existed from the month of January on Hodz River, establish a Corridor on this river and to figure out the materials needed for the Cossack villages on the rivers of Ghoys and Hodz. Upper Laba Division has started building four Cossack villages since mid of May on the Great Laba River. In the beginning of June, the last two divisions have forced the Bselen, Tam, Kizilbek, Bashilbay and Bagho to leave the neighborhoods that they inhabit between the two rivers of Hodz and Great Laba. And the Bselen, some of which went to Turkey, were evicted on the river Urup, and the other tribes have been allocated to locations on the Left bank of Great Laba.
At the time, in which the divisions beyond Laba were pre-occupied in their works, adaghom Division had constructed a road from Abensk Camp to Fort Kremsk and established an observation center and conducted a survey for the territories of Shabsough and Ghelengjik. During these movements, the Division had intense exchange of fire with the Mountaineers, especially when the ranches and farms on the rivers of Anthyr and Azipso (from first until 6th of June) then the Division was busy fixing old roads and constructing modern roads, to the fall. The Division advanced to Azipso, and at the end of June, it advanced to Shepsh, in which crops and Mountaineers pride in both places were destroyed. The outcome of Kuban Region’s Forces Operations in the summer, the seizure of areas located between the Fort Maykop and stone ford on the one hand and between the capital of Labenski and Fort Psebye on the other, and the establishment of villages there, and the establishment of new villages, the deportation of indigenous tribes and the establishment of the Aaza line border monitoring stations. Winter operations (from 1st of November, 1861 to 1st of April, 1862). In Kuban Region from the District of Labensk side, preparation of areas located on Belaya River, extending beyond Belaya through the valleys of the two rivers of Korjips and Pshish colonization. Reply to the strengthening of military operations in the District of Natokhawaj, where it was also supposed to construct several new Cossack villages and to build a road across the main mountainous range west of Neperigaysk. For that purpose, the main portion of troops in the area located between Minor Laba and Belaya. According to the operations taken into account, and in the District of Natokhawaj, the Adaghom Division has exist as in the past, and on Lower Kuban at Fort Gregryveskoy, the Shabsough Division and the newly formed Konstantinovesk Division have stationed at the Konstantinovo capital city to carry out operations in Upper River Besha. Guard troops also have been left for guarding the front-line Cossack villages, to complete the work in the gorges of Ahmad Gorski.
On the ninth of November, the Upper Laba Division, which was later, renamed the Lower Abzakh Division after the completion of work on the River of Fars, had crossed the Belaya to Khonsk fort and immediately began to prepare the necessary materials to build bridges on Belaya River and Belarechins, the village is supposed to be built at Khansk fort. After building a temporary bridge, the Division establishes a corridor and the organization of a road on the left bank of Belaya River from Psheh River side, and by the end of this work in mid-December; they advanced to Upper Vuntev, have established a pass on this river, and prepared the materials. In mid-January, the Abzakhi Division has crossed to Fars River and finally prepared the road leading to Itaqo River, and built the Cossack Verhnie Varske village’s wall. In the month of November, the Verhinie - Abzakh (previously Abzakh) cut to prepare a crossing and finally prepared the road on the right bank of Belaya River to the mouth of Funtev, built a bridge on Funtev and observation centers at Tupu – Ghwab ford and near the Hbatsh neighborhood. The Division was preoccupied in the month of January to preparing roads to Upper Funtev right bank, and in Khamkit, it was busy to establish corridors from Maykop to the stone bridge and to make the forest ready for the Cossack villages supposed to be built which are Abzakh and Ygerukayvsk. On the 20th of February, the works of the divisions beyond Laba to beyond the Belaya River to establish contact routes leading to Pshish River. For this task, the compilation of 17 battalions, 10 cavalry battalions, 12 Hundreds, 12 infantry and 8 horse-drawn cannons were gathered.
These troops crossed the Belaya River at Khansk fort and started to work right away. At the same time, the divisions remaining in Upper fars and Funtev maneuver in demo movements to distract the enemy, and in the meantime the two divisions of Konstantinovesk and Shabsoughesk moved to the top along Pshish River. In the seventh of March, despite of the opposition from Mountaineers and the heavy exchange of fire, the corridor to Pshish River with a width between 300 and 500 Sazhen, was completed and bridges were built on the two rivers of Fars and Myshak. Then forces returned to the right bank of Belaya and after it was divided into three parts, they burned the neighborhoods and forced the tribes of Egurkay, Mahosh, Hochmzey and Berzykey, to leave. The division positioned in the gorge of Ahmed Gorski, after it had finished its work there in February, had crossed into Fars and was busy in the establishment of the Cossack villages of Sredny - Varskoy and Bseverskoy.
As for the province of Natokhawaj, the Adaghomsk Division has completed the preparation of building roads from the Abenskoy camp to the Ulevinski Observation Center, from Fort Kremski to Varinjkovski and from there to Gustagai. In the month of December, the division had completed the walls of the capital of Varinjkovski and the roads from Gastagai to Rayvski and proceeded to construct villages at Fort Rayvski’s area and on Tsokai River and the Ketilyamij (Natokhwayski) River, and at the vicinity of the former capital of Nicolayvski and on Psehojok River at the capital of Verhnie – Bakanski area. At the end of February building a Cossack village had ended on Betchi – Golez in the gorges of Bakansk. Then Adaghomski Division built the villages of Kremskoy, Yenperjayskoy, Konstantinoskoy, Anapskoy and Yengni Bakanskoy on Mezikchay River, established a path across Bakansk Gorge, and fully prepared a route from the capital of Konstantinovsk along Tsemesk Gorge. Thus, in that form, the forces Kuban Region during the winter seasons of 1861-1862 years - by preparing spaces located between the Rivers of Hodz and Belaya Hodz, for colonization and completed the work of the organization of the occupied part of the region, they constructed roads and crossings along the Belaya River to Pshish River. In the Natokhawaj District roads have been fully prepared and 11 Cossack villages were prepared for housing. Results accomplished by forces from the Kuban Region from the first of April, 1861 until the first of April, 1862. In the year 1861, 11 new Cossack villages were constructed in the Kuban Region and population was settled in the following places, including:
a) In Kuban Region, two Cossack villages: 1) Aust – Jigotenskaya 108 families
2) Verhnie Nikolayvskaya 107 families b) In the Bolshaya Lapa (1) three Cossack villages: 3) Pseminskaya 176 families 4) Ahamitoveskaya (2) 146 families 5) Kalazhinskaya 110 families c) On Malaya - Lapa (3) one Cossack village: 6) Androyvskaya 178 families d) On Hodz there are two Cossack villages: 7) Beribravnaya 212 families 8) Bromegochnaya 212 families e) On Ghoss one Cossack village: 9) Gobskaya 223 families f) On the Labensk line of border stations, two: 10) Yengenie Varskaya at the confluence of Fars and Psefer 190 families 11) Kojvoskaya on Seram River 222 families Total 1884 families The following amounts were spent on housing these families: - As financial aid for the deportees or salaries 786 and 229 rubles Officers, the purchase of arms and the community buildings 18 6/7 Koubek. - On victual and food according to the first category in the 623 and 259 rubles year 1861 and 41 Koubek.
409 and 489 rubles Total and 59 6/7 Koubek. Road: a) Between the newly constructed Cossack villages for comfortable transportation through all the space between Laba and Belaya, once again the following crossings were constructed and roads are organized for vehicles with wheels : 1) From Kalagenskoy fortress along the right bank of the Great Laba, through the capital which is called with the same name to the capital Ahmidovskaya 24 Ferst 2) From the capital Ahmidovskaya To the capital Pseminskaya 29 ¼ Ferst
3) From the capital Pseminskaya To the capital Brevradnaya 24 ½ Ferst 4) from the capital Pseminskaya to Andryokegskaya 23 ¼ Ferst 5) From the capital Andryokegskaya across Mala Labenski bridge To the road between Fort Kalaginskaya Psepayskaya 5 ¾ Ferst 6) From Sokholabenski Observation Center towards the capital Beribravnaya to the road between Fort Kallagenski and the capital Beribravnaya 9 Ferst 7) From Kallagenski fortress to the capital Beribravnaya 9 ¼ Ferst 8) From the capital Beribravnaya to Bromejochnaya 14 ½ Ferst 9) From the capital Bromejochnaya to the top along the Hodz River Hodz 14 ½ Ferst Along the Narrow (1) Iriski and for the length of 6 ½ Frest the road was cleaned from the forest. 10) From Bromejochnaya to Gobski 12 Ferst 11) From the capital Gobskaya to Khamket fortress 12 ½ Ferst B) For communications of Labenskaya and Abzakhskaya Station lines with the Cossack villages and front-line outposts. 1) From Psepayvskoy to Erm pasture on Hodz 24 ½ Ferst When going down on the length of Hodz on this road for the length of 8 Fersts, a corridor in the width of a fire range from both sides has been cleaned. 2) From Kallagenskoy fortress to the capital of Bromejochnaya 19 ½ Ferst
3) From Khamkit fortress to the capital of Yengnie Varskaya 40 Ferst. A passage was cleaned along the entire road for a width of 300=150 Sazhen after that on the road to Abzakh on Fars River, a side corridor in the length of 3 ½ Ferst has been constructed 4) From Khamkit fortress to the capital of Labenskaya for the length of 44 ¾ Ferst. 5) On a distance of 21 Ferst in the capital Labenskaya from sight of the road, leading to Khamkit a branch limbs to the capital Yengnie Varskaya for a length of 23 Ferst. 6) A branch from the same road leads to pasture Mameryouq - Aghoy 7 Ferst.
The Abzakh border line outposts.
It is built between Maykobski fort and the capital Maikobski Labensk. It consists of two Cossack villages, Kojorskaya and Yengnie Varskaya, one enforced point that is Eyryomsk and 12 Cossack observation centers. And along this line a road was built. 1) From the capital Labenskaya to the capital Yengnie Varskaya 25 ½ Ferst and on this route two crossings had been built in two places. 2) From the capital Yengnie Varskaya to the capital Kogorskaya 14 Ferst. 3) From the capital Kogorskaya to Maykopskoy fortress 19 Ferst. In some places of this road, crossings were built. Along the Belaya River: 1) From Maykopskoy fortress on the assumed Cossack village again at the mouth of Funtev (Abzakhskaya) 24 Ferst. In some places of this road, other crossings had been built in the width of one Ferst. 2) From Maykopskoy fortress to Khanskaya passing through Belaya River 13 ¾. to the fortress of Dmitreyeveskoy 26 ½ Ferst. And EkaterinodarFrom the City of on this road, several wooden bridges were built, and a dam over a length of about two Fersts across Minor Chepi River.
In the District of Natokhawaj: 1) From the fortified camp on the Abini to Olvenski on the Kuban River 34 Ferst. On this route, many crossings were set up in several places and wooden And Ochets. andbridges were constructed across the two rivers of Telyahovich from Ochits River the way goes to the dam 2 ½ Ferst. 2) From the fortified camp on Abina to the formerly Nikolaivskoy Fort 16 Ferst. Crossings are built on this road in some places on the range of an artillery round. 3) From the fortress of Krimskoy on Varenikovskoy 45 Ferst. 4) From the Varenikovskoy Fort to the formerly Gyogevskoy Fort 17 Ferst.
The bridges… To secure transportation between everyone without barriers: Parts of the Kuban forces to build and inaugurate 6 bridges for crossing. These bridges were built of materials in which part of them was prepared in the same place by the troops and in Tebirda, and part of it was purchased. All wooden on pegs built according to engineering specifications (3) approved by the Commanding General with amounts dedicated to the military roads work in the Kuban Region. On the Great Laba River, three bridges were built. 1) Esiminski 1 ½ Ferst away, above the village of Psemineskoy, a length of 24 Sazhen, with the cost of 2000 rubles. 2) Kalagenski near Fort Kalagenskoy 4000 rubles. 3) Labenski near the capital Labenski 6500 rubles. 4) On Mala Labenski, one bridge that is Mala Labenski nears the capital Andryokeskaya 8000 rubles. 5) And across the Hodz River, Beribravni Bridge near the capital Beribravnaya, and this bridge has been constructed for urgency without assessment. 6) On Aurope near Bergradnaya’s capital, Bergradeni bridge 3500 rubles.
7) Across the Bolshoi Zelenchuk River, Kaminno Mustski Bridge was built, 4 Fersts from Bergradnaya’s capital.
Centers to secure links across the newly constructed roads, 27 centers were constructed, namely: 1) 6 centers located on the Great Lapa between the Cossack villages that have been established recently namely: Shulohovski, Ahamidgorski, Bachelbayvski, Berizanski, Berzedikski, and Kazilbekovski. 2) 13 centers on the line of the Abzakh border outposts: between the capital and Varskaya5 centers, and between Yengnie VarskayaLabenskaya and Yengnie Kogorskaya and between Kogorskaya and Fort Maykpbskoy 4 centers. 3) On the Belaya River, 4 centers, three of them, on the right bank of the river (two above Fort Maykopskoy and one below) and one on the left bank, on the mountain opposite of the fort. 4) On the road, between Ekaterinodar and Fort Gregorivskoy two. 5) Between the fort of Konstantinovski and Keimski in the meadow of Gregorivskoy one center. Establishing the line of Abzakh outposts, constructing the villages beyond the Laba, and the transfer of the front line outposts to Belaya has granted, the possibility of cancellation of part of the centers on rear line, namely: 1) In the section of Bata Labashinski on the Upper Kuba, 10 centers (Novosolyonoazorski, Chernomorski, Tersakanski, Verhnie Barsokovski, Ahnovski, Bodkamin, Novorenevinski, Novenki and Redotski). 2) In the Stavropol section in the Mid Kuban, 6 centers (Zakobanski No. 4, Yasenovabalkovski, Babski Muskovski, Tmanski and Bes Abansi) 3) In the border outposts’ line section of the lower Kuban 11 centers were eliminated (Bogazski, Novoridotski, Yurkovski, Blebski, Yelisavitineski, Alexandovski, Veliko - Marinski, Alkandri, and Bodmagelni). 4) On the Aurop outposts’ line, two centers (Blagadatni and Goltokski). 5) On the Lower Labenki line, three centers (Gregovski, Yudolski and Atvagni) Total Disbanded 32 centers.
Changes took place in the administrations of troop’s barracks and hospitals. With the development of military operations and the occupancy of our villages of the areas that are in the Upper streams of Kuban, some parts of the Kuban forces became expelled from their Staff Headquarters, and in order to avoid discomfort resulting of that, and for the aim of bringing between masterminds of Affairs of these forces and their fighting sections, the following Staff Headquarters have been transferred temporarily to locations closer to the battlefield: 1) Staff Headquarters of Stavropol Regiment transferred from Aust Lapa to Fort .Gregorvskoy Frontier Third Battalion of Fort Kalagenskoy to the capital Beribravnaya. 2) The 3) Special Tverski Regiment from the capital to the capital Elinskaya to the capital Temirgoyvskaya. 4) Special Yengivorodski Regiment from Tehoretski to Fort Maykopskoy. 5) Special Severski Regiment from Medvidovskoy to Marinskoy. 6) The Cossack Don Regiment No. 19 from Fort Adaghomki to Anapa. 7) The Cossack Don Regiment No. 30 from Ubornaya to Gobskaya. 8) The Fifth Light Battery from Auropskaya to Fort Krimskoy. 9) The Mountainous Battery from Krimskoy Fortress to Maykopskoy Fortress. The change in the cost of the new staff forces, in the places that got no available ready buildings, has concluded in the form of permanent camps and wooden buildings were built for the people, and a shed for the animals. The necessary expenses to establish that is determined to be 15 thousand rubles. And for more of an appropriate use by the subordinates , the military clinics including the Kuban Infantry Regiment clinic including the fortress have been strengthened with 600 beds, and the Fort Sevastobelskoy clinic in Fort Psebaysk with 300 beds, instead of a third degree hospital.
In Fort Kalagenskoy, a temporary First Class Military Clinic was inaugurated that is enough for 200 beds, and in the city of Temryuk with a capacity of 100 beds, and the Military Phalanges Clinic attached to Krimsk Regiment in the Fort of Konstantinoveskoy was strengthened by 60 beds. Besk Military Hospital and Alexandovski Temporary Hospital in the capital Alexandrovsk were eliminated. 16.-1 2U, 45, p. 347, op. State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p.
18 April 1862, communiqué from the Commander of the Forces for the troops under his command for the special mandate of Colonel Abdelrahmanov to go to Laba, and to inform all inhabitants that the authorities allow them to escape beyond the borders, without hindrance. Taking into consideration that many of the indigenous inhabitants’ communities which are not subjugated to us, whether in Dakhovsk or those who are living on the left bank of Belaya River, are hoping for the time being to leave homeland and move to Turkey, convinced of the futility of continuing with our struggle, I considered it feasible to allow each of such those indigenous inhabitants, the expulsion beyond the borders unimpeded and even offer them the opportunity to implement their intent, without invading their properties, and for that goal, I request that you urgently proceed to beyond Laba, upon receipt of this message of mine, and to proclaim on my behalf for the tribes which are not submitted to us: 1) To allow all the indigenous population who are wishing to move to Turkey, to proceed there by any way that they find it more convenient for them. 2) Passports will be granted immediately to all those who show that desire, for free departure with their families and their properties. 3) Those who are willing to sell their properties of horses and cattle, etc., before setting off to beyond the borders, they can go in advance to our humble Cossack villages, on River Laba and between Laba and Belaya, but they have to go there with no weapons and all who wish to obtain passports or Passage Cards to Laba, are to sell their properties, stop immediately any aggressive operations against us, stay away from Mountaineers who are hostile to us and assemble in the form of camps on the left bank of the Belaya River near Fort Maykopskoi or the imposed Cossack villages of Evedokavski and Abazaskoi, or near Fort Khamketskoi .
And I turn to Your Honored Excellency to request that. Then I leave on to Your Excellency to send Mountaineers who desire to go away to Turkey, as presented forward, to provide all indigenous inhabitants, whether non- submitted or submitted in the past, of Mahosh and Leveroqwai, who headed to beyond Belaya to the enemy, and who declare their readiness to go abroad, with application forms for passports ¶ with the collection of 51 Koubek for each and every one of them. As for the Pass Cards to the Cossack villages located on Laba and between Laba and Belaya, without charge and it is assumed for that 500 Passport application forms and the same number of Pass cards.
These applications must be registered in the ledger upon arrival and to record the expenses that were made, with highlighting the name of the family vertically for the family that is handed the passport or the pass card, and the number of persons in the family. If some of the indigenous inhabitants who are not submitted to us, are requesting to settle within our borders, Your Honored Excellency is to send them accompanied by their families, according to family lists to the Acting Commander of Labinsk District in the capital city of Labinskaya to be resettled in the specified locations, and after you solicit that from the Commandants of military security. With a copy of that, Major General Tikhotsky and Colonels Borshkov and Gyeman are to proffer all the assistance in the implementation of the task entrusted to you, I urge you please to inform me of developments with the presentation of passports, pass cards, registering booklets and the amounts allocated for the passports which had not been spent.
Accordingly, a copy of this communiqué to the Commander of the Independent Division Cavalry Colonel Gyeman, I urgently request from Your Honored Excellency to submit to Colonel Abdelrahmanov any necessary assistance for a successful implementation of the task entrusted to him.
RGVIA, f. 14 257, op. 3, d 528, n. 1-2.
“Fetza Abdrahmanov has begun service at the age of 24 years as an armed member of guards in the Mountaineer Caucasus Fleet in the year 1838. In the year 1847, he was appointed as a Commander of the Mountaineer Anabisk Fleet. In the year 1855, he achieved the title of Brigadier General, and later on, in the year 1857, he was appointed in the position of Head of Nogai Police Center beyond Kuban, then he was head of Police Stations of Districts of Altokhtamish. In the year (1859) he took part in several clashes with the Mountaineers, his origin is Kabarday, married to the Kabardian ke Suge, before he was appointed, he had a son, 10 years old, Hajji Baker, he used to embrace the Mohammedan religion. Colonel Officer F. Abdrahmanov is 45 years old. He is qualified "Eligible for promotion”.
In October of the year 1862, two temporary police stations were formed, Verhni Labinskoy and Yengni Labinskoy "to have supervision over the Kabardians, Temryuks and Hatoquai who moved from the mountains and accommodated on the left bank of Laba, and for the Mountaineer tribes that will be repopulated in these areas in the future.
He was appointed in the position of Head of Verhni Labinski Ploice Station according to his qualifications in the Caucasus Army, Colonel F. Abdrahmanov. Also he was entrusted to manage temporarily, the Yengni Labinskoy Police Station.
RGVIA, f. 38, op. 7, d 416, n. 1-3.
20 April 1862. - A letter from the Commander of the Forces, General Evdokimov to the Commander of the Lower Kuban cordon line General Kukharenko on "utilitarian" of deportation of the Bjadogh abroad. Stavropol city I have been informed by my assistant in the Cossacks Kuban army Command, General Ivanov, who acted as the commander of the border line Nizhny Kubanski during the period of absence of You Excellency in his letter dated 13, April that: 1) in response to our announced orders in late part of recent March, to the Bjadogh people, for the transfer of their villages before first of May, to the locations designated for that or to leave to Turkey, the Bjadogh expressed their unconditional readiness for the implementation of this request, noting that between 150 to 200 families and the heads of the majority of them who are of influence, who were inciting the rest on non-compliance has expressed a desire to emigrate to Turkey in the set schedule, that is until first of May, 2 ) The Hatoquai who have recently joined the enemy, have returned to their former places of residence and expressed their willingness to comply with our orders. Based on my conviction, for the utilitarian of deporting all the indigenous inhabitants who wish to immigrate to Turkey abroad as soon as possible I attach herewith to Your Excellency, 200 blank passports in the cord and the book I beg you: 1. Provide all Bjadogh whether they have declared their desire to emigrate to Turkey and who would do that in the future with passports in the city of Ekatrenodar, with the prerequisite of 51 Koubek for each copy and to transfer them in the usual way to Taman to board ships destined for Turkey in cooperation with the Military Commander of Tamanskaya Station, and there is no need for the presence of an officer particularly to monitor the process to transfer them abroad. 2. To inform the Hatoquai that because of their betrayal of loyalty and their joining the enemy have lost the right to establish a village of their own in the positions allocated for Bjadogh, so they should leave to Turkey, but those who do not wish to leave to Turkey, should be deployed in the other Bjadogh villages in accordance with the orders of the Commander of the District and by the approval of the inhabitants of those villag s. Then I solicit you to send lists of local families that will be transferred abroad with the money collected on the passport attached with the ledger, provided that it should be recorded in this ledger the amount received for 200 copies as income, and to calculate the expenses related to, with mentioning their names of heads of families recipients of the passports and the number of family members, and whether they are males and females.
3 May 1862. - The command issued by Evdokimov to the Commander of the fort of Maykop, Colonel Gorshkov about the fundamentals of the deporting the Temryuks. I have allowed the Temryuks residents beyond the Belaya River (and means by Temegoy all the tribes belonging to them of Yejerqwai and Mamkhir) to sell their cattle on our lines and to migrate to Turkey after getting tickets from me, and that must take place on the following basis:
1. I have ordered the Temryuks in response to their sincere intention to adhere to bring three hostages, of their best families, keeping in mind that those hostages should be placed under the observation of the Maykop Commander and at the expense of their families. 2. After handing over the hostages, all Temryuks residing beyond the Belaya River should be informed immediately and in the manner that you deem appropriate, that we will stop receiving the slaves from them because they have to leave to Turkey with their owners, noting that the slaves who would come to us even after one hour of that, will be considered free, and 3. After that all Temryuks wishing to immigrate to Turkey should gather in a camp between the fortresses of Maykop and Tobogwab and to start selling their properties, according to the following arrangements: a) For the Temryuks wishing to move their livestock to our rear lines in order to sell, tickets must be available for in 3 directions, where those who want to sell in the First Division of the Kuban Army and in Lower Laba, tickets will be granted to pass across the Tengenski bridge until the two towns of Aust Labenskaya and Ladojeskaya only, and those who wanted to sell on Labenskaya line and on Kuban in the two Divisions II and III of the Kuban Army, tickets will be issued until the town until the town of Labenskaya only, and they will be strictly prevented to approach the Armenian town, and finally, those of them who want to sell their livestock in the two Divisions of Worobskaya and Khobyorskaya, tickets will be issued to them until the town Verkhni Nikolayvskaya located on River Kuban, b) All persons heading towards the lines of for the purpose of sale not to carry firearms with a note on that in the travel tickets, c) when passing through the lines, it is allowed only one group of each of the mentioned categories provided that the number of members of the group doesn’t exceed 4 persons, and
4. To inform the Labenski-line Command about the Temryuks cattle groups’ passing over for the purpose of sale. Furthermore, I request from Your Excellency to take effective actions to accelerate the process of selling the Temryuks’ property so as not to destroy our vegetation in vain, and to inform the Commander of Maykop with everything going on with all the details, with assigning him with all important details of the task mentioned above and under the supervision of Your Excellency.
Colonel Abdrahmanov is who will hand over passports to the Temryuks.
The order of Chief of Staff of the Kuban region commander of the 7th Brigade of the Kuban Cossack army troop Sergeant Rostkowska on the destruction of villages abandoned by Barakay and Bagho. I have been informed of Colonel Abdrahmanov in his report No. 27 of 16, May that he had, according to the instructions received from the Commander of Troops deported the population of Mazakov to the right bank of Fars River and the deportation of the village of Salman Bzeghaws as well as the Barakay and Bagho towards Fort Hamkiti, and hostages had been taken from all of these tribes. Because these abandoned villages may become refuge for small criminal groups, His Excellency has ordered me, to request from Your Excellency to collect several hundreds of the Division reservists positioned under your leadership to go to the territory of the mentioned tribes, to burn all the abandoned villages by the Bagho, Barakay and Shakhgeri and the village of Salman Bzeghaws, as for the village of mazakov, His Excellency has ordered not to destroy until further notice because it is located away from the place where our troops are stationed near Fort Hamkiti. After informing you about the matter, I request from Your Excellency to inform the Commander of the troops of what occurs later on.
28 May 1862 – Report to the Chief of Lower Abadzehskogo detachment commander Colonel Gorshkov to the Commander of the Kuban Region, General Evdokimov for the purpose of getting three hostages from the leadership of the leader families of three Temryuk villages Based on the instructions No. 50 issued by Your Excellency on the third of current May, I have the honor to inform you that three Temryuk hostages have been brought to Maykop namely: Abu Bakir Tayshaw from the village of Kayrbek Bolotokov belonging to the Temryuk, Ibrahim Cholv from Islambek Ajegweev village belonging to the Yejerqwai, and Musa Koysh from the village of Colonel Sala Ahmet Batokov so as to ensure the implementation of their commitments after that Your Excellency have allowed them to sell their properties, which began since the 23rd of the current month, according to the mentioned conditions.
But since the instructions No. 50 contains the will of Your Excellency to make the Temryuk to sell their properties as quickly as possible without setting a date for that, I have informed in writing by Arabic Language that a period of 3 months will be calculated since 3, May, that is, since I received your instructions, and then, if they don’t implement those instructions, all peaceful relations with them will cease. This procedure was necessary because they are - to my knowledge - they intend to postpone the migration until the autumn for securing something of sustenance for the winter, though some of them intend to immigrate to Turkey now, they do not exceed 20 families from all tribes.
In the meantime, the commanders of the military divisions based on the second part of instructions No. 50 have informed the slaves that the Russians will return them in the event of their escape and taking refuge with the Russians and for this reason, I have ended the work begun on the deportation of the slaves.
31 May 1862 – A letter from the Chief of Staff to Colonel Abdrahmanov with the transfer to Evdokimov’s response to the request of Barakay and the reference for the need to sell their property and to emigrate to Turkey "as per the schedule" The Commander of Troops has ordered me, based on the report submitted by Your Excellency No. 53, issued in 24, May, on the request of the Barakay with the following: Stop accepting such unjustified requests from the Barakay, and to inform them for the need of selling the properties and emigrate to Turkey as per the schedule, and that who doesn’t do that until the mentioned date will be treated as an enemy.
I have the honor to inform Your Excellency as per the order of General Evdokimov for the purposes of implementation.
Document 182 15
July 1862 – The report of Chief of Troops stationed in the Fort of Hamkiti, Colonel Gotz to the Commander of Kuban Region troops Count Evdokimov in regard to joining the Bagho and Barakay to the Mountaineer rebels who attacked Hamkiti in 14, June and then fled to the mountains. According to the instructions of Chief of Staff of the Forces to Your Excellency No. 57, issued on the 14th of current May, the Abzakh of the upper areas, the Bagho’s and the Barakay’s, wishing to emigrate to Turkey and who were accommodated in temporary camps near the Fort of Hamkiti as per my instructions, under my supervision and with my efforts to get them to sell their livestock and their properties as soon as possible and after the attack on Fort Hamkiti on the 14th of the current month, which rebels participated along with the Mountaineer population, have escaped from the camps to the mountains and no longer any of these tribes exists now. Given the presence of 5 hostages of the mentioned tribes now in Fort Hamkiti, I request from Your Excellency to issue a decision about them, and where to transfer them, and to let me know about the matter. Colonel Gotz
23 July 1862 – The report of the Commander of Nagorni Military District Colonel Gyeman to the Commander of the Kuban Region, Count Evdokimov on the escape of the Abaza of Upper areas and the Barakay to the mountains (and the question of how to deal with the remaining hostages in Hamkiti) The Abaza of the Upper areas and the Barakay have fled to the mountains, and the hostages remained in the Fort of Hamkiti, which they are guarded, and among those hostages, one of the Maratuk clan, but because the Maratuk have received the immigration card to Turkey, the hostage will be returned to them. As for the others who had their relatives left, they have no way to secure food to them, so I assigned them to daily subsistence allowance. Accordingly, I request that Your Excellency would honor me with your instructions for the way to establish secure the hostages and where must be transferred. (Signed) Colonel Gyeman
25 September1862 - From the Headquarters of Kuban Region Forces to the Commander of the District of Natokhayski, General Babich on the deportation of 18 Shabsough families to Turkey at the expense of the Treasury by the ship that belongs to merchant Drebyazgin. The city of Stavropol
The Commander of the Mountainous Section of the Headquarters of Kuban Forces , Captain Bekarski on the presence of 18 Shabsough families willing to emigrate to Turkey in the current year in the Fort of Konsantinoveskoya. Based on that, I solicit from your Excellency to send these families to Taman, where they will be transferred by a special order on board a ship brought for this purpose, the merchant Yoghor Drebyazgin to one of the ports of the Turkish Empire, which the mentioned inhabitants want to reach, with the paying their transporting expense by the Treasury, as well as to bring a detailed list of these families to the Headquarters of Kuban Forces in order to calculate the amount required for transportation. Lieutenant Sholkovsky
3 November 1862 – Instructions from Staff of Kuban Region Forces to the Commander of Natokhyski District, General Babich paying merchant Konkezov 250 rubles for transporting 100 Shabsough persons to Turkey. City of Stavropol Based on the report of your assistant, Colonel Kreganovski No. 391 dated 22 October, I attach herewith 250 rubles in cash, due to pay for merchant Khristo Konkezov on the transfer of 100 persons from the local inhabitants of both sexes to Turkey during the current year on board his ship, hoping that you inform me of receiving the amount. For the absence of the Chief of Staff, Director of the Department of Housing Sholkovski
In 12, December, 1862. - Instructions issued by N. Y. Evdokimov to the Commander of the Cossacks, Ivanov in regard to giving the commanders of the border-lines more autonomy to carry out attacks on the rebel Mountaineer inhabitants in the Kuban Region Based on your report No. 1423 dated 17, December, to inform you that your orders to limit the authority of the Chebski Division Commander in the implementation of offensive operations in the enemy’s territories by a special resolution from him, does not commensurate with my view of this topic and with the instructions I have issued at various times to the commanders whether through official letters or orally. I have made a great effort to bring troops in charge of me, from the idle state that remained at for a long time when it was carrying out the attacks only on special orders or special permission, and the enemy, who stayed comfortably at home and did not see enthusiasm from our part is looting us with cold-blood, ascertained that his home will not be touched.
In an attempt from me to strengthen enthusiasm and confidence with the military commanders, I deliberately meant to give both of them more autonomy in performing operations and I ordered both of them more than once to carry out attacks on enemy’s territories by a decree from him without requiring prior authorization (because that leads to waste of time) in order to exploit the circumstances to inflict the maximum harm on the enemy and the minimum losses for us. It was not long until the results for that have emerged positive, as the commanders of the divisions and border-lines have depended on their own decisions and they have cleared the entire area to Belaya River of the Mountaineer inhabitants, and operations continued beyond the Belaya, and the hostile inhabitants were forced to take care of themselves before thinking of carrying out attacks inside our territory. The independency of the commanders of border-lines has reached to the point when the commander of Stavropol Point, who does not have at his disposal except about 50 infantry personnel had carried out an attack on one of the villages nearby in last and looted 400 head of sheep and did not lose except two of his soldiers who got wounded, and he didn’t have the time to ask permission from his direct boss so as not to miss the good conditions. Among other things, I have transferred the above mentioned command to Colonel Livashev, who deserves full confidence with regard to the independent operations due to his military experience and his well known wisdom.
Based on the mentioned above, and in order not to breach public order adopted for military operations in Kuban Region, I hope that Your Excellency will call Colonel Livashev to reassure him after he received admonition from you about his implementation of the attack, which has yielded with good results and low losses for us. I hope that you and after talking to him about the misunderstanding, to order him to exploit all the good opportunities to carry out movements from the Fort of Gregoreviskoya towards the mountainous range stretching from Shepsh River until Ubgn and beyond if possible, and with reinforcing Chebski Division available under your disposal up to 3 infantry battalions, these attacks can be transformed into independent and significant movements into hostile territories and make the Mountaineer inhabitants get out of a large part of the vicinity of this fort. And don’t forget to grant him a certain level of autonomy to be able to perform such operations without authorization from you in advance.
As for my orders No. 2140 issued in 26, December, they concern only the land of Bjadogh, as I don’t want to begin offensive operations at the present time, but merely satisfied with threats to keep them within the limits of obedience until the conditions will permit us to be concerned seriously in a good organization (there is a shortage in the Russian version) to the people.
To document No. 7
Nikolai Ivanovich Evdokimov (1804-1873) is one of the military figures who participated in the invasion of the North-western Caucasus and the deportation of the Circassians. He was born in the town of Nawrskaya in the Province of Stavropol in a simple military family. In the year 1845 he suffered a knife stab in the Dagestani village of Wonsokol, almost was killed, but he was cured on the hands of the mountainous prudent. Since the year 1850 he participated intermittently in the invasion of the North Caucasus, initially as a Commander of the Left Front, then the Commander of the Right Front of the Caucasus Line. After the end of the Caucasus War in 21, May, 1864, he was referred retirement because of his negligence of the post. Then he lived in Peyatigorsk until he died and was buried within the walls of the church. Evdokimov’s family motto included the images of plow and ripper as a symbol of belonging to the simple peasantry class in addition to an image of a destroyed tower and a Circassian flag-bearer as a symbol of the victories achieved in the Caucasus as well as the image of his Album, symbolizing military vigilance (Circassia in the Nineteenth Century, Maykop, 1991, p. 206). Evdokimov’s plan to occupy the Caucasus and his decisive measures against the Circassians had received high appreciation by the Emperor, thus granted Geoyrgi medal of the second degree. Alexander II has written in the credential: “The project, which you had presented to us in the year 1860 and we agreed upon in regard to ending the war in the Western Caucasus and as soon as possible, has concluded now with great success and exceeded our expectations in terms of speed in achieving the goal, which proved the correct measures taken based on your directives. Through 3 years the West Caucasus became after the expulsion of the indigenous inhabitants in an entirety form, populated with the Russian inhabitants who settled there permanently, and the war, which lasted a long time has concluded and the State has relieved of the extreme sacrifices that took heavy toll, during a century and a half of time, and annexed a spacious and rich area will return in the future with a momentum of wealth in compensation for the former losses” (Caucasus.1864. Issue No. 5. (17) June). Evdokimov’s plan to deport 100 thousand of the Mountaineer population found initially as did his decisive measures continuous support by the Commander of the Forces in the Caucasus, Marshal Baryatenski and the Russian government. Ziserman wrote in his book under the title "Marshal Prince A. E. Baryatinsky”, as saying: “to explore the situation beyond the Kuban and to approve the final plan of operations and to determine the necessary means, the Marshal himself went to Vladikavkaz, and called Milutin, Philipson and Evdokimov”. Here a meeting has taken place also attended by Prince D. E. Merski in his capacity as Assistant Commander of the Kuban Region, where an important discussion had taken place about the operations carried out by the Russian troops, methods and forms of occupying of the region. Count Evdokimov has requested to carry out decisive offensive operations and was objected by Philipson and Milutin. “Victory was on Count Evdokimov’s favor, and since the fall of the year 1860, offensive operations have begun in the area beyond the Kuban that characterized by intense enthusiasm and determination, which are two personal qualities that characterized the personality of Evdokimov, and already have formerly yielded with impressive results in the Eastern Caucasus”.
Ziserman A. L. Marshal A. E. Baryatenski. Moscow. 1890, Folder 2, p. 351-352.
1863 not later than January - "A letter from the Military Adviser in the Russian Embassy in Constantinople B. A. Frankini to the Minister of War D. A. Milutin on the need and conditions for achieving stability in the Caucasus."
The Importance of the Caucasus Region in the Economy of the Russian State in General
The Russian borders from the side of Europe are clearly defined but are not characterized by any kind of identification from the Asian side, and the borders extend from the Eastern shore of the Black Sea up to Amur River on a line that may change easily or it has started changing day by day. This lack of clarity within the borders indicates the existence of an intention for new invasions. This intention is not resulted of a deliberate goal or ambition aspired for centuries, but stem from Russia's domination over the Asian countries which are the superiority of order to anarchy, the superiority of science to barbarism and the superiority of Christianity to ridiculous and primitive beliefs. Thus, Russia is doomed to be continually moving within Asia, and this movement depends on a line in the length of one third of the circumference of the globe stretching from the Black Sea reaching the Pacific Ocean. Whatever form it will be expressed by Russia's supremacy on the Asian continent and where will stop this intention that it drives it now, it is clear that this broad-base needs robust points of reliance, especially because of the growing intervention of Europe in the affairs of even those Asian countries that have so far remained outside the sphere of its influence, has given larger than expected of so-called the Eastern Question. In this respect, the left side of our borders protected by Amur River, which was recently annexed safe, at the time the center lacks a natural stronghold to settle at, and the right side depends on the Caucasus.
The Caucasus as an Asian fulcrum border situated at the confluence of Asia to Europe forms one of the most important positions occupied by Russia on earth, having placed It’s foot in the Caucasus, Russia took control of the Asian part of Turkey, Persia and the spacious plains, where Tatar Semi-States that border English and Chinese colonies. When Russia settles in the Caucasus, there will be nothing to remain that can’t be achieved in Asia. Successful works or even the mere possession of the Caucasus makes its effect extends afar in the Asian continent, while due to the many natural barriers present in this region, we cannot expect a failure occurring that would make Russia lose this impervious fortress.
It is no coincidence that England and in doing conspiracies in Afghanistan, Turkestan, and Constantinople, and the establishment of direct relations with the Circassians, seek to anticipate Russia to postpone the moment that Russia will be able to operate freely, that is not in vain that Turkey is working with all the moral and material means on the continued resistance to provide the Caucasus rebel tribes with weapons and ammunition and abetting them with false hopes and to send them the envoys and the officers, as both England and Turkey are aware that establishing stability in the Caucasus would be an indication of the firm superiority of Russia, in Asia. Is not the venue to touch upon the benefits of the Caucasus from the commercial aspect, we suffice to say that when the Caspian Sea links with the Black Sea through the rail-road and when Amu River local that flows inside the Russian territory and becomes safely navigable as in the Volga, the Caucasus will become an exclusive trade route, leading to Central Asia and trade exchange between Europe and internal parts of Asia will take place through this route only. So, just because of its geographical location, the Caucasus has valuable advantages of the military, political and commercial aspects. But this is not enough, the Caucasus comprises many possibilities yet to be exploited, which will turn later to tools of invasions and to promote strength and wealth, where it has many sorts of natural resources, and will be an example for all neighboring countries and even Europe in the future, but the key feature of the Caucasus for Russia lies that the local tribes form a distinguished army that has gotten the largest capability to fight a war in Asia. Asia will not subdue except on the hands of Asians, and on the hand of a European leadership. Thus, the Caucasus is a natural Fortress, that is invincible supplies provider and protector, and forms unwavering pillar for Russia's supremacy in Asia, and includes all the elements necessary to become a center of attraction for all the surrounding countries, small and weak, which has got a great importance for Turkey, which is about to split.
The Need for the Occupation of the Caucasus as soon as Possible It must be recognized that Russia’s situation has changed a lot after the war of 1854-1856. The former alliances had broken; no others have formed yet, and the policy of European countries depends entirely on the factor of chance. It is not possible to predict what the upheavals that are shaking Europe at the present will lead to, until stability returns. As for the reasons that led to the weakness for Russia, aside from the reasons common to all European countries, there are special reasons arising from the requirements of modernization, the internal changes that had to be introduced has led into a kind of a transitional situation, as they paralyze its vital forces and rob the ability to act properly. Otherwise, the disturbances in Poland have placed it in a confrontation with entire Europe, suggesting the possibility of the emergence of allied fleets in the Black Sea. In these circumstances it is reasonable to close down all the internal prospects in order to achieve stability and to join forces again, and from this perspective, there is no issue that is more important to the interests of Russia in the East of the occupation of the Caucasus completely and as quickly as possible, which is an important requirement to develop a plan of both defensive and offensive operations in the Eastern direction.
Positive and Negative Aspects of the Current War System in the Caucasus
Since the year 1856, the war regime has changed radically in the Caucasus, as instead of campaigns rushed to the mountains, slow military actions method has been followed, but more accurate, emanating from the specific points and are implemented according to certain lines, and the method of crawling and siege has replaced former fast attacks that did cost a lot of blood, and without tangible results. The campaign of the year 1859 and the successful joint operations that led to the fall of Shamilya had proved the superiority of the current system of the war.
For different local reasons, this system has emerged more clearly in the new military operations theater, in the formerly, Right Front-line, but all its disadvantages have emerged also in this place, the more our troops have kept away from starting points, it has become necessary to create new fixed bases to rely on in order to continue progress, and because the territories area occupied by the yet non-subjugated tribes is large, and the locations of mountainous and water lines of mountain and water that cross, do not serve our interests from the Kuban side and the sea coast, it is inevitable to be divided in different directions to numerous Cossack lines which will require to avail a lot people, time and money, and as we go forward as our defensive lines become shorter, and the area that our troops are defending will be smaller. Although we believe that we will find enough of the Cossacks, the time and money, but that the system will remain having a significant shortfall exemplified in denying the right of ownership of the indigenous people for the region. That will take years of time and must be completed within 2-3 years and this is what constitutes the main cause of the mountains inhabitants resistance to us.
The Main Reason for the Antagonism of the Mountaineer Population for us and their Fierce Resistance
The right of ownership is the basis of every society. This feeling is implanted in the heart of the Caucasus predator individual as it is implanted in the heart of the civilized human being, and this particular sense is what we don’t want or rather, we cannot recognize as a right of the Caucasus peoples according to what we are doing today. The transfer of the Caucasus lines, the establishment of new Cossack towns and forced displacement of the Mountaineer population as we want and where we may have to expel them once again according to new circumstances - this continuous deportation of human beings is exerted on depriving the local population from their own lands and turning them into something similar to prisoners of war. After the abolition of slavery system in the Russia, the government approved granting land to peasants with the right of inheritance, but the deported Mountaineer human being, falls in this aspect below the slaves level. For someone who had enjoyed absolute freedom and then all of a sudden fell in such a humiliating state of slavery, it is natural to choose to flee to strange countries where he would regain his legitimate rights or to choose death. From here comes the lack of confidence of the people of the Caucasus in Russians and even hatred that prevent establishing success and deployment of our authority in the Caucasus, and here lies the negative consequences of the system which we hope to achieve through occupying the area which got great importance in the expulsion of the indigenous inhabitants from the Caucasus.
Migration of the Caucasus Peoples to Turkey
Event which took place in the fall of the year 1859, which was a surprise and remained a mystery for a long time, has raised general astonishment. The indigenous inhabitants from different areas have demanded to allow migration to Turkey and they departed prior to the issuance of the approval as if it is as a certain secret motive. Families followed by villages then whole regions, and an appeal have elevated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea “to Turkey!” a call that is similar to a cry of people running away from imminent death. This movement had lasted for two years and then calmed down a bit. Some ships loaded with migrants sank, and many of whom died in Turkey because of the cold, hunger and calamity, and few were allowed to return to their former homelands or were able to return without permission, while others settled in the Asian and European territories of the Sultan. The number of people which the Caucasus had lost totaled after that to tens of thousands.
When irrational desire to migrate had appeared for the first time, the local Russian authorities became puzzled, which didn’t see insight a possibility to stop immigrants, as the Turkish government was confused less attractive, wavered received by the Turkish government that had received them, as the Russian government and Turkish government did not know whether they had to be pleased of the event or to regret. Different rumors spread among immigrants among them that the Russian government intends to convert the Muslims of the Caucasus to Christianity and to be included in the system of military recruitment, and that there is an agreement between the Russian Emperor and the Sultan that imposes the Russian Tsar to transfer all his Muslim subjects to the Sultan and to receive Christians from him, and coercive measures would be taken against the rebels, etc. that. They attributed the cause of the general turmoil that has suddenly erupted among all peoples of the Caucasus to one of these things at one time and to others at another.
The Reasons of Emigration of the Indigenous Population to Turkey
4 years had elapsed since that event, and we can judge more accurately now. The flight of the indigenous people was caused by the comprehensive fear that reigned on the hearts of sensitive Asians after the fall of Shamil’s rule, which inflicted the local peoples in the unconditional Russian abuse. Of course, Shamil’s authoritarian rule in recent years has enraged indignation, even by his former supporters, however, his rule was a popular rule, and his tyranny was protecting from the Russian tyranny, and his authority was forming strong confrontation for the Russians’ limitless control, not only in the eyes of the rebels, but also in the eyes of the peoples that were under the Russian administration since a long time. Shamil’s signal in the mountains was a symbol of protest for the indigenous population against the Russian rule in the Caucasus, and even tribes that had surrendered long ago - including the Naghwey for example - it attributed the kindness of Russian conduct to the steadfastness of Shamil’s authority in Dagestan after exposure to harsh blows. As for the comprehensive fear that caused the fall of Shamil was due to the lack of confidence by the indigenous inhabitants towards Russians, and search must take place for the roots of this absence of confidence in the midst of tragic consequences of the deportation system, followed by the Russians for a long time in various areas of the Caucasus, a system built on denying any personal capacity, any independency and the transfer of the population into herds. Difficulties faced by the government recently when moving the Cossack line forward, in other words, when resettling the Cossacks is a compelling example of the above. The masses got a logic that cannot be explained, even if it was characterized by recklessness, which is a general feature for Asians. It is very natural that the indigenous people did not trust the government, which used such extreme measures, and this indifference. Attacks on property rights led to the emergence of fears of further attacks, including on religious beliefs, which is consistent with the establishment of a religious political association in Tbilisi prematurely for the purpose of spreading Christianity openly in the Caucasus.
The Negative Aspects of Migration of the Caucasus Peoples to Turkey
During the departure of first families to Turkey, the military commanders in the Caucasus did not recognize the real reasons that led inhabitants to migrate. Initially immigration was allowed for those interested in, then they banned it, but the Writer of these lines knows how all the efforts made by the government to stop the movement ever-growing void and without benefits. Finally, after a little hesitation, they decided to allow immigration to Turkey to all who wish to do so after giving them limited-term cards, together with preventing them from returning into the Empire, while accepting the reality that could not be gradually changed, they started looking at the voluntary migration of the indigenous population to Turkey as a means to evacuate the country and as means to get rid of the annoying reckless population who are always ready to do against good governance, and they considered the possibility of exchanging them with Cossacks, Russian settlers and groups from various Christian peoples, and they even seemingly made several attempts to achieve that, in addition to the adoption of the draft of Christians resettlement instead of the indigenous inhabitants, which spread rumors about between Tatar immigrants claiming the existence of an agreement between the Russian Emperor and the Sultan which had to be adopted by the decision-makers about the future of the Caucasus Region whether out of conviction or by the need to deal with the hostility of the indigenous population that seems to be no cure. If this plan has received the approval of the supreme authority, we can say that it was destined to change the nature of the Caucasus to the foundation and it will adversely affect the very impressive future of the region as the deportation of indigenous inhabitants from the Caucasus Region detriments Russia's interest whether in its general frame or with its minute details no matter how it is looked at. As we mentioned earlier, the features of the Caucasus lies in its location, nature and inhabitants, and these inhabitants realized the nature of the area, and nature does not give up except to the indigenous population. The Mountaineer human being and the Caucasus form an integrated entity that doesn’t separate. If you separated the Mountaineer human being from his land, he will die, and you brought outsiders there, they will die too, and who will live, he will need a lot of time to adapt to the climate and the nature of the area. It is known how much is expensive to keep a regular army in the Caucasus and how much is the high cost of converting the simple Russian citizen to an active and vigorous soldier in the Caucasus. But, away from the difficulty of overcoming the special circumstances of climate, soil and nature, there is another factor that must lead after careful study to condemn the idea of rehabilitation of the Caucasus region with strangers. The Russian and Slavs from different country, the Greek and Armenian, all are able to become good farmers after the elapse of a period of more or less, but they will never acquire the skills of warriors such as those implanted in the human being of the Caucasus since his childhood. An originator from the Caucasus fits for everything but is good for the war more than anything else. And due to enjoying a sharp intelligence and great physical attributes, he is able to practice agriculture, trade and industry on an equal footing, but he prefers weapons on anything else. He was used to deprivation, work, horsemanship and shooting since childhood, he is unmatched Asian warrior, while the foreigner transferred to the Caucasus could become an outstanding settler but will never be a warrior, though if it is not wrong to believe that Asia is the natural arena of Russia’s policy, to abandon support of the indigenous Caucasus population and the expulsion the people hostile to us to Turkey as throwing weapons to the enemy robbed of his weapon in combat, even if we assume that immigrants disperse and die - and this what happens often, so they can not harm us - in this case also, it is not wise to destroy these precious resources that we can get use of a lot if we have made necessary effort. Indeed, the Mountaineer human being misses something, lacks good ethics. However, we should recognize that up to now, no one did anything to instill moral principles in him. Former owners and even Shamil himself did not attain a remarkable achievement in the development of the country in terms of education. But we could not impose our control on a large scale to some extent except since the year 1859, and this passed period, at least two years must be subtracted in which fear was dominant on inhabitants. In addition, before thinking of making the people aware, his confidence must be gained as we do not have the confidence of the peoples of the Caucasus. Whatever this truth was sad, but it cannot be refuted. Shamil is smartest Mountaineer man when he decided to surrender in the year 1859; he delegated his representative in Turkey, to inform the Commission of the Empire in Constantinople with his decision and the opening of negotiations there. Shamil’s representative contacted the military agent in the Commission, See the client's representative Shamil Military Commission, and when the agent asked why Shamil did not contact their powers in the Caucasus directly, he replied that he “does not trust them”. For the great historical event which occurred in 25, August, 1859, in Gonneb eye – witnesses recall that Shamil was pounding out of fear for his life. The mountaineer people do not trust our government and individuals alike. We have mentioned previously the real reason for the hostility of the indigenous population to us, we might add only that the operations performed by our heroic army in the Caucasus until the year 1859 was indicating our weakness and we were not honest because of that feeling of weakness. In addition to that, it happened that we couldn’t overcome the resistance of peoples hostile to us by force, so we tried to sway them to our side with some untruthful concessions, exactly as of temporary measures that do not imply any practical commitment. These measures were well thought of in advance or the result of accidental circumstances and were increasing the hostility of the indigenous inhabitants that was shared by all peoples of the Caucasus which is a hostility that doesn’t have cure according to a full convincement of the writer of these lines.
There is another aspect where the deportation of indigenous peoples from the Caucasus is contrary with the principles of Russian domestic and foreign policy. England prides itself as the first Islamic state in the world, but Russia also has a lot of Muslim subjects and their number is increasing day by day.
And Russia's action to push the Muslim inhabitants away from the Caucasus serves as its recognition of hostility towards them and inability of beating them and thus Russia gets to cut off one of the two heads of its double-headed eagle and betrays itself as an Asian superpower. It is easy to predict how the impact of this conduct will be in the East and in Asia in general. Instead of attracting Muslims, humanize them, educate them the system and make them appreciate the benefits of good organization and comply with good governance and to turn them into a docile instrument of its policy and thereby achieve its lofty goal formed in receiving and dealing with the principles of education and to transfer from West to East, rather than that Russia declares war on the Asian world and harmony between them is impossible and no place for mercy. Genocide will be the last thing that the Russian policy would say towards Asia, and Russia will retain control of Asia from one side only - the control of material power. But material force is also limited and useless. A revolution against Russia, not only by the peoples of the Caucasus wherever they lived, but also all the peoples who live in Asia is inevitable and will break out sooner or later if deporting peoples of the Caucasus from their homelands has taken a nature of state policy.
Nor we can overlook on switching the indigenous inhabitants with free settlers involves many difficulties. Resettlement is the most difficult tasks that the ruler may be forced to resort to. In terms of sources, Germany cannot provide a sufficient number of settlers. As for Turkey, it is doubtful that the policy of Russia will stay the winner after taking the Christians of Turkey, where deporting of the Christians would lead to the clear advantage of the Muslim faction domination, and thus would reduce cases of interference in the internal affairs of Turkey and by the intensification of the Muslim population of Turkey, Turkey will become with better condition and stronger, not because forces of new vitality will appear in it, as the Tatar peoples are not able to create something at all, but because after the departure of the Christians – that hot blood that circulates in the worn body - will get rid of the spasms that occur because of the presence of a turbulent and heterogeneous faction.
Government's Position from Islam
The invasion of the Caucasus at the present time is difficult and requires a lot of time, even with the means currently available, but if we add to that also the destruction of Islam at the same time, the difficult task becomes impossible in itself.
Christianity and Islam cannot co-exist without each of which seeks to overcome the other and this is what anyone who knows the nature of the East believes in, even a superficial knowledge. However, if Christianity thought that dealing with Islam must not take place except by deporting and killing its adherents, then, Christianity would take from Islam that principle that led to its annulment. If we stand above Muslims and if our superiority due to the fact that our culture is enriching of Christian faith, that should show this superiority in the project of occupying an entire region, being a complicated and important project, and that is not based on ethical convictions only, but also because the State’s reasonable interests, are those permanent interests, which alone deserve attention because they do not change with time and always agree with the principles of Christianity. Islam must retreat before Christianity - and who doubts that? However, if we do not want to go back to the religious wars such as those that took place in the Mid Ages, we must give up all forms of abuse. With regard to the Caucasus, in view of the solutions the final stage of Muslim indigenous inhabitants’ resistance to us, we must adhere to extreme caution, as the most important stages of the indigenous inhabitants’ resistance to the Russians has come, and the actions taken by the government now will be a big role in the future of the different peoples living in the Caucasus. Here it should be noted that there is no direct connection between the Russian local authorities and indigenous inhabitants, as Russians do not know the local languages in addition to that these languages are not written, and the only written language is the Arabic language that Russians and unknown to the majority of the local population, and therefore lies in the small category of educated people which places the content of the government instructions hostage to the interpretation of the clerics and interpreters and cannot be detected. In the shadow of these circumstances, where the contact between officials and the people become limited, facts language becomes the most effective, however, the weakest language sometimes becomes having the greatest importance. In the current circumstances, there would be importance to least of the facts which bears the imprint of the hatred of the government towards the indigenous peoples that takes a great impact and Russia’s mission in the Caucasus extremely easy if it was able to accept this work. Peoples of the Caucasus being converted to Islam forcibly at different times and some of them just short time ago did not strongly link to the principles of Islamic religion strongly until the Mouridi came and turned Islam into a fierce resistance tool against the Russians, which shows that Islam for indigenous peoples is only a tool.
As for their goal, it is to defend their independence and reject any foreign rule. The danger of Islam is that it considers the followers of other religions as infidels and their fight against the infidels is desirable to God. In general - there are facts that prove the validity of this view - the religion for the peoples is a banner and a shield of nationalism, and civil authority to look at it from this point of view. In Turkey Christianity saved the primitive peoples from the yoke of the invaders, but that did not prevent Bulgarians from fighting their brothers in religion. In Poland, the Catholic religion is only a symbol of independence. As for the Caucasus, it has no particular face other than an Asian face, and its split inhabitants to many warring tribes with each other constantly on the idea of unity, except when the need arose to carry out a strong response to the attacks of the Russians. Before the emergence of this general need that is several centuries, the practice of looting prevailed in the entire region due to the presence of natural barriers, which were separating not only between neighboring tribes, but between clans, valleys and villages as well. Under these social circumstances and clans’ differences that divide among the local tribes, the idea of nationalism could not be rooted in the Caucasus, therefore, religious affiliation, which relies on the idea of nationalism is always superficial and weak. Add to that the Western Caucasus and even part of the Kabarda, are inhibited by the great Adigha people who did not convert to Islam except in the eighteenth century and still practicing rituals of Christianity and among them there are some of the elderly who had worn the sign of the cross on themselves at a young age.
The Mouride itself, it is a greater extremism in Islam is based on the imposition of many forms of deprivation and sacrifices on the followers to the point of insanity because of its rigor and cruelty in the performance of small acts of worship and, therefore, provoked disgust among the population against all religious practices, and effects left by the cruelty of Shamil and violations of his deputies, especially Mohammed Amin in the region, will not help sustain the propagation of Islam in the Caucasus, even if another Shamil would come, which is unlikely.
In these circumstances there is no other way to overcome the Islam in the Caucasus gradually but to fully refrain from exercising injustice, because injustice will revive in the memory of the vanquished a feeling of hatred towards the victors, and easily would lead to the resumption of unrest, especially in the beginning, as well as the use of force. Other than that, Islam must not be subject to any governmental resolutions, whether for discredit or support. Not to mention its name in any resolutions or agreements concluded with indigenous people. Consideration should be given to each member of the indigenous people as an individual who obeys or does not obey the decisions of the government regardless of their religion and should be punished or rewarded without taking his Islamism into account. As for the expenditure of the spiritual class, building and repairing mosques, this responsibility will be transferred to the inhabitants together with giving them full freedom in the performance of rituals of prayer and worship and to prevent the local authorities from intervention in all matters relating to the religious beliefs of the people directly or indirectly. Following this method which rather indifference to Islam and to maintain the Christian character of the celebrations, to determine the vacation days and all occasions that religious aspect leaves its effect on the social life, the government will achieve its objective in a short time.
The Mountaineer Human, and after recognizing the advantages of order and stability and ensures that peaceful practices will bring him prosperity and wealth, and after tasting the fruits of science and intellectual development will lose the hatred towards the Russians that was lurking in his heart under the guise of religious feeling, and finally, when he notes that his religion does not raise any suspicions and doesn’t bring him any benefit, he will realize that there is no need to hold on to outdated ideas. The Category of the clergy after becoming a burden on the population in terms of expenditure will lose its current importance without any violence or any harassment from our part, which would be evidence of the collapse of the principles it represents. There is no environment more useful and safer for the dissemination of culture and education, than the environment of the Muslim inhabitants in the Caucasus. Interest to the Caucasus Asian human has wide mental capabilities, and being ambitious will direct all his mental efforts, inevitably to tackle the country's natural resources, as for the safety element is attributed to the absence of his homeland’s history of any general facts that will affect his imagination whether what happened in the era of Shamil, and the Shamil’s era will remain as a kind of falsehood frenzy at the heart of a Muslim, where science will beat the religious affiliation.
If someone objected as saying that good treatment will not work in the victory over Islam, and comes with the example of the English colonies in India and the revolution that took place there after forty years of England’s unconditional control, it can be answered that the proposed plan here as the most feasible is a special plan and doesn’t apply except on the peoples of the Caucasus. The Caucasus human being is not fanatical by nature or – at least – he is not infected with this type of intolerance, which is characterized by the Hindu or Arab, or even the Turkish, and can be bet that peoples of the Caucasus if rose against Russia after forty years of subjugation, the cause of revolution will not be providing the local police with some bad cartridges.
Slavery and Slave Trade
The other difficulty that will face the Russian government face to face after the occupation of the region permanently is the slavery and the slave trade. Slaves as a result of the operations of looting, attacks and permanent hostility between the indigenous native tribes as well as with its neighbors, constitute in the Caucasus a social class is assigned with all handling and agricultural works. Slavery with the Adighas has two types, where the first type are the slaves of prisoners of feudal ages or of Russian ex-serfs as they pay their owners taxes in kind more or less for leasing of land. That movement exists between these inhabitants, which led to the abolition of slavery in Russia. They uprise against their owners and they find a strong support among the clerical class, which supports their demands for full liberalization in an effort to reduce the influence of the nobles (Wurqs and others). The second category is slaves that half of their products are taken and they totally depend on their owners. The owner is entitled to give as a gift or sell his slave as he wishes and even to kill him without incurring any liability to society. Slavery should not remain alive in the Caucasus after the abolition of slavery in Russia, but its cancellation is linked to another very sensitive issue, namely the rights of the nobility. The nobles are the element that we will need its support for the incursion into the inner social life of the peoples and begin to change drastically. Trafficking of slaves can be divided into two separate branches in terms of the origin of slave, some of them Christian children, kidnapped on the border of Georgia, where Muslim tribes connect with the Christian tribes, including Mingrelia, the province of Yerevan and the Turkish borders and they are brought for sale to Constantinople, where the Ubykh are engaged in this trade apart from others and in Egypt in particular. The current ruler of Abkhazia is involved in this dirty profession. We know a girl who was kidnapped in Georgia then was sold in Abkhazia to an Abaza who sold it to a Ubykh dealer, and the dealer sold her in Constantinople to the Turkish Pasha, who took her with him to Egypt, where she finally escaped and sought refuge to our consular. Effective measures must be taken against the trade of these Christian bodies and to prevent it under penalty of severe sanctions and to draw the attention about it of our authorities inside and outside the region, and to search for Christian children in Turkey and Egypt, and to uncover the whereabouts of criminals through accurate inquiries, and punish them with harsh punishment which is what to do against Asians when the punishment due, legitimate and appropriate. By these measures and by the involvement of Christian inhabitants who are victims of these crimes in the process of detecting criminals, we can expect the abolition of this shameful tax that Christianity is paying to Muslim predators, as well as the adoption of public order gradually and the presence of our authority in the internal part of the country. The second branch of this trade is assimilated in the Mountaineer population’s selling and re-selling of their daughters and their women whether slaves or even the free. Considerations here are different, as the Mountaineer human at the time of distress, would sell not only his concubine, but also his daughter, his sister and even his wife, as the father, who had several daughters and does not have a lot of money, he tends to make some of them get married for a good dowry and he sells the rest - willingly sometimes - to the Ubykh man who brings them to Constantinople, here, the beautiful will have opportunity to enter the harem of a rich, or even the Sultan's Palace, and the proof is that each prominent Turkish individual has with his harem at least one Circassian as a legitimate wife or a concubine. From here comes the sympathy shown by the Turks, towards the Circassians, regardless of the political objectives. Sometimes, the woman sold by her relative leaves her home without a will but surrenders to her fate because of the absence of an authority to protect her and can resort to, in spite of this inhumane act is condemned in the Mountaineer community as well. The male slaves are not taken out of the area because they will not be safe, they are unfit for service and no one would pay money to purchase them. This habit based on the idea of slavery and linked in a strong linkage with the Eastern outlook to the woman, and the greed of the indigenous people of money and profit that is reap from the sale of slaves in Constantinople cannot be canceled in a line drawn by a pen or any other restrictive measures, but such time passage must take place and to conduct a thorough study of internal community organizing procedure, which is almost, it is still unknown in the region inhabited by the people of great Adigha to find ways to lead directly to achieving the goal directly and do not conflict with the stark folk traditions. Particular attention should be paid to the relationship between slavery on one side, and Islam and the aristocratic class in the area on the other nin the region (Tlaqo and Wurq etc...) on the other hand. Islam has kept its pure democratic character in the Caucasus and has always sought to favor religious beliefs over national ones and to switch national aristocracy with religious aristocracy, which means that always it faced strong opposition by the upper social class which is for this particular reason, it leans to the Russians and even to Christianity, and if we won this group towards our side, by our recognition o its original rights that Islam is abusing, and convert it to Christianity and to restore its influence as through the establishment of a Christian noble class in the Mountaineer community, a solid foundation will be laid for Russia’s rule on current rebel peoples, and the process of eliminating slavery and the fight against Islam will be an easier matter. It must be emphasized once more that we still do not know except very little about the relations existing between the classes in the domestic communities that we fight, therefore, the goal of these ideas is to indicate that it is wise to refrain from any strict measures against Islam, slavery and the newly planted ideas until we know the area well enough and we understand its properties. As for the slave trade in Constantinople, we can add that when conditions improve we will have to ask the Turkish government for help to prevent it. Whatever measures have been taken in the Caucasus, they will be ineffective if slave trade is kept enjoying freedom offered by the local authorities in Constantinople. After what happened in the Gul Khana, slavery cannot continue in Turkey. The market, in which slave trade of both genders was conducted at, had been closed in recent years by Sultan Mahmud; but everyone knows that the Ubykh groups in Top Khane are still running the slave trade until now. It is clear that the Turkish officials, who are benefiting from this trade are not honest in the implementation of instructions issued to prevent it, however, it must be restricted, particularly because this profession is now in decline in recent time because of the deteriorating financial situation of the upper Turkish class as only few of them left who can spend on several wives of that well-being that they had accustomed to. This is the reason ever-increasing, as well as the gradual evolution in the social and ethical aspects, which will a result in the establishing a general order that will lead to stop this barbaric profession, regardless of other measures of more effectiveness.
To reduce of sale of women operations abroad, women can be prevented from going out of the area without her certified approval by the Russian authorities in her place of residence. In case of the woman's consent to go with the Ubykh trader despite warnings, the abstract deal of element of pressure will not be considered a criminal act. So, for the slave trade - the first part of it is the trafficking of Christian children - must be eliminated by the establishment of close monitoring, preventive and harsh repressive measures. And the second part - the sale of Circassian women in Turkey and Egypt - if it is strictly prevented, it will continue in the form of smuggling until a general intellectual and moral development occur in the area. Tracking of the smuggling operations is a difficult or even impossible matter, and since it is useless to prevent what cannot be stopped even with firm decisions, it is better to shorten the procedures regarding this practice to prevent its increase until the emergence of other circumstances that require the need to take other measures more effectively. The attempt to eliminate slavery immediately in order to establish equality between the Caucasus and Russia, from this point, hostile forces will be outraged against us, which they expect that the Russian government will take this move and will make them angry more than it was in the past and will contribute to an increase in violence for some peoples fighting for their independence. In addition to this procedure, it agrees adequately with the principles published by the clergy, which can plant some doubts in the possibility of implementation. We are seeking to keep the indigenous people in the region and at the same time we want to occupy the region and to convert its inhabitants to Christianity, and to execute huge changes the inhabitants do not know its usefulness, and this is a formidable and hardly impossible task. Even if we assume that we will achieve a large and complicated target, we have to admit that the dysfunctional region in this way, there can be no system implemented in the near future. While conditions require, not the merely to end of military operations in the Caucasus, but also that we can act freely in the forces binding to co-exist within the region and to transform the forces that are fighting us now to forces that support us. Therefore, we must give up in favor of the indigenous inhabitants for all aspirations that are inconsistent with the principles of sound governance and change the old system only in those parts that are not consistent with the safe control of the area, and also to ask the indigenous inhabitants to make necessary changes only, and to postpone the least important whatever seemed attractive at first glance in terms of exterior form to a more convenient time.
Abolition of Customs and Transfer of the Customs Line, Beyond the Kuban
However, there is a procedure that deserves a detailed examination of what could be a positive impact on the region and its inhabitants, which is the elimination of all marine and land customs in the Caucasus, and establishing a single customs line that crosses the Caucasus isthmus from the Caspian to the Black Sea, and does not exceed the line of Kuban and Turk rivers. May seem the idea of transforming the entire Caucasus isthmus to a major port that is exempted from customs duties a bold idea at first glance, but we cannot deny that it has many benefits. Even in civilized countries, the tax tariff is a burden on the population, although accustomed to the government taxes since a long time ago, let alone the position of the population of West Caucasus, those primitives who did not know other authority than their will, and not other trade but smuggling. No matter how small fees are, but the need to undergo a thorough inspection will be a heavy burden on them. If trade has been liberalized with some restrictions, it will gather for them the benefits of smuggling with the security element in import and unloading, and will generate for them a feeling of belonging and gratitude for the new rule, more than any other action. The benefits that the region will acquire of this practice are clear. Funds of Russian and foreign companies will flow here, agriculture and industry will develop which will find a wide range of materials, as well as exploration minerals will develop rapidly, and offset the slight decrease in the State expenses will be compensated through the development of national wealth generously, and after ten years the region will change by the will of its inhabitants, and the issues of concern to the government now, will disappear or will lose their importance fully as a result of the activity of the masses this year. Average income of customs in the region beyond the Caucasus in the period between 1851-1857, which is during 7 years, has reached 435 thousand silver rubles, and this figure gives an idea of the size of the loss to be incurred by the Treasury, and even if we assume that it has doubled-or tripled to reach that level that can be reached with stability in the Caucasus, it will stay below the percentage of people’s money growth and the importance of moral consequences that we can expect to occur by this good procedure.
Current Situation in the Caucasus
Previously, we have mentioned that we are living now the most critical phase of what we do in the Caucasus. Unfortunately, these conditions get more complicated because of what our foreign policy is facing due to general anger against us in Europe aroused by Poland’s events, which its results will be absolutely reflected on the Caucasus. Care exercised by the English and the Polish immigrants in Constantinople towards the Circassians become more active and aggressive, and their contacts with the Eastern Coast of the Black Sea become more serious, so, what we are doing against the population of the West Caucasus is like a siege to an open castle on the side of the English, the Turks, immigrants of different origins and the rebels’ parties. There is no doubt that there is no stronger factor than physical force when dealing with Asians, no doubt that the current approach to force the rebel tribes on the subjugation of force without preconditions must produce with decisive results, with the hope that it will not force them to a mass exodus, as if this idea has restarted, it will spread in the Caucasus at lightning speed, and will raise the same concerns, the same rebellion, and the same crazy moves such as those caused by the fall of Shamil. But on the other hand - if we calculated costs and time required to achieve this goal this way, we will face another issue: Is it possible to find those expenses and the time now and in the bad conditions we are experiencing in our time, and can we rule out the occurrence of such cases in which they force us to stop our operations and the conversion from offensive operations to purely defensive operations again? During the last three years ever since the occupation of Dagestan has allowed the opportunity to withdraw troops to Kuban line, we have established our control over the entire Kuban plain until the foot of the mountains and their front slopes. Now remained to occupy all the mountainous space from the Upper Belaya to the sea and this is the hardest part of the work. The Abaza lost approximately one fifth of their lands the Shabsough have lost one third of their lands, and the Ubykh’s lands still intact, but the issue here is not space, but the nature of the region and the difficulty of the mountainous war, that we are still in its infancy in a country that we are not aware of, and the displaced inhabitants have gathered from the plains to the mountains with the exception of a small number of families that came to us willingly. According to Labenski the number of Adighas is 800 thousand, and they can bring up to 80 000 fighters, and among them 30 thousand horsemen. Mohammed Amin, who is fully conversant with the Caucasus says, and if he was wrong he is wrong on purpose that the number of Abaza is 160 thousand, the Shabsough 041 thousand, the Ubykh 60 thousand, and the total number of males approximately 360 thousand, including slaves, whose percentage upon Abadzykh and Ubykh two thirds of the number of inhabitants and slightly less than that with the Shapsough, so will the number of free combatants will reach to 120 thousand, let alone slaves. The average of these two figures is 100 thousand or 80 thousand at the very least, and this is large army that can easily gather against us at the moment the conviction will spread that the critical time for all Circassians had sounded, leaving him only victory or death. They gave this army a good leader who is able to organize and coordinate its operations to some extent and if this commander has realized that the best method of defense for the Circassians is to attack because of the mountainous nature, and if he has attacked on a number of our posts at the same time, all accomplishments we have achieved during the 3 years period will become in great risk. Our towns are able to repel the attacks of the predatory groups, but they will not withstand a rapid and widespread onslaught, and there are several examples on that of regretful mishaps that had occurred in the last year. If the Circassians managed to destroy part of our front lines, which are in weak correlation with each other and were able to throw us from the mountains to the plain, that will invalidate the moral force of our current system, which is its strength based on circling and narrowing on the enemy as in the binding that cannot come out of it, and long time will pass until we can restore our superiority with new sacrifices and efforts.
No one can deny the superiority of the Caucasus in regard to morality and the benefits of its weapons. However, there are two factors that stand against us – the large numbers of people hostile to us and the impossibility of their surrender according to the terms offered to them which do not keep them with other than two choices - either migration or death for freedom, and if those tribes have decided on one of these two options: either the Caucasus will lose its importance for us or perhaps we will have to retreat from our intentions to a long time.
Of course, regardless of the efforts made by our enemies, the Mountaineers are still not organized even if some systematic signals have appeared as a result of concrete circumstances, but they have no leader and there is no practical coordination among them. However the more we narrowed on them the more we let them realize the importance of compatibility between them. The need for the compatibility idea arises from simply population congestion in a narrow area, and can easily be achieved in the circumstances of this congestion. As for a leader, there are many fans of the adventures in the markets of the European revolutions, and may have a champion among them that will liberate the poor innocent Circassians from the yoke of Russian barbarism as an honorable project according to his claim.
Of all what had been said before, the following conclusion can be deduced: the complete occupation of the Caucasus should not mean the geographical area alone, but the region with its indigenous inhabitants. The Caucasus War is a struggle between civilization and primitive life, and between the physical power of the mind and predation. However, those primitives are linked with the region inextricably, and in them lay treasures of mental and physical activity. Let us stop seeing them as stubborn enemies of ours, and if we are forced to deal with them harshly and punish them severely, let us remember that we have no goal other than reforming them. Let our sincere attention in their punishment, too, let us love them, they will be straightened out. Russia will not be satisfied by controlling just the Caucasus Mountains and Valleys. The Russian blood would have had spilled in vain if did not prevent the moral decay in which the population had been living in, and their education is the duty of Russia in order to justify that stubbornness that showed in front of the civilized world in this brutal war which lasted 60 years. The idea of rehabilitation of the Caucasus will not materialize at any time with foreign inhabitants, and cannot even hope to succeed if we look at the real importance of the region. This does not mean that foreigners should not be received here at all, as the foreign settlers may have a positive role in the Caucasus in general as administrators in the agricultural business where the Cossack towns will be useful in some special points as it is preferred to keep away the indigenous inhabitants in the early stages of the occupation as a precautionary measure. However, the distribution of land for those must be based on a special agreement between the government and indigenous peoples which has to emphasize in it officially, on the right of ownership of land occupied by each tribe, with some restrictions clearly defined. The right of ownership is the basis of any system, and when the government fights looting and pillage that means it is protecting this foundation. However, if we perform the punishment of the Mountaineer human on stealing others’ money on one hand, and we loot the most precious thing he has gotten, that is his land - on the other hand, we will not succeed in eliminating the chaos, but will be enhanced. In the French city of Monetier, recently the letter of the Emperor Napoleon to Marshal Pélissier, the Governor of Algeria on this subject and after 30 years of the French government's reluctance in this matter was published, as the Emperor Napoleon had solved for the benefit of the local population, leading to calming the situation in the region.
From all over Turkey, requests come from the Caucasus migrants to return to their home land. Rejecting these demands categorically and prevent them from returning to the Russian territory under any circumstances is incompatible with the principles that Russia must abide by in its policy towards Asia in general and the peoples of the Caucasus in particular. It is not permissible to offend their sense of belonging to the homeland, but on the contrary, we should take advantage of their hostility to the Turkish government and the Turks in general, as this hostility is resulting from their experience. There is nothing wrong if their land had been given to others, as in the Caucasus, there is much other land they can stay in. An immigrant of the Caucasus returning from Turkey is representing that disappointment that awaits Muslims of the Caucasus dependent on the sympathy of the Turkish government, and who knows the impact of the name of Sultan on the peoples of the Caucasus will realize how important to be eliminated by showing a live example of the sad consequences of migration of those who are waiting for them in Turkey. The system which the current combat operations against rebel peoples in the Western Caucasus has gotten major defects. The achievements of this system in Dagestan were prepared as a result of repeated military campaigns that lasted 60 years, in addition to the harsh rule of Shamil. But there was no such preparation in beyond Kuban, and the increasing difficulties that occur from the nature of the area and the population congestion in the mountains require from us even more efforts and means. While the military operations took place in the plains, the enemy was moving slowly and in small numbers, but every time we push him towards the mountains, the greater becomes the numbers of combatants and the enemy works with enthusiasm and growing courage to dismantle the net we get him in, because the concentration of population in the mountains makes it difficult to obtain food. In addition to that, the Circassian resistance is strongly backed up by the moral and material assistance by our enemies abroad. As for our intentions to make the changes in the region, known to local tribes, it prevents their voluntary acquiescence. When a human being is under threat of losing his land, his religion, his servants, and the natural and social rights he would prefer any other fate and will get desperate, therefore, the work model that we follow at the present time becomes not only difficult but dangerous too.
Here comes the question of whether it is possible to implement the system that we were following until now or there another way to occupy the region? We fought the peoples of the Caucasus by force of arms for 60 years, and finally we succeeded in destroying the power of Shamil and Mouride completely and we have seized three-quarters of the territories of the region. Not for the rebel Caucasus to doubt anymore in our commitment for persistence and strength, and if we give in some concession, it would have had no effect on the moral results of our achievements. There is no doubt that it is not the work of the Russian Tsar to take the first step toward reconciliation as the victor is not to put conditions on the loser. According to our belief and available information to us, not all the Adigha tend to continue the war equally, as some of them are willing to sacrifice the freedom they enjoy at the present time for stability, even if they were aware of the terms of surrender that the Emperor will agree upon, and whether these conditions ensure that rights which are essential in all communities, there will be for this peace-loving part at least what will depend on to justify own convictions and will make every effort to win the majority of the population to its side by showing the future benefits for those who are stubborn in their hostile position compared to their current status. These conditions might be already on as follows: The Adighas recognize the Russian Emperor as a legitimate ruler to them and they swear allegiance and fidelity to him through the tribal leaders.
The government keeps the tribal ownership of those lands that occupies at the time of cessation of military operations to maintain the territories occupied as a result of combat operations. This condition will push the tribes to subjugate as soon as possible and the government when returning the land in full later on subsequently can ask them for any reward or impose special obligations. Same management system that operates now in the areas taken from Shamil will be held in the territories submitted again. As for the social organization within the tribes will remain as is until the tribes want to change that themselves.
Government would have the right to build roads in all directions, and building forts and garrisons, and so on, as it would deem necessary in order to ensure full control on the region and without any compensation. The government would have the right to establish Cossack towns in certain points after the purchase of land for that from the tribes for a specific amount of money.
If we add to those conditions as well, the freedom of trade, the current hostile rebel tribes will lose their main causes. Nobles and merchants and all those whose property and wealth at risk because of the war, and the poor as well who now lives all kinds of deprivation, all will return to their senses because the war burden them more than it weighs on us, and even the failure of the side which tends to reconciliation in convincing the people, mere dissemination of these conditions will raise discussions and disagreements within the tribes and some tribes will secede from the Union and internal confusions will facilitate our work in the future, and whether the tribe agreed to the conditions, the government will have sufficient means to adopt peace and calm in the Caucasus with the postponement taking procedures of least importance to a better time.
Document 196 10 January 1863 – Instructions of the Chief of Staff of Kuban Region to the Commander of Natokhayski District on terms of the transfer of Mountaineer population by the merchants Drebyazgin and Fonshtein (the city of Stavropol)
As Your Excellency know, to manage transporting the Mountaineer inhabitants who wish to emigrate from this region to Turkey permanently and at the expense of the Treasury, he had sent Sergeant Bekarski on an errand to Temryuk, Kerch and Odessa The officer returned with a response from the General Office of the Russian Association for Navigation and Trade in the Black Sea to the request forwarded to, for transporting the Mountaineer inhabitants migrating to Turkey, another offer from the first category merchant, Drebyazgin from Temryuk and from the second category merchant of Kerch. According to the proposed conditions of the General Office of the Russian Association, the cost of transporting every individual of the migrants to Turkey would cost the Treasury at least 10 rubles, while it will cost, according to Drebyazgin and Fonshtein’s conditions 6 rubles per person. Recently, the Caucasus Army Chief of Staff told us in his letter No. 2746, dated 19, December that the Commander of the Army saw the amount requested by the General Office of the Russian Association and the above mentioned individuals for the transportation of the Mountaineer inhabitants departing to Turkey as very high and asked to find a sponsor for the transfer of Mountaineers to Turkey with better terms for the treasury. Accordingly, and with the order of the Commander of the Troops, I hope that you find people of Trustees of the owners of vessels for the transfer of Mountaineer inhabitants who wish to immigrate to Turkey from the port of Novorossiysk to the ports of the Turkish Empire with a fee less than that requested by the merchants Drebyazgin and Fonshtein and according to our following conditions: 1) The persons engaged in the transfer of the Mountaineer inhabitants should bring the ships needed to transport the inhabitants to the port of Novorossiysk at our request which will be submitted 15 days before the day of departure. 2) The transportation fee for transferring the Mountaineers and carrying them in the port of Novorossiysk and to disembark them in the ports of the Turkish Empire on the Black Sea equal for adults and children and to determine the size of luggage allowed for free transportation for migrants. 3) The amounts of cash will be handed over in a place the person in charge to transfer the Mountaineer inhabitants after the presenting the certificate issued by the Russian Consulate that the passengers had been arrived to the place agreed upon. Then, the persons who are sponsoring to transport the inhabitants should submit their terms in a special letter.
Waiting for your instructions on the subsequent actions to submit a report to His Excellency,
The Chief of Staff General Zabudsky
Head of Housing Section Colonel Sholkovski
17 January 1863. – A letter from the Military Adviser in the Russian Embassy in Turkey, Colonel Frankini to the Minister of War on the diplomatic steps of the Circassian leaders in Europe and the Turkish induction for the Mountaineer inhabitants on the Jihad against Russia.
I see a duty to convey to Your Excellency the information that we received recently from the different sides on Circassian matters. Deputy Mohammad Amin, our informer of the moves performed by his people two important documents one of them is the last statement sent from here Circassia, and mediation letter presented by local Circassian groups on behalf of all Circassian tribes to the Grand Vizier to be submitted to the Turkish Government. Colonel Novekov had transferred these two documents after they were translated by Colonel Bgoslavski to the Asian Department. On the other hand, through the statements of Ismail Pasha, which were conveyed by Ismail Bey to our interpreter, Mr. Argerpolo as well as the information that I received personally, we knew the intentions of the Circassians and their willingness to travel abroad. According to this information, uniting all these tribes had occurred with the approval of the parties and the agreement between them is a reality and even if it didn’t already happened, but it is advancing very quickly in the recent period. It is not possible that the unification idea has originated within Circassia, but that must have come from abroad and a result of competition that prolonged for centuries. As a result of external influences, the idea of forming a national government composed of 15 people - 5 persons from each of the 3 main tribes and two legal specialists who are a Mufti and a Judge. This council takes care of the basic organizational matters and procedures necessary to protect all interests. Thanks to the mediation of such delegates, this Council remains in constant contact through the Turkish civilian and military personnel with the committee formed here in Constantinople, and also contact will be performed by various Circassian groups supported by high ranking officials of the state and perhaps the Sultan himself. Your Excellency knows that in the large harem houses there are many of the Circassian women who would be glad to help their compatriots for the sake of national interests by exploiting the leverage that they enjoy. Finally, the National Council and the Commission in Constantinople will be in constant contact with the Committee available in London, where Mr. Urquhart (his name is linked to the case which is connected with the Vixen Question) becomes representative of the Circassians in the English Parliament and society. In the establishment of these relations between Constantinople and Circassia, a big role for those so-called "Sendal" which is the Turkish smugglers who work in astonishing consistency and rapidly and they adhere with the necessary caution conditions with great skill. To this end, they get the visas in Trabzon from the senior state staff and they avoid legal liability, but the number of those who reached their destination in Anapa to Novorossiysk, from among 2000 Sendal, not more than 500, at a time others disembark in Vardana and Tuapse. This method of travel has become so convenient to the extent that many people who hold genuine passports and they are belonging to the local civil inhabitants they return home by using this way and they choose their ships before our steamers. The Turkish committee depends on the Committee in London, which enjoys the confidence of the people of England, and even the confidence of the English committee itself and always supports the hope in the Circassians hearts of the English direct or indirect intervention of England in the affairs of their country.
At the same time the Turkish Committee collects donations to the groups that fight Russia, and thanks to this amount of money, delegates were able to come to London and buy several thousand rifles for the Circassians. As for the role of the English committee, despite the failure of the Parliament members in London, Urquhart and his friends have vowed cooperation and support perhaps for ministerial competition reasons, as well as loyalty to their principles. Because of the Turkish incitements, the delegation was questioning in the success of his mission and the support that Europe can offer and questions the applicability of the agreement between the peoples of the Caucasus, however, the Turkish Council proceeds with its work now after perseverance for a long time. They deluded Circassians that their differences are in the success of the Russians and that Europe itself will not be able to recognize them, if they do not unite due to the absence of a government for them to represent the people and that Russia's colonial policy is no longer a secret to any one, and finally, in the event of further procrastination, Russia will begin to conquer peoples of the Caucasus one after the other. These views and incitements were relayed at different times to Circassia through the Turkish and Circassian staff who were speaking on behalf of the Council or the Sultan. Since the establishment of the National Council the following were offered: 1) The organization of a resistance militia of various military hierarchy 2) The imposition of taxes, which would facilitate its work 3) The imposition of fines for the rebels 4) Establishment of workshops for the repair of weapons, ammunition and gunpowder industry, as well as the transfer of all of this from here, with the assistance of employees and workers who would observe the work and will inform Circassians how to take advantage of the rich mountain resources of their country. This plan is now in the process of implementation, and it is said that the resistance militia has gotten leaders appointed by the National Council and that it has popular support, and military operations will commence by order of the Grand Council, which will serve in the common interests. The declaration, which is brought to us by the Deputy, was issued in Bursa, which is a statement initiated by the ambassadors after their return from Europe, and includes a list of laws and it focuses on what Circassians have lost since Russia extended its control to them. It also tells about the attention that the success of the ambassadors in Europe has received and the inevitability of the fall of the Russian Empire and the coming recognition of the independence of the Caucasus regions. All of these actions, incitement and calls for Jihad, have raised a major upheaval in the country, and it is said that a new uprising will occur next spring which will not be just an attack, but it will be even more aggressive. I do not want to go into the supposed details from the talks of the street claiming that Dagestan and all areas which submitted after the fall of Shamil must unite their efforts. Some of the migrants who are in talks with the Circassians and they want to maintain their relationship with their country, have more positive views that the cause of unrest is due to the intention of Russia to destroy Islam in the Caucasus areas. Recently, some see a positive development in that, however, they do not yet have a leader who is able to take the reins of supreme power. Circassians still unite around Bursa. The Turkish Pasha, who is stranger to the country, has carried out reconciliation between rival parties and showed the people the Turkish care. However, due to the inability of Bursa to invest in these grand matters due to fear of its reputation and its scare of publicly expressing sympathy for a people we are at war with, remained deaf to these demands so far. This is evidenced by the last request to the Grand Vizier and transferred to us by Mohammed Amin. Events show that they will agree on choosing Deputy a leader to them, if Bursa has undertaken to finance the independent rule.
If Bursa has approved Circassia’s demands at any time, it would have given it a strong impetus to the national feelings in Circassia and will allow them to stay away from Russia for not recognizing them diplomatically. Overall Mr. Minister, in all matters relating to the role of Bursa in the events that Circassia has become a stage of cooperation in, and this what became clear to us, but we do not have any prove document in regard to the Turkish government. There are many offenders, and to make turkey reduce its sympathy, the tongue must be used and the means conflicting with our current policy... On the other hand, the establishment of strict control over the funds, weapons and ammunitions that go to Circassia is very difficult, not to say that it is impossible... Due to our limited capabilities - and this is unfortunate – our fleet is exposed to test at the sites in order to be effective in the shadow of the growing number of vessels on the lines. There is no doubt that communication with Turkey is increasingly easier day after day, from the Eastern shore of the Black Sea. The day will come when all these contacts will stop completely and tribes will leave their weapons without being defeated.
After that I told your Excellency the results of the maneuvers that have hindered the process of the complete occupation of the Caucasus, it is my duty to convey to you the views of key Circassian leaders on the future of their country. And which of them was less optimistic, after their ambassadors’ visit to London has failed, they became certain that Europe will not give them anything, so they know today, for sure, that all the expectations that they had so far are merely illusions that must be abandoned. The people of this region more and more aware of their inborn intelligence and their acquired experience that modern Turkey would not be supportive to them for a long time. They realize that they are alone and they will stay alone in their fight against Russia, and the end this war will not remain unknown for a long time. In their quest to avoid a devastating war for their motherland and the preservation of their rights and choose their own destiny, they chose a fighting method at times and another at other times in an attempt to find out the conditions that Russia will approve to establish peace. They cherish the dream of self-government based on more or less rights within the Russian authority and they unite their efforts to prove that all their actions are geared to meet their private interests only. All of these tips Dear Mr. Minister have been collected with great caution and they are presented only for information. However, if they have entered in the imperial government one day and agreed with the people who were not invaded yet, the good understanding that exists today - as it seems - between the people and the Council will have an important role in facilitating the negotiations. At the end of this letter, allow me Mr. Minister, to draw your attention to the request of Mohammad Amin, which you may have news of it, which required a financial reward depending on the dignity of the imperial authorities. He is intending to settle in Brosa with his family after his return from Mecca, where he acquired a piece of land and he does not have the money to make it ready. I do not want to sound naive in the eyes of Your Excellency, as his intentions have been driven from his heart until now, and did not err in his behavior. Even his obedience did not benefit us so much until now, rejecting his request may have a serious impact. In this sense we must be careful when dealing with him and that's what Your Excellency will be assured of at the right time, where I can then pursue your compassionate courtesy.
With the great respect and obedience to the Mr. Minister Colonel Frankeni Constantinople
In 20, March, 1863 - Fort Habelskoya, message from two merchants Lorentso and Meshkov to the Commander of Natokhayski District, Babich, on the terms of transporting the Mountaineer inhabitants to Turkey
The Governor of Kerch has told us that based on the decision to the higher authorities, those who wish to transport the Mountaineer inhabitants and their families to turkey are called out the transfer of the population of mountain and their families to Turkey’s both Asian and European parts, being having the necessary capabilities to perform this operation, we have come to Your Excellency, and after obtaining the information connected with transporting the Mountaineers, we are honored to present to Your Excellency the following thoughts on this subject: To Natokhyski District Commander, General Babich 1) Loading Mountaineers, their families and their properties will take place on ships and vessels at Fort Konstantinoveskoya and Anapa, and for this purpose ships and vessels should be requested from us at least 15 days of the arrival of immigrants to the two mentioned points with revealing their names and the places that they should be taken to. 2) Transportation fee of Mountaineers required from the Treasury is 4 silver rubles per person for an access to the ports of Asian part of Turkey, and 4 silver rubles and 50 koubeks per person, for an access to the ports of the European part of Turkey, where children 4 years of age and younger and properties of the Mountaineer families in the form of batches and boxes also the supplies that the Mountaineers will take for personal purposes will be exempted of these fees. The boxes’ length though should not be longer than 1 ¼ Arshin and the weight of each family’s household should not be more than 6 Pood. Apart from that, the poor Mountaineer families shall be exempt from transportation fees, provided that the number of these families doesn’t exceed 30 persons for every 1000 persons and to have every family that has the right to free transport a certificate issued by local authorities to show to the official in charge when loading. 3) On the rest of the Mountaineers property, including grain, vehicles, horses, livestock, beehives, wax, honey in bags and basins, raw skin and other things of big sizes, the Mountaineers themselves must pay the fees according to what we will agree upon with them. 4) During loading and before boarding the ship, all migrants must give up their weapons, and commit ourselves to return them to their owners when disembarking Mountaineer families in Turkish ports. 5) The Mountaineers must take the necessary vital supplies with them to be sufficient for the entire duration of the trip. 6) The payment of the fee for the transportation of the Mountaineers and their families, which is 4 rubles, and 4 rubles 50 koubeks as mentioned above from the Treasury immediately when presenting cards issued by the Russian consuls in Turkish ports or from the Turkish authorities where there is nothing like them would certify that we are doing our duty with stating names of ships and vessels, date of arrival, names of ports, and the number of passengers, with clarifying the full number of individuals. 7) We are preparing fresh water to drink for all passengers and their families during the trip in sufficient quantities, as well as the necessary lighting in the form of lanterns. 8) We are ready to provide the necessary assurances that we have to implement all the mentioned conditions at the request of the authorities, as well as certificates issued by the Commandant of Kerch that we have the necessary capabilities for the transportation of the Mountaineers successfully.
With that, we will be putting forward conditions under which we want accordingly to transport the Mountaineers, and we will be honored to request from Your Excellency to place it in the hands of the Commander of the Kuban Region’s
Forces, General Count Evdokimov and we solicit your mediation to obtain a permission to do this transport, and please let us know of the decision.
13 April 1863 – The instructions issued by the War Minister, General Milutin to the Commander of the Caucasus Army, His Highness Prince Mikhail Nikolayevich in regard to excluding 28 thousand acres of the land located between Belaya and Bshesh rivers dedicated to establishing villages for the indigenous inhabitants.
His Majesty the Emperor, has generously agreed on the resolution of Your Highness on the exception of part of the land located between Belaya and Pshesh rivers with an area of 28 thousand acres of the area allocated for the establishment of villages for the indigenous inhabitants provided that the area positioned within, amounting to 6000 acres is to be considered a property of the Treasury to get use of its forests for the purposes of engineering projects in Kuban Region, and the remaining 22 thousand acres to be allocated for the establishment of two new towns for the Cossacks, namely Gabokayvskaya and Bjedoghvskaya and the distribution of land among residents of the towns, with assigning other lands to the Mountaineer inhabitants instead of all this land in another place, where appropriate.
Particular to the Document
His Highness Prince Mikhail Nikolayevich (1832-1909) is the brother of Emperor Alexander II and the son of Nikolai I. In the period between the years 1863–1881 he was a Deputy in the Caucasus and Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, and he was the most prominent executors of the project of invading the North-Western area of the Caucasus and the deportation of Circassians to the Ottoman Empire.
20 April 1863. - Report of the Natokhaway District Commander General Babich to the Troops Commander of Kuban Region, on the prevention of Natokhaway from practicing agriculture in the lands located between the Cossack towns until their departure to Turkey
Natokhaway who were not deported until recent 1, March, with permission of Your Excellency, had been barred from the practice of agriculture between the Cossack towns until their departure to Turkey or deporting them to the places allocated for the residence of of native tribes. This decision, which was informed to the Adaghomski Division Commander at the suitable time for the necessary follow-up on his part, the Mountaineers were implementing it consistently and they were staying temporarily in their former places awaiting the return of their leaders from the Ottoman Empire, who went check the land that the Turkish government would allocate for their residence. The General Commander of the Caucasus Army has listened when he visited the Natokhaway District in 23 and 24 of the current month to the demands of the local population and accordingly he decided to postpone their deportation for another month, as they were claiming that their envoys will inevitably return during this period. Then His Highness graciously approved to offer the Mountaineers for the purposes of agriculture and for the current year only, the land located between the former Sovorovskaya town and (Jegwi), under the condition that these lands will not be needed by the residents of Adaghomski Regiment and the Cossacks themselves agree to waive in favor of the indigenous population. Shortly after His Highness departure, Colonel Krokov has allowed and without receiving orders from anyone the implementation of the will of His Holy the Prince, the Vice Caucasus, the Natokhaway to practice agriculture, not only in places allowed, but in between towns as well. When I knew about the matter, I blamed Colonel Krokov holding him responsible in case any negative consequences may happen for the wrong actions taken, and I asked him not to allow anyone of Natokhaway to plow the land that belongs to the towns and utilize for this purpose, the forces at his disposal if necessary, but this officer, as seen by Your Excellency from copies of papers attached under the numbers 2133, 78, 1411, 1423, 399, 429 and 443 has interfered in what is not within his own jurisdiction and has spoiled the matter, and now he cannot face the indigenous inhabitants with the means available to him, it is expected the occurrence of a serious disruption soon, and I had warned him against that. These circumstances led me to send my deputy, Colonel Kreganovski to the District to restore stability and to carry out deporting the indigenous population immediately to the area allocated to them or to Turkey.
We do not anticipate collisions with Natokhaways who are peaceful since 3 years, except if we take wrong actions and premature.