Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Documents 301 - 350

21, June, 1864 – The report of the Representative of the Special Tasks of the Commander-in-Chief, Lieutenant Colonel Batiyanov,
submitted to the Caucasus Army Chief of Staff, Kartsov, on the progress of Ubykh Deportation: Tari Alobej. I present to You Excellency, a brief report on the mandate entrusted to me by, His Imperial Highness, the Commander-in-Chief of the Caucasus Army, on the deportation of the Ubykh and their neighbors, of the Mountaineers to Turkey, the deportation that had started in 25, May, and ended in 9, June, 21051 total number of deportees, as evidenced by receipts submitted, by my two assistants, to the Captains of sailing-ships and others, which had transported the deportees, 1118 persons were transported from Adler, 10678 persons from Khusta, 5040 persons from Tskho, and 4215 persons from Sandrebje; paid on their behalves to the Captains, the rate of one Rubles per person, and infants were excluded. Apart from these numbers of deportees, the Dzhiget Prince, Gitch Rasheed, had rented sailing-ships, for his own account, accompanied by 400 of the Dzhigety. And 100, who were infected of measles, were left in Adler for recovery, because they were not able to board ships, and I entrusted the military Commander, Captain Yesepov, to them, and I gave him hundred Rubles, to deport them to Turkey, from the sale of maize crop residues. CSHA of Georgia, p. 416, op. 3, d 149, n. 8-9.

Document 302

June 22, 1864 - Order from Evdokimov to the department commander of the Natokhaway District Major General Babich on the appointment of a pension of 200 rubles for the Effendi Isaac, for his effective contribution to "displace Shabsough to Turkey successfully"
Chief District of Shabsough department Major Shipshev reported that Effendi Isaac contributed effectively in the displacement of Shabsoughs to Turkey successfully through his personal involvement and influence on the people, and therefore, if he did not stay in our land -after displacing more than 100 Shabsough families to Turkey -and wanted to migrate to Turkey I hope that your Excellency permit to give him in cash the amount of 400 silver rubles from the funds at your disposal and designed to assist indigenous migrants to Turkey, but if he wanted to stay in Russia, he will have pension of 200 rubles permanently, and inform me about the issue .

Document 303

June 24, 1864 - A special order for the team of the Kuban Cossacks and declaring the appreciation for the Deputy of the Cossacks for their active participation in the conquest of the Caucasus
His highness the commander of the Caucasus army at Ekaterinodar city on 24 of June 1864, offer a luncheon and raising his toast in honor of the Cossacks of Kuban Cossack squad, praising their tireless efforts and distinguished courage while taking part in the conquest of the Caucasus, after the establishment of the military parade with the participation of the groups: Little Labinsk, Pshehskogo,Dahovskogo and Grenadier on the slope of the South Valley Kbaada on May 21, and prayers on the occasion of the final conquest of the West Caucasus
I declare to the population of Kuban the holy and honorable will of His Royal Highness Prince Mikhail Nikolayevich for us to generalize.
Original signed ataman Kuban Cossack Army Major-General Count Sumarokov Elston. State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, 52, p. Three.

Document 304

June 24, 1864 - Letter from Deputy of Russian Affairs in Constantinople Novikov to the Army Chief of Staff Kartsov on the role of Dr. Barutse in establishing quarantine for mountaineers (due to English French politics) and the desire of Circassians to return to the Caucasus
Dr. Barutse , who attended here as a quarantine inspector during the displacement of the mountaineers, received a badge of honor, and this award clearly demonstrates the task that Mr. Barutse was assigned for, which I already mentioned in one of my letters addressed to your highness.
Mr. Barutse offered nothing to Trabzon or to the mountaineers, and the Turkish government has the right not to recognize his achievements because the quarantine was a conspiracy from both England and France, and my duty and also the Turkish government duty is to fight it.
Last week did not witness presence of new immigrants. And many of the former migrants were sent to Rumelia and into Pashalyka. With the exception of 100 Shabsough families who wanted to return to Ppgad and completely submit to our laws. 100 families of Natokhaway want to move from Samsun to the same areas mentioned. They sent spies to know my opinion and to get permission to return to their homes. Apart from these two incidents of migrants towards the passive local authorities I allow myself to mention two other cases I have witnessed over the moral corruption that reached the Mountaineers in general. When the Turkish government wanted to stop the trade of prisoners in camp Saridere, a strong wave of objections occurred, and Amin Pasha- who was present there at the time- had to flee after he made a covenant not to obstruct trade of prisoners anymore.
The second thing that the Turkish government recruits only single men, Since there are many married men want to recruit, and for that not only they leave their wives, they also abandon their children that’s if they do not sell them.
In conclusion, it is my duty to submit to you Excellency a list for people who have been freed from the Circassian Captivity by the Empire Council and were taken to Poti, although the Pasha refused to provide us with any help in this matter.

Document 305

June 30, 1864. - Letter from Deputy of Russian Affairs in Constantinople (Novikov) to the Caucasian Army Chief of Staff Katsariov on encouraging the Circassians to enroll in the Turkish army The Highlanders’ resettlement continues actively within the borders of the Turkish Empire. After the cessation of trips at the busy shores of the Caucasus, ships and Turkish sailing vessels get busy in transferring immigrants from Anatolia to the shores of Kjoostnge and other points of the European part of Turkey.
Thus, a large Circassian settelment has been established in Panderme on the shore of Marmara Sea after ultimitly postponing Bursa’s decision to establish a similar Settlement between the Bosphorus and the Black Sea, and Kjoostnge remains the main landing point where settlers are transported by rail from here to the areas adjacent to the Serbian border. Around 3000 Circassian volunteered to serve in the Turkish army, and according to expectations of Fuad Pasha Bursa hopes to increase this number up to 12000 by and at the same time decrease the conscription.
Resettlement of the Circassians in Turkey is linked to huge financial costs, so Bursa seeks to obtain a special loan in this regard and the amount of one million Turkish silver lira (about 6 million rubles ).
CSHA of Georgia, p. 416, op. 3, etc. 1097, p. 16.

Document 306

5 July 1864 - An order from the Commander of the Natokhaway Department of General Babich on handing over the amount of 4315 rubles for the Sailors of ships to transport 6630 Shabsough people.
I hope you allocate the necessary funds and record in the book of expenses in accordance with the invoices attached to the following numbers - 783, 784 785 790, 791 820 826, 827 829 847. I also hope you to register in the book of expenses in the name of the person responsible for the mountaineers displaced to Turkey from Port Konstantinowski, Lt Colonel Zakrzewski, as a reward for the masters of sailing vessels for the carriage of 1051 families of mountaineers from Shabsough origin, that’s transferring 6630 people of both sexes. 405 people, including payment for one ruble per person = 405 rubles. 109 people for payment for 1 ruble and 75 Koubek/person =190 rubles and 75 Koubek. 3,870 persons for payment for 75 Koubek/person =2 902 rubles and 50 Koubek. 545 poor people with payment for one ruble and 50 Koubek per person =817 rubles and 50 Koubek. Equal to the total amount of 4315 silver rubles and 75 Koubek in exchange for the transfer of 4929 people.

Document 307

8 July 1864 - Letter from Vice Consul in Trabzon Moshanin to the Caucasian Army Chief of Staff Katsariov, about the difficulty of the situation of the Circassians and their desire to return, which is only possible if they convert to Christianity.
It is my duty to convey the message to your Excellency that includes the report of Dr Barutse concerning the Circassian issue, which is realistic to a large extent, although there is some exaggeration in the numbers of deaths. As with regard to the orders of local authorities it is an absolute fact.
Conditions of mountaineers become worse day by day, shortly before the Governor General received an order from Constantinople by telegraph to interrupt sending them to the capital and the need to keep them in Anatolia, the governor replied that the funds have been implemented, and he required to send ships of war, and did not assume responsibility for the results.
As a result, they sent him some of the ships that transported a few thousand mountaineers to Rumelia, and the numbers here have decreased significantly. Recently they stopped distributing fresh bread between them so they replace it with other mixture combined with corn and it is expected to replace the old share.
As I received news of deaths caused by starvation, heavy rains have killed 60 people in Saridere, the incidence of Smallpox and Typhus decreased but is still prevalent on a large scale. Some of the mountaineers asked to return to their homes, provided to convert to Christianity. The last French ship came to authorize the establishment of road Erzrum, and as I informed you previously, Fikri Pasha (Hungarian Koletane) will be the main supervisor of the work, and the French company who comstructed the road from Beirut to Damascus will do this road.

Document 308

8 July 1864 - Report of the Labinsk Chief Commander General Nolken to Colonel Evdokimov on the displacement of people of Pskhu and the temporarily delayed of the unit at the river Bzyb .
Today the two days given to the people of Pskhu to leave have ended, and all of them have already left their villages, which have remained empty, and most inhabitants burned them themselves.
Further, the prisoners who left there confirmed that the people of Pskhu will go towards the sea on the second day in a row. As for the cattle and sheep they have sold large numbers of them to the unit during their presence in the valley of Agribze where they still bring the rest of the herds that existed in places far from the Bzyb, it is expected that the last group of the indigenous population-who were delayed to sell their livestock- will leave within three days that’s until the 10th of this month, all of whom are heading toward a bridge between Bombora Sukhumi and Bombora. I gave them pass tickets, and asked Major General Shatilova to provide them with the approved Immigration cards, and release some of our prisoners who are with them and provide him with a list of their names. I also asked him to meet some demands of the peaceful mountaineers of the people of Pskhu. Starting tomorrow, Colonel Semenkin,-accompanied by horsemen division and a team of police under the command of Major Aglshscheva with an infantry battalion at his disposal- will carry out an inspection campaign during 3-4 days in the villages of Pskhu and the surrounding areas, where all the remaining houses will be burned. And if we find that all the people of Pskhu have left entirely-where there’s no doubt about it-I will surely return the troops to the North Slope by the 12th of this month and begin the construction of the road at Valley Karapyra, while Colonel Semenkin and Major Aglshscheva along with their forces are leaving back to their homes, that is the case if Admiral Shatilova -in response to my report – expresses no need to keep the Malolabinski troop on the River Bzyb. Major General Shatilova was also informed about my departure from Bzyb River on the 12th of this month.

I have taken this decision taking into consideration the following factors: correspondent carrier of this letter will not reach your highness until after 6 days and your decision may not reach us until after 6 days, which means that the troops may remain for a long time without a job, at a time when there are huge tasks before us that must be implemented. As it seems displacing the Pskhu people was the leading cause of the troops residing on the River Bzyb while now there is none of them. And even the 50 families of the Pskhu who were here have left their homes as well. While those who migrated to our land have already moved to the line.

Document 309

July 12, 1864 – Receipt of payment for transferring 128 Shabsough families.
This certificate acknowledge a receipt of the full amount due for the transportation of the Mountaineers, a total of 677 silver rubles 25 Koubek from the Military Department of Natokhaway, where I moved 128 Shabsough families on board the Turkish ship " Tiyufan-Kyuda ", led by captain Osman Ali, using one passport No. 2,200. They were 896 people of both sexes. 399 people for 75 per person, and 252 people for one ruble 50 Koubek per person = 378 rubles, and I bear witness upon my signature.
Base Konstantinovskoe on July 12, 1864
Karabet Dhikager - residents of the town (Staro Krimssquih)
Because of his illiteracy, it was signed by the merchant (Kozyatn)
No. 1186. I certify my signature and put the official stamp that this bill has been delivered to the leadership of the Military Department of Natokhaway and bear the signature of the latter.
Okrainsquih Knstantinovsquih, on July 12,1864.
Signed by Lieutenant Colonel Rotiski
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 325, op. A, d 301, n. 476.

Document 310

July 16, 1864. - Receipt of payment for transferring 58 Natokhaway Family
This certificate acknowledge receiving the full amount due from transporting the Mountaineers , a total of 240 silver rubles 75 Koubek from the Military Department of Natokhaway, where I moved 58 Natokhaway families on board the Turkish ship " George Pro-tos ", led by Captain (Boden) , using one passport number 2205.They are from the tribe of Natokhaway and they were 406 people of both sexes. 321 people for 75 Koubek per person, and I bear witness upon my signature.
Base (Knstantinovsquih). On July 23 in 1864
Signed in the Turkish language (for Mehmet)
I certify my signature and put the official stamp that this bill has been delivered to the leadership of the Military Department of Natokhaway and bear the signature of the latter.
On July 16 in 1864
Signed by Lt. Col. Rotiski
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 325, op. A, d 301, l. 477

Document 311

19 July 1864 - An article published in "Russky Invalides" on the policy of the tsarist government in the Caucasus after the "Implementation of peace." in it
Generally among all the measures used by the Russian government in order to transform the Caucasus region into a Russian region, there is a way that we must recognize as cruel, which was the last campaign of displacement and resettlement of the Circassian tribes to Turkey.
Tragedies incurred during travel and in particular those facing them upon their arrival in Turkey are pathetic, and England has great credit for the speed with which they provide them with assistance. However, if we have studied the subject without bias, are we to believe that such a mass deportation was carried out without external influence on the mountaineers? Is it true that the Western mountaineers were not ready for submission to us as the Eastern mountaineers and stay in their homes and not to move to other places where there is scourge and conquer, if there resistant was not supported from abroad until recently, and add the influence on them with unrealistic promises? Because of their savage and naive nature the Mountaineers always dream and fantasize, so with little interest and little sympathy towards them they may do crazy big things, and who is not aware of the many interventions that have occurred in their affairs which continued for a long time sometimes. Who doesn't recall, for example, the exploits in the past year that were carried out by the so-called Polish Admiral Magna? And who doesn't know that the English Consular in Sukhumi has declared in March with sorrow that there is no hope to unite the mountaineers for the organization of a unified resistance? So there was nothing left to us but to alleviate the burden of mountaineers and help them financially, and that's what we did.

Loss of large numbers of people who have a high susceptibility to development will not be in favor of Russia, inevitably, but at the same time we must remember that getting rid of the task of organizing the people who feel very angry towards us, and easily subject to external influences has positive aspects. Whatever it was, the scourge experienced by the Circassians now are not our moral responsibility, but is to who were urging them to such irrational acts. The land that free of the population now -at the end of the peace process in the Caucasus- will stimulate , and with no doubt, many people to move to it and will attract large numbers of Armenians, Turks, Persians and those who had ambitions in that for a long time.
After all, the tribes of the Mountaineers migrating from the Caucasus now are currently the last remaining enemies of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus. While the remaining 4.5 million people, and with the way the troops have been distributed by the Authority in the Russian Caucasus and the slow process associated with this deployment, made them forever firmly and honestly linked to Russia, due to the existing common interests and other strong bonds.
Therefore, the process of peace in the Caucasus is not an invasion like the invasion of Algeria carried out by the French or the invasion of India by the British, but is a combination of the area that for a long time –due to its geographical situation and the common interests- was meant to be, and is ultimately a peaceful and much stronger unit.
This is the significance of what happened in the Caucasus, in our opinion. As for the results, the first and most important one will be in direct relief of efforts and sacrifices incurred by the state for the success of this project. In order to see how can such findings be great on the whole state, it is enough to note that the military forces stationed in the Caucasus consist of 185 Battalion, 7 infantry companies (including the 172 battalion of the regular troops) and 52 battalions and 5 Brigades and 13 Brigades cavalry (20 confidentiality order) and 28 Battery Artillery (242 guns) (21 regular battalions), and an annual cost of the military for about 30 million.

Document 312

21 July 1864. - Report of the commander of the Tuapse border line Zakrzewski, to the commander of the Department of Natokhaway on sending more than 1,600 people to Turkey, with 600 people remaining because of diseases. Checkpoint (Velaminowski)
In response to your Excellency No. 1326 of July, 8th, I inform you the following:
Before the arrival of the commercial ships sent by order of your Excellency to transfer Mountaineers to Turkey that arrived at the port of Shepsi where the Mountaineers gathered, a ship coming from Sukhum arrived and carried 600 Mountaineers to take them to Turkey. When I received your Excellency‘s order number 1328 on the 11th of this month, I went directly to Shepsi and after reviewing the poor conditions of these migrants myself, I have set up a military commission to testify of their inability to pay the fare to travel to Turkey, and I have handed over this certificate to the Captain and the other sent to your Excellency.
I have also sent you a copy of the list of names of immigrants according to the attached form, another copy was sent to the captain so that he can receive the money from the treasury.
The first ship carried 18 thousand people ages starting from 6 years and from both sexes heading to Turkey, while the second ship was left to load the 600 people that were very ill, so the Sailor refused to carry them due to his young age and also refused to wait for the arrival of new immigrants from the mountains. So the ship left empty. As informed by official migrant Lieutenant Korenidky, there is a ship "Vojin” on its way to transfer the rest of the mountaineers.
Since before I received your order number 1328 I allowed the mountaineers to collect the required quantities of sustenance in the mountains by the roots for consumption during travel, and I found that there is no need to get their sustenance from warehouses since they did not need more sustenance.
Mountaineers immigrants to Turkey came from different places and groups and were not led by any one of their own society, so there was no need for the two blank passports you sent, so I will send them back to your Excellency.

Document 313

21 July, 1864. - Receipt of payment to the Turkish captain transporting 140 Natokhaway families
This certificate acknowledge receipt of the full amount due to transporting mountaineers with the amount of 602 silver rubles 25 Koubek from the Military Department of Natokhaway where I moved 140 Natokhaway families on board the Turkish ship “Tripoli" led by captain Ferez Baker, using one passport No. 2209 . They are from the tribe of Natokhaway and they counted 891 people of both sexes. 803 people for 75 Koubek per person, and I bear witness upon my signature.
Took place in Turkish (Ferez Baker)
I certify my signature and put the official stamp that this bill has been delivered to the leadership of the Military Department of Natokhaway and bear the signature of the latter.
On July 21 in 1864
Signed by Lieutenant Colonel Rotiski
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 325, op. A, d 301, n. 478.

Document 314

23 July 1864 - Receipt of payment to the captain Mehmet Ali for transferring 60 Natokhaway families.
This certificate acknowledge receipt of the full amount due to transporting mountaineers with the amount of 209 silver rubles 25 kopeks, from the Military Department of Natokhaway where I moved the 60 Natokhaway families on board the Turkish ship " Murabut ", led by the Sailor Mehmet Ali, using one passport No. 2215 and they are from the tribe of Natokhaway and counted 328 people of both sexes. 279 persons for 75 Koubek per person, and I bear witness upon my signature.
Base (Knstantinovsquih). On July 23 in 1864
Occurred in the Turkish language (for Mehmet)
I certify my signature and put the official stamp that this bill has been delivered to the leadership of the Military Department of Natokhaway and bear the signature of the latter.
On July 23 in 1864
Signed by Lieutenant Colonel Rotiski
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 325, op. A, d 301, n. 479.

Document 315

24 July 1864. - Loading of 977 people from the poor Shabsogh in sailing ships.
We, the undersigned members of the commission for the continual migration to Turkey from the Konstantinov port for permanent residence, certify that in the period between 4th and 25th of July we loaded some of the poorest members of the Shabsough tribe in the following sailing ships: 305 people in the ship "Sultan" passport No. 2195, 252 people in the ship "Churak Koda" passport number 2200, 102 people in the ship "Lida fridi" passport number 2202, 318 people in the ship "Shagain Darwish" passport no. 2203, and the total number of 977 people from the poor of both sexes, and we certify by signing.
Koestantinovokoe base on July the 24th, 1864
Signature members of the Committee
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 325, op. A, d 301, n. 488.

Document 316

27 July 1864 - Order for the Caucassian Army with the announcement of Alexander II’ s order to end the Caucassian war.
Billy Kljuc base
On the occasion of ending the Caucassian war His Majesty the Emperor asked me to express his appreciation to the High distinguished service provided by the Caucasian military with all its units to declare the following:
"To His Royal Highness Prince
Culminated in the brilliant achievements by the Caucasian forces led by its heroic leaders who waged long bloody wars in order to protect our lands adjacent to the Caucasus lands, and our brothers in religion from brutal attacks of Muslims invasions after they put their fate in the hands of Russia, and to the adoption of peace in a country that was from the ancient days an arena for internal conflicts and looting.
The honorable task to end the process of conquering the West Caucasus, which lasted a century and a half and a declaration to the Russian people that the Caucasus has become free from all the hostile tribes, was your highness’s victory.
On this great occasion, and for the praise for the tremendous efforts made by the Caucasian army in order to reach such a happy ending in the long-term conflict I ordered the Secretary of War to established the following medals:
1) A Cross as a special memorial of conquering the Caucasus to be given to every officer and soldier who took part in the military operations against hostile Caucasian tribes.
2) A special Medal for conquering western Caucasus to those who participated in military operations in the last 4 years from the year 1859, until 1864, and a reward for the distinctive heroic acts carried out by the Caucasian army in the final phase of the war to achieve the great Caucasus conquer. The government ordered the following:
1. Approval for a new military service compulsory for those who entered military service on 8 September 1859, and those who apply to the law of compulsory service for 20 years for the right of retirement and those who are serving or have served in the Caucasian Army before 1864, a period of 15 years, while retain ng this right also when transferred to other forces outside the Caucasian region.
The Secretary of War assigned to issue orders to refer to the mentioned militants and those who have served 15 years before January 1st of 1864 and the law does not prevent them from retirement.
2. Reducing the duration of compulsory military service for all components of Kuban Cossack Forces and Terek Cossack Forces up to 15 years of field service, and 7 years of inside the country service.
This is my will that I need your highness to declare for the brave Caucasian Army, which have the glory and thanks from our beloved country, on this great
achievement of peace in the whole Caucasus region in favor of the Russian state, and to you we give our lasting gratitude and pride.
Written by His Majesty the Emperor: Loving Honestly, Alexander
On July the 2nd of 1864 - the town of Krasnueh Selo.
I have the pleasure to be appointed to transfer to you the will of the High Commissioner; you brave sons of the Caucasian army.
The leaders of armies in the areas of Kuban, the Turk, Dagestan and the province of Kotys ordered to circulate this in all brigades and Cossack battalions after an official thankful prayer party that will be held in all units on the dates that will be determined at a later time, but in the region beyond the Caucasus I declare local administrators to circulate this order in the regions of their management.
The signing of the Commander in Chief Major General Mikhail
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 347, op. 1, 52, p. 5-7.

Document 317

In the years 1863-1864 - From the Letters on the Russian settlement in the occupied lands in the western Caucasus.
From Kartsova, dated September 4, 1863:
The Minister of War and Grand Duke Michael Nikolayevich asking about the possibility of intensifying the operations in the territory of Kuban for the following reasons:
1) The political problems that have not been resolved yet may become harder, which may lead to war.
2) The enhanced intrigues that took place in Constantinople, where the Sultan aspired to form Principality in the eastern shore of the Black Sea while Mohammed Amin gave a helping hand to the Russians to subdue the mountaineers. "
From MI Venyukov, dated December 12, 1863.
"Foreigners, particularly members of the British embassy resent the barbarian method we have taken in the occupation of the West Caucasus, in their view. Lord Nupeer, who is moderate, puts the" wildness " of this occupation in a row with England actions against the Indians in the eighteenth century, although he recognizes the need to resettle this part of the territory of the Russian lands with Russian citizens politically. And maybe these rumors made the government avoid talking about the situation of the forcibly displaced mountaineers or those who immigrated to Turkey, and not dealing with this issue in the newspapers when covering news concerning the updates in the Caucasus, and only reports the successful colonization. Anticipating that I might be asked some questions in that regard, I was asked not to disclose any information that could raise eyebrows with the foreigners. And then regarding the position of our own leadership, I can say that Milutin is satisfied with how the operations went in general as it seemed to me, yet he once said that we "must, must finish quickly because the Caucasus is costing us very dearly".
From Sommarokov, Sixtieth message dated 15th of December 1863: "The Highlanders are heading to Kuban, but in a deplorable state and were infected terribly. Those heading to Turkey gathered at the shore and they are very poor too, but unfortunately the boat could not load them. They sell everything: male-calf for one ruble, a cow for 75 Koubek, females -calf from 20 to 40 Koubek, Lamb 25 Koubek and goats 10 Koubek. Weapons are sold cheaply, and saddled horses from 2 to 8 rubles. Because of the surplus in meat they started skinning animals and throwing meat because of their inability to feed them ... "
Message from Q. Gyeman on February 13 in 1864: "... Abzakh people are naked and poor and are turning towards Tuapse, and will constitute a significant burden to us, the fear of the spread of fever or other infectious diseases among them. We treat them in a barbaric way actually, but we have no other way people are amazingly stupid" .
From Sommarokov - February 14 in 1864: "In addition to the ideas about the future of military operations the report refers to the suffering of Mountaineers immigrants to Turkey from poverty and disease, and this is worrying Count as that could affect those who had not migrated yet and makes them fall back on their decision to emigrate to Turkey".

From Colonel Charak: " When the Caucassian army evacuated the area -intended for resettling- from mountaineers they established a special teams to search for members of the indigenous people hiding in places difficult to reach and reject the idea of leaving their homes. Attachment to homeland was for these people strong to the point of making some of them slip to the dark mouths to die in cold and starvation, with guns in their hands to fire the last bullet at a Russian as a revenge on their displacement. As for the livings and most of them women and children who were in a state of weakness and severe leanness, the troops took them and brought them to the nearest points to the Russian settlements ... and to expel those Circassians who refused to immigrate their home land and hiding in stomata mountain waiting to die, special teams were formed. On one occasion Fedoseyev squad found during the search in stomata mountain in the Psakups Heights up to 30 people from the mountaineers hiding alone in places difficult to see, and the arrest was even much more difficult than that, so the queue were forced to divide into small groups to gain access to hidden places and to find the hiding mountaineers to arrest them and turn them in at the disposal of the military commander of the territory of Kuban.
There were a large number of displaced mountaineers in the mountains of the Caucasus where they eventually died.
I remember how our troops led by General Babich were approaching like locusts in the first days of great summer from the beautiful Mountaineers land, and their dense crops: wheat, barley, millet and peaks flatten under the feet of soldiers, horses and guns. And the villages scattered around us were burning, and the smoke made the leaves of the surrounding recently formed woods turn to abnormal brown color".
Korolenko P. Relocation of the Cossacks of the Kuban. Russian colonization of the West Caucasus, Kuban C compilation, T. 16. Ekaterinodar. In 1911. S. 395-396, 401-402, 441, 566-569.

Document 318

From the memoire of D.L. Milutin “Caucasus in the second half of the year."
The end of the Caucassian war found a great welcome in all parts of Russia, so this happy event gives hope to reduce the power and military expenditure significantly as well as the development of civil institutions, trade and industry in the region. Therefore, in addition to this welcome, some of them express regret that the Caucasus will not return -after the war- a military school for our army as in the past and that the military power of the population of the Cossacks and the high capacity that characterizes the Caucasian Forces will be gone. But we should not regret it because of the fruitful results that are predicted to happen in the future - both for the development of the same area or to improve our dysfunctional financial conditions.

In the last years of the war in the Caucasus, the situation required a huge presence of military forces, including: pedestrian - 172 regular battalion and 13 battalion, and 700 irregular, Cavalry - 20 troops and 52 battalions and 5 teams and 1300 irregular which have 242 cannons in the field. The volume of annual expenditures for these forces reached 30 million rubles. With the end of the war and the displacement of a large number of combatants and oppressive indigenous, there is no longer a need for such number of troops to peacekeeping in the same area, and the military presence in the Caucasus in the future Depends on the strategic distribution for all combat troops at the level of the state, and not for domestic needs.
..The wide strip mountain adjacent to the shores of the Black Sea became completely empty after the departure of its original inhabitants, so we have a new task that is the deployment of troops in the region and resettlement of residents. And among Caucasian management as well as in the community perceptions circulated that this country which is prosperous and rich in natural resources would be easy to rehabilitate with peaceful residents and hardworking people and producers. By the way, it was intended to deport the entire army of Azov Cossacks, who specialize in guarding the shores in the fleet of rowing boats a long time ago, and part of it settled on the outskirts of Novorossiysk and Anapa, but Azov Cossacks did not want to go to the Caucasian beach and the displacement is barely enforced. After the establishment of peace in the region there will no longer be a need to complete the displacement.

Deserted beaches resettlement began after the departure of its population in the summer of 1864. In September, a large number of Shabsough and Abzakh and individuals from other tribes who have declared their loyalty and stayed in the plains of the Kuban decided suddenly to migrate to Turkey like their compatriots departed before. What pushed them to that enthusiasm? In addition to false rumors which some were spreading between the Mountaineers about the intention of the Russian government in converting them to Christianity and their recruitment, and so has another case where the Mountaineers were informed about the actions taken by the Russian government to abolish the privileges enjoyed by the upper classes at the expense of the lower layers, and because the system of slavery continues to exist in the Caucasian tribes, so the fear of losing their traditional rights pushed the hesitant to decide. After making the decision to migrate from the Caucasus, the residents at once went out of the new resettlement places and moved towards the sea shore to the edges of Novorossiysk, and the Konstantinovsquih fort, before the Russian authorities were able to take any action to prevent them from that and postpone the move until spring. Thus, in autumn, when it became difficult to travel by sea we were forced to migrate approximately 25 thousand people gathered at the beaches. Russian and Turkish ships that were available at that time were not enough to transfer such number of people in a short time, while in November severe storms hit and lasted throughout the month. On 16 November a disaster happened when hurricane known as "Bora" throw to the beach number of ships that were preparing to sail, killing about 250 people. This great tragedy affected the hearts of the poor Mountaineers so some of them avoided boarding the sailing ships, so transportation became slow. There were still at the beach more than 10 thousand people, and with the onset of winter the diseases spread among the Mountaineers. Russian authorities then decided to stop the displacement and the establishment of the remaining Mountaineers at the beach in the nearest Cossack towns. At that time the Cossack expressed distinctive hospitality and humanity as they did not hesitate to accommodate former enemies and even gave them food and clothing. The efforts of the Russian residents and the Russian leadership to facilitate the situation of poor immigrants from their homeland received appreciation even by the Turks. However, it appeared in foreign newspapers, especially English newspapers again, fierce accusations addressed to the Russian government for its inhuman actions.

Document 319

In 1864 - From an article under the title "On the migration of the Caucasus Mountaineers to Turkey."
In 1859 in the west Caucasus lived the following tribes:
Karachay 9870 people (males), Naghwey Kuban 40 000 people of both sexes, Abkhaz (Abaza) about 4550 families (35000 people), Adigey from 380 thousands up to 400 thousand people. For the placement of all these tribes, which has never known civilian life and were living through the practice of looting , and there were ambassadors and adventurers of different nations abetting them against us. A decision was taken in 1860 to deport them all from the mountains and beaches to the plains of the Kuban, where they cannot get out from our observation range, and the slopes of the mountain will be occupied by Cossack towns which will prevent the Mountaineers from returning to former places of residence and return to the practice of looting. Kuban Mountain has been allocated for the establishment of Mountaineers, according to their numbers, and according to preliminary estimates each of them will get a piece of land up to 6-7 acres of the most fertile land. However, the emergency conditions have undermined our expectations and made the fate of the Mountaineers go in a different way completely.
The Mountaineers who were loyal to us made trips to Turkey in 1853 for visiting the tomb of Mohammed or for commercial purposes, and after the cessation of flights during the war with Turkey they came back again after the end of the East war. The Mountaineers started to go in large numbers to Turkey under the pretext of traveling to Mecca under the influence of rumors on the migration of Crimean Tatars and the propaganda launched by the clergy as well as other temptations on the benefits of migration to Turkey - that on one hand, and on the other - fears of a restriction of Islam in the Caucasus in the future.
In the years 1858 and the year 1859 about 30,000 Muslim migrated from the Kuban region to Turkey. After the arrival of news about what happened to the Naghwey within the Ottoman Empire in1860, the immigration stopped from the territory of Kuban. But with the establishment of new towns by us during the years 1861 and 1862 and according to the business plan on the heights of Kuban, Laba and Khodz Rivers and the establishment of Caucasian towns in slopes between the Laba and Bilaya – that’s on one hand, and in both slopes of mountain range from Anapa to Adagom - on the other hand, the Mountaineers found themselves in front of two choices: either move to the designated areas or leave the country.
Accordingly, the Kabarday residents of Laba lands left with a number up to 10,000 people, 200 Bselen families and about 50 Temryuk families towards us to be the first nucleus of the villages as a successor to Laba, and the others started to join them later, while Natokhaway stayed in their places within the circle of our new settlements. The rest of the Mountaineers left to the back of Bilaya at Alabadzyk and immigrated to Turkey during the winter period. During the winter of 1863 and spring of 1864, a total of 318,068 person immigrated to Turkey, while the total number of immigrants since 1858 was nearly 400,000 people

Document 320

In January, 1865-
Report of the Mountain Department of the territory of KubanForces regarding the displacement of residents of the Caucasus Mountains to Turkey and its tragic consequences.
Migration of indigenous people to Turkey began in the early spring of 1864 and continued throughout the summer and autumn of the current year. At first, those who emigrated to Turkey were the indigenous people expelled from their homes with the power of our weapons at the end of 1863 and beginning of 1864, while others moved temporarily to the department Abzakhykski in order to sell their properties at high price before the migration to Turkey, and those who sold their possessions and prepared for Migration began heading in batches to the port of Novorossiysk since the end of Septemer.

At the will of His Highness, passed by Oriandy in the report of Colonel Staroselskaya No. 105 of 9 October, and addressed to Major General Babich on permission of immigration for those indigenous people who have sold their property and can reach to Novorossiysk no later than November 1st, the commander of troops addressed instructions to the heads of local departments not to encourage indigenous people to migrate, but give approval for those who are prepared to leave abroad permanently, provided that the date for the migrants to move from their place of residence is no later than October, 20th, because who starts after this date will not be able to reach Novorossiysk on the date fixed for the completion of the displacement of Mountaineers to Turkey in the current year that is before November 1st.
In the meantime, General Olszewski received news about the arrival of 20 to 25 thousand people from the Mountaineers to Novorossiysk to immigrate to Turkey, and that they suffer from extreme poverty and they are waiting for departure time.

Therefore, an order directed to the Staff Officer Smicalov No. 1798 of November 12 with the following:
A) Make a visit to the fort Konstantinovsquih and verify the information which refers to the presence of approximately 20 thousand people in the fort Konstantinovsquih awaiting the arrival of means of transportation to travel to Turkey,
B) Survey the number of ships that were at the disposal of Major General Babich to migrate the Mountaineers at that time,
C) If General Babich found it impossible to deport migrants to Turkey, what action should be taken about the groups.
A similar letter directed to General Babich also under No. 2597 in November 12.
On November 30 A Report by Major General Babich No. 647 issued on November 27 and an official letter showing them that General Babich after receiving information about the orientation of 20 thousand people from indigenous to Novorossiysk, in cooperation with the representative of the Turkish government Haji Ghassan Khosht Effendi he did provide 20 vehicles between steamers and sailing vessels for the reception of immigrants.
The Turkish ships transferred immigrants to Kyustenji and most of them from the poorest. Those who desired to live in Central Asia headed to Samsun and Trabzon.
On November 8 2500 people has been loaded in the Turkish vessel, and in November 12, 4 thousand people were loaded in the two ships. Since November 12 the loading of passengers in ships stopped because of the cyclone which intensified later to some extent that the ships anchored at the Gulf were at risk.
The Turkish Sloop “Nosred Bagheri” that was loaded with passengers before November 12, 470 people were on board, and could not sail because of the storm, it was released from the anchor due to the storm and hit the beach in front of the old Novorossiysk hospital building and crashed completely. Action has been taken on the spot and rescue teams sent from the fort and citizens rescued 170 people, while 300 people were killed. The investigation file has been opened regarding the incident.
Then Major General Babich said that since November 21 there were about 10,600 immigrants remained from both sexes and they have not been transferred yet, and if they do not send Turkish ships to take them, they will spend the winter at the sea shore, in shelters dug in the ground or tents they lodged themselves, and because many of them do not have winter clothes or the means of daily living we ask for permission to put them in the nearby Adagomski towns, and give them flour and grains, the amount is half the people's daily use.. Therefore, the mayor issued a military command No. 1882 of November 28 to Major-General Babich not to transfer Mountaineers in sailing ships to avoid accidents at the dock or at sea, and transferring of migrants to Turkey in ships should be at the appropriate times to carry out marine excursions.
People who have set up tents at the sea shore near the Konstantinovsquih Fort to spend the winter period if they wish are permitted.

Those who did not have time to make tents or those who do not want to spend winter there as well as the survivors of the ship “Nosred Bagheri” will stay in the towns of the Adagomski Regiment (after healing).
A doctor and an assistant were appointed to care for the health of indigenous people. Those who are in need of food, it’s available to them for the duration of their presence in our territory according to what Major General Babich sees, or monthly supplies to those who reached the age of seven or salaries of 7 Koubek per day, and 5 Koubek for those under that age.
Since it was necessary to have a garrison enforced to prevent attacks and displacement of populations in the mountains during the gathering of the Indigenous people at Konstantinovsquih Fort, an order was send to the Chief of Staff of Cossack Kuban Army Order No. 1600 of November 28 to keep the two teams from Infantry Regiment Krimsski No. 73 and should change weekly in addition to 200 personnel from the Cossack battalion stationed there all the time.
The 170 people who lost all their property in the ship accident, Major General Babich must give them financial assistance for the purchase of necessary clothing for 2 rubles per person from the funds at his disposal that is allocated to displace Mountaineers to Turkey.
Then we asked General Babich to let us know the following:
1. When immigrant’s batches arrive to Konstantinovsquih Fort and what the number of each batch is.
2. When the last vehicle arrives and what is the number of households and people carried in it.
3. How many indigenous people who are in Novorossiisk will remain in our territory until the opening season of navigation in the year 1865, according to his opinion?
However, General Olshevsky asked in his report No. 1881 of November 28 to his commanding general- who told him it is not possible to transfer 10,600 people to Turkey- about the measures taken to ensure their stay in our land, he required approval from his Highness concerning instructions issued by the indigenous people who are in Konstantinovsquih Fort. He also requested that the government bears the assistance provided to the 170 survivors from the incident of the ship “Nosred Bagheri” with the sum of 2 rubles per person.

On the 3rd of December a telegram arrived from the chief of staff about his Highness’s order for the immediate cessation of the transfer of Mountaineers to Turkey, asking how many of them are in Konstantinovsquih Fort, and other marine ports and why the displacement of indigenous peoples to the Ottoman Empire did not stop until now based on the instructions issued earlier.
In response to this cable, and to clarify matters on relocation in the months of September and October, General Olshevsky transfer to the Chief of Staff in his letter No. 1909 of December 5, the following:
"The Prince told Major General Babich during his visit to the holy Oriande to ask the heads of department on the number of Mountain families wishing to immigrate to Turkey, and what are the reasons for the migration of the Mountaineers".
The reports 685,1041,and 379 made by the heads of departments of Verkhnecopanski, Abzakhykski and Bjedogovsky that the main reasons that push indigenous people to migrate to Turkey are as follows:
1. Religious and tribal Links between people and their compatriots who immigrated to Turkey previously, and propaganda published by the Turkish government among the population of the local departments.
2. Owners fears of loss of farmers belonging to them after the news spread between them, about the Russian government’s intention to limit the system of slavery among the indigenous population.
3. System of land distribution with limited space (6 acres per person) for indigenous people, the law passed in the rehabilitation law of the foothills of the west Caucasus.

These things affected the Mountaineers and support the idea of immigrating to Turkey among them. This idea emerged more clearly in the two departments, Bjedogovsky and especially Abzakhykski which until October 20, about 20 thousand people of both sexes left, who no longer have a place to stay after having sold all their belongings in preparation for migration to Turkey. As for the population of the Chamber Verkhnecopanski who are more rational and sophisticated they did not participate in that public wave of migration to Turkey, but under the influence of the reasons that supported this migration they sent a delegation to the Prince.
At the will of his Highness which stated in Staruseleski’s report No. 105 of October 9, the right to emigrate is given only to the residents of the two departments Abzakhykski and Bjedogovsky who did not have a place to stay and prepared to leave to Turkey throughout the summer and autumn, and must commit to the date of departure that is no later than 20 October so they can access to Novorossiisk until November 1, and must say that they did not get there until the first days of November because of the difficulty of transportation resulting from the flooding rivers.

Document 321

January, 9 1865 – Report from the Commander of troops of the Kuban Territory Olszewski to Caucasian Army Chief of Staff Major General Kartsov on morbidity and mortality among the Circassians who are in Novorossiisk (buried 1480 bodies)
Spread of disease and increased mortality rate among indigenous people who came to the Konstatinovsquih fort to immigrate to Turkey under the influence of bad conditions. The data indicate that the number of immigrants to Turkey from Konstantinovsquih fort was about 110 thousand people of the indigenous population, and those, after their arrival to the mentioned point, stay for a long period of time in the camps in the northeast of the bay Konstantinowski where they bury their dead according to their traditions.

To find out the percentage of deaths among migrants and whether the bodies were buried in deep pits I did collect information thereon to prevent the spread of infectious diseases in the spring if the bodies were buried in shallow pits. The poll, conducted by Captain Shulgin the Commissioner to Novorossiysk to collect data on the migration of indigenous peoples to Turkey in the northeast side of the bay Konstantinowski, found that where the Mountain people of migrant camps, and in the area about 5 Frsta lies cemeteries where approximately 1480 bodies was buried in.
As for the depth of the excavation, where the bodies were buried the information in this regard is different.
According to a report by the Assistant General Babich, L.Colonel Zakrzewski and Military Commander of Fort Konstantinovsquih L.Colonel Rotiski, the mountain people bury their dead in graves , according to their traditions, and its depth reach for the chest and for the male, up the chest for the female and above the knee for the children .While the Chief of Staff of Cossack Army of Kuban, Colonel Balenko, based on the report of the commander of the regiment of cavalry Adagomski said that the mountaineers bury their dead in a depth much lower than stated.
Accordingly, and taking into consideration the seriousness of the spread of toxic gases emitted from the bodies buried in the shallow drillings, I suggested to the commander of Army Cossacks Kuban to form a committee composed of doctors, customs officers and other persons who have the knowledge of this matter to verify the statements submitted by L. Colonel Rotiski and Zakrajabvska and search for ways to prevent the spread of infection in the spring.
Awaiting the decision of the Commission and based on the testimony of Colonel Balenko I gave a command to two units of the regiment Krimsski 73 of the Infantry and the Infantry Battalion No.10 to fill out the graves of the camps with soil, I see that the best way to prevent diseases that may be caused by the bodies buried near the surface of the Earth is to increase the mobilization of the graves, without prejudice to the corpse itself.
I ask of your Excellency to pass the above to the Grand Duke, adding that I would inform you about the Commission's decision in a special message once passed.

Document 322

January 10 1865 - Report of the Kuban Cossack Army commander General Sumarokov- Elstonto to the Caucasian Army Chief of Staff Kartsova, on the poor conditions experienced by the 4660 people distributed to stay in the towns of the Adagomski Regiment and giving assistance to them by the Cossacks.
Following the dissemination of the Mountaineers remaining in Novorossiisk after the migration in the towns of the Adagomski Regiment and turning them to the attention of Colonel Kryukov, At the end of last year I visited the regiment mentioned to make sure personally of the validity of news that refers to the poor conditions of mountaineers from one hand, and to take necessary actions to improve their situation and their livelihoods for the next winter on the other.
The statistics indicate that the number living in towns reach up to 6 thousand people of both sexes, while the census of populations conducted recently during which many of the deaths occurred and that the final number of deaths is 4660 people.
I have visited the Mountaineers people in towns of Nikolaywskaaa, Reifskaya Natokhaescaaa, Gastagaawskaaa and Onabiska, and I could not access the rest of the towns due to poor road conditions. Overall conditions of mountaineers were bad, the long stay in cold weather at the sea shores without shelter and food caused the weakness for many of them and it was not in our hands to do anything about it, and fortunately there is no diseases among them, but cases of debilitating diarrhea, anemia and scabies widespread especially diarrhea, which resulted in the largest number of deaths.
Cossacks have welcomed their presence, but because of a poor harvest, they cannot help them a lot, and that’s why assistance provided by the Treasury was very important. Poverty is a general state here, including that almost all mountaineers and families can barely provide their living on their own.

I learned through interviews that they were very pleased with the Cossacks’ hospitality and asked them to spend cash instead of food supplies. Children are in the worst situations and their clothes are dirty and many of them naked. Some of whom lost their parents and obviously are burdens on others. We allowed the Cossacks families to adopt orphans, and many did so in my presence, and the peasants belonging to the poorest Circassians have expressed their desire to stop migration. In the town Krimsskaya and village Onabiska traders distributes fabrics to the poor Circassians to sew clothes for women and children. As mentioned earlier, diseases did not spread among them, especially infectious diseases or contagious though almost fifth of them are suffering from excessive diarrhea and overall body weakness, so we do not expect many deaths among them. The rest on the other hand are in continuous improvement of conditions, and we hope that after staying in our towns for the winter many of them will get their well-being back, as they inevitably would have perish if migrated to Turkey. I do not think –after witnessing the situation they were in-they were able to bear the fatigue of travel by sea in the cold season. The information gathered about their tombs in Novorossiysk does not leave room for doubt that the rumors about the danger of the emergence of infectious diseases in the next spring exaggerated. However, I have delegated to another committee to verify the matter and ordered to put additional soil over the graves while I committed the Colonel to inspect the Mountaineers conditions from time to time and send me reports every two weeks.
In order to maintain order and protect themselves and avoid disputes with the Cossacks, the Mountaineers in every town formed special unions and appointed mayors. Other than that, I ordered to send one Knight who has knowledge in Russian language from Battalion of Cavalry Onabiska to each town.

Document 323

1865 January 16/18 - Letter from Chief of Army Staff, General Kartsov to the Russian ambassador in Constantinople General Ignatiev about the continued migration of mountaineers and their poor conditions.
In response to message No. 845 of 19 December I think it is my duty to clarify the circumstances of the migration of the mountaineer populations in the fall of this year.
In anticipation of the difficulties that may encounter the Turkish government and the migrants themselves upon their arrival to Turkey in the winter season, last August his Highness ordered the commander of the territory of Kuban that the 15th of October is the deadline date for immigrants to leave, but in the report presented by Count Evdokimov, this deadline was extended for another two weeks, provided that no one is allowed to set out from their place of residence unless they can reach Fort Konstantinovsquih no later than November 1st. After the issuance of this decision, about 20 thousand people from the two areas of Abzakhyski and Bjedoghovski headed towards the sea. Unfortunately at that particular time, the area has witnessed heavy rains that lasted for more than two weeks. The rivers flooded, destroyed bridges and stopped Communications with beyond the Kuban completely for 3 weeks, and subsequently immigrants were unable to reach Konstantinovsquih before the beginning of December. There were two glorious Turkish steamships and a number of private ships, and on December 12th, when the ships were loaded by equal to half its cargo a storm hit and continued for 8 days, and one of the ships that had been loaded with 370 migrants did not hold, and was thrown by the storm to marine rocks near the beach, we could only save 120 passengers while the other 250 were killed. The survivors were taken to the hospital immediately. After the storm passed the ship completed its cargo and left to Kyustenj on 22nd of December while sailing ships left without passengers.
At the beach of Fort Konstantinovsquih 10600 mountaineers remained. After receiving the news of the incident his Highness ordered to stop deportation until the middle of next March, to shelter some of them in the abandoned villages in the two Departments of Natokhaski and Shapsogski and the other part in the towns of Alvugin Adagomski and Tamaski, and to disbursed daily to the needy of them two pounds of bread or 7 Koubek in cash for each adult and one pound or 4 Koubek for each child.
As you can see the displacement of mountaineers delayed for reasons beyond our control, and the Caucasian leadership took -in the right time -all the necessary procedures to secure the remaining immigrants within our territory. I will also issue an order preventing the staff of the Military Administration from direct communication with the Turkish government.
Accept, Sir, my highest consideration.

Document 324

January 30, 1865 - Army Chief of Staff General Kartsov’s reply to the Kuban Region Commander, General Sumarokov-Elston on the approval of the actions taken to secure the living of the population of the mountaineers -counting 4,600 people- for the winter.
Based on the report, which reached his Highness the Commander on the instructions issued by the General Olshevsky about 4,600 people from the mountaineers we intended to displace to Turkey, and those remaining in our lands for the winter, his Highness approved the instructions issued that I informed you about in response to the letter No. 19 of January 9 for the current year.

Document 325

February 6, 1865 - The reply of the mayor of the Secretary Department of Housing for Caucasian army Colonel Boguslavsky to the Director of the diplomatic circle of the General Office for the Caucasian Deputy,on the request of the Turkish government to stop the migration of Circassians.
Turkish Counsel General in Tbilisi sent a letter to the Chief of Staff informing him of all the instructions issued by the Turkish government to determine the date of displacement of residents of the mountains to Turkey, it’s no later than the 24th of October last year and asked to issue instructions to stop immigration as his information indicates that the population transfer to Turkey continued after that date.
General Kartsov made me extend a request from you to inform the Turkish Counsel -General that the migration has already lasted until late December and only because the Turkish government sent its own ships to take them and it was on Mr. Consul-General to verify this information before requesting clarifications.

Document 326

2 March 1865 - A copy of a message sent to us by the Russian ambassador in Constantinople explaining the desire of Circassians to return to Russia.
The Counsel General, who is in Trabzon told me the news that reached him about the discomfort of migrant population of the Caucasus to Turkey, and the local government and their determination to intercede to the Government of the Emperor to allow them to return into the Russian border.
Attached to this letter a copy of the consultant's report (Moshin) No. 81 in this regard to draw the attention of the ministry to this subject and I request to provide me with the instructions in case the above information is true, to be able to communicate with our representatives in the residences of the Circassians in Turkey, whether they should inevitably reject the applications to return to Russia.
I want to add that it is unlikely for the Turkish government to agree to re-migration of mountaineer’s people, and the trend that has emerged between migrants will put our Counsel and our embassy in a very awkward position.
Document 327 18, February, 1865. - Report of the Deportation Committee on Mountaineers to Turkey / City of Tbilisi On 10th of May 1862, the Caucasian Committee issued a resolution for deporting the Mountaineer people, in which the Minister of War and the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Region have been dedicated to transfer all Abzakh and Shabsough to Turkey for permanent residence, from the two ports of Gelendzhik and Novorossiysk in cooperation with the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade to start implementing that in coordination with the Minister of Finance.
Based on this resolution, Count Evdokimov has submitted to the Chief of Staff a request to accelerate the process after obtaining the approval of the Commander in Chief, also he requested to be provided with specific instructions regarding that topic as well as what is the right time to inform the Mountaineers about the order of their deportation. Count Evdokimov then pointed out for the possibility of transferring the deportees in private vessels to raise the competition between the private sector and the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade, which would be for the benefit of the Treasury.

Commander in Chief has approved the requests of the Commander of the Kuban Region, proposing on him, to contact for this purpose the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade, and the owners of private companies, and has asked the Count to provide him with information, although if it is rough about the size of the projected expenditures, as well as ways to implement this procedure in order to inform the Minister of War about it.
The Commander in Chief ascertained his approval his approval agreed for deporting the indigenous inhabitants at the expense of the Treasury, expressing his desire that the costs of this operation not to exceed 5000 Silver Rubles, and to be borrowed from the balances of the Kuban Region’s Army Staff until an amount is allocated to implement this particular process.
As per the order of the General Chief in Command of the Kuban Region, Captain Bekarski has been mandated to each of Temryuk, Kerch and Odessa for holding deals with the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade, and the owners of the private companies for the transfer of the indigenous population. When this resolution was relayed, Count Evdokimov expressed his doubts about whether the amount of 5 Thousand Rubles, would be enough to deport residents of the Mountains in 1862 and asked to be allowed to deliver bills to the owners of vessels to be disbursed to them in cash later on, after a special order is obtained from the Commander of the Army.

This last demand was not met, the latter as the task of Captain Bekarski to conclude a contract with the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade did not succeed completely because of high expense requested by the Association.
Despite the failure of Captain BeKarski to sign a contract with the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade, 230 persons have been transported from the Mountaineers of Bjadogh origin (for the cost of 6 rubles per person) and Natokhaway (for the cost of 2 rubles 50 Koubek per person) for the total cost of 1030 silver rubles in agreement with the two dealers Drebezgin and Vonstein of Kerch and the dealer Konkezov from Temryuk, which Count Evdokimov has borrowed this amount from the balances of the Staff of the Kuban Region in addition to deducted of the funds allocated for military emergency situations for the year 1862.
The Commander of the Army, Prince Obelyani the cost of transporting the Bjadogh (6 rubles each person) high and ordered Count Evdokimov to search for contractors to carry out this project on better terms for the treasury, it is among the contractors who raised the offers, the best prices were given by two traders, from Kerch, Lorind and Abrah Vonstein (4 rubles and 50 Koubek per person for ships and 4 rubles per person for sailing ships) which was adopted.
In response to Major General Babich’s report, which referred to the large numbers of people from the Natkhuwai and the Shapsough who wish to immigrate on their own expense, without hiring ships at the expense of the Treasury? To that, His Highness allowed the Commander of the Kuban Region’s Forces to pay assistance regardless to immigrant families that have a large number of young children with the value of not more than 10 silver rubles per family, stressing the non-payment of such assistance except for the people allocated to them and very carefully.
In this way, Mountaineers’ deportation to Turkey has stopped to some extent, but in conjunction with this process, people who have declared their loyalty to us have been resettled on the left bank of the River Kuban, and to assist the poorest families, 10 thousand Silver Rubles were transferred under the disposal of the Commander of the Kuban Region’s Forces through Major Batyanov.

Count Evdokimov has requested in two statements issued on 18 September 1863, in a letter No. 1532, September 19, from Chief of Staff for pre-emption to His Highness to send 25 thousand Silver Rubles at his disposal immediately in addition to the sum of 10 thousand sent with Batyanov and the allocation of another 65 thousand for the same purpose. What was pressed him to such a request is the need to deport approximately 10 thousand families of the Mountaineer population residing in the Kuban Region to Turkey and the most important argument that was made by Count Evdokimov to yield in favor of this procedure is as follows:
A) With deporting the Mountaineers, wishing to do so, the Caucasus Region will get rid of the population who are the most disturbing in the Caucasus, and the least tending to rehabilitate the banks of the Kuban, which will speed up finally the occupation of the Caucasus,
B) With the occupation of the Caucasus, we will have the opportunity to reduce the number of troops in the Caucasus, which will provide the Treasury enormous sums of money,
C) C) Since the majority of Mountaineers who have declared their loyalty and expressed their desire to stay on the banks of River Kuban as a result of our victories by weapons, it is likely that they will follow the rest of the migrants to Turkey in an event to facilitate immigration procedures to them, which will provide the Treasury to secure expenditure for providing food supplies to them for the winter period.
In addition to the transfer of 90 thousand at his disposal and on the basis of these arguments, Count Evdokimov has demanded from the Chief of Staff to ask His Highness not to be intransigent in the distribution of aid to the immigrants for the fact that both, all of them are poor and deserve support from the leadership.
His Highness showed his generosity while he was in Oryanda, on the Southern Coast, to allow sending the amount of 25 thousand requested by Count Evdokimov as to yield this amount as well as what will be spent later for the same purpose, as debt on the State Treasury.
In addition to that, His Highness has ordered to inform Count Evdokimov that the remaining amount of 65 thousand rubles will be transferred soon, and that His Highness asks Count Evdokimov to inform him of his ideas about how to spend and calculating funds allocated to the deportation of the Mountaineers.
Upon authorization of His Highness and by order from the Chief of Staff, the amount of 25 thousand has been transferred from the Department of Supply Materials of the Stavropolsky Department, under the disposal of the Commander of the Kuban Region’s Forces, in addition to funds allocated to emergency situations in the year 1863.
Because of the public anger and rumors about the possibility of war eruption soon, The Caucasus Army was put on alert, which led to increased expenditures significantly. His Highness requested, in his letter No. 115 of November 10, 1863, to the Minister of War stating these situations and the positive aspects of the evacuation of the Caucasus of its insurgent population at the earliest time, and to intercede to His Majesty the Emperor, for the disbursement of the amount of 100 thousand rubles and convert for his dispersal, pointing out that in the case, part of allocations remained according to the estimated statements, that will be indicated in the accounts. Besides, His Highness stated that he was honored to meet the emperor in Livadia, where he revealed to him his ideas, and His Majesty has favored these ideas and agreed to expend 100 thousand rubles from the remains of estimated accounts in the year 1863 but these residues cannot be determined, except after the approval of the budget which will not be before June 1864, while the amount of 100 thousand rubles in question is needed right away, and without delay.
In the 27, November, through letter No. 12255, His Highness, the Minister of War conveyed that His Majesty, the Emperor, graciously issued a decree in 24, November to allocate 100 thousand rubles for the disbursement of aid to Mountaineers who are not loyal from the funds of the Directorate of funding of the Caucasus Army with appropriate actions to take, for non-disbursement to non real needy, and that is compensate for these expenses when adopting the budget of the Directorate of Funding for the years 1863 and 1864. Subsequently, His Highness permitted the Kuban Region Forces Commander to pay in addition to the amount of 35 thousand rubles kept with him, the amount of 65 thousand rubles, according to necessity and wit
hout exaggeration in discrimination during the distribution of aid among immigrants.
Count Evdokimov was told in response to the previous request of His Highness, to be notified about the way of spending the funds and accounts entrusted to him, and informed him that accounts were registered so far in a special ledger belonging to the Staff of the Kuban Region Forces. Now there are two committees set aside for this purpose - the first in fort Konstantinovskoya Fort headed by Commander of the Regiment Adagomski and the other one is in the Adagomski Brigade camp composed of the officers appointed by Major General Babich, who ordered to establish a system of conduct for the Committee.

Then Count Evdokimov mentioned that he intends to establish similar committees in the other regions as well as to operate the bookkeeping system adopted in the Forces Staff of the Kuban Region, with attaching documents to the statements of expenses. However, the Staff has not yet presented any instructions or bookkeeping from those cited by Count Evdokimov. Beside that, the Commander of the of the Kuban Region Forces has requested to His Highness to allow him to disburse assistance for immigrants, not the amount of 10 Silver ruble per family, but at the rate of 2 Silver rubles per person because immigrants take advantage of this system by dividing their families consisting of adults intentionally to several families, while if the maximum help is set to be 2 Silver rubles per person, it will not exceed the share of the family in aid the amount of 5 Silver rubles. As a confirmation of the validity of these accounts estimates, Count Evdokimov has pointed out that he had deported nearly 10 thousand people of both sexes for an amount had not exceeded 30 thousand Silver rubles.
In conclusion, the Count asked to be allowed to determine the amount of assistance according to what he sees fit.
All the proposals made by Count Evdokimov had been received by the consent of His Highness.
In a letter No. 473 dated 19, March, 1864 addressed to the Head of the Directorate of Funding of Staff, His Highness informed him of the issuance of the Royal Decree to transfer 100 thousand rubles under the disposal to provide aid to the deported Mountaineers, and requested from the Head of the Directorate of Finance to tell him his opinion on how to record these expenditures after the issuance of budget reports for the years 1863 and 1864.

In addition, His Highness sent to the Minister of War, letter No. 523 from 26-27 March in 1864 showing the achievements of our Forces successes in pushing the Mountaineers who are not loyal to emigrate to Turkey as soon as possible as well as the need to increase expenditure for this project over what was set in the annual plan and requested from the Minister to intercession to His Majesty the Emperor to approve such expenditures that His Highness spends very carefully, but he also wants to enjoy the necessary independence.
His Majesty the King Emperor showed generosity through the approval of this request and placed on it, his personal signature, as reported by the Minister of War to His Highness, in his report No. 2456 of 6, April, 1864, pointing out that the Minister of Finance has been informed about this Emperor’s Decree.
Thus, His Highness has obtained the approval, to disburse additional funds, without specifying its size over the amount of 100 thousand rubles transferred to him earlier.
In the letter No. 585 dated 8, April, 1864, Count Evdokimov informed the Chief-of-Staff, that in addition to the committees had been previously decided to be established in Anapa and Konstantinovoskoya, for the purpose of following the deportation of the Mountaineers and the disbursement of funds allocated for assistance in a proper form, he was forced to establish another committee in Taman, but because of the far-away distance of those points from the Headquarters of the Kuban Region Forces, he requested from the Chief-of-Staff to assign delegates, according to what His Highness perceives to follow up the process of deportation process of the Mountaineers.
To that, Count Evdokimov has once again mentioned that these committees have detailed instructions to operate by.
At the request of the stated Count Evdokimov, His Highness ordered to mandate Colonel Vadyev to Anapa and Konstantinovoskoya, Lieutenant Colonel Batyanov to Tuapse and Jobga, Captain Karganov to Taman, and Captain Obezyanenov to Odessa to hold an agreement with the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade.
Process that took place under the supervision of Colonel Vadyev
According to the list issued in 6, June, 1864 for the names of the deportees to Turkey and two ports of Konstantinovoskoya and Anapa that: Funds allocated to this process 51,775 rubles and 2 Koubek Been paid 49,583 rubles and 75 Koubek Amount remaining in 6, June 2,191 rubles and 27 Koubek
The number of deportees
From Novorossiysk 30,076 people
From Anapa 33,179 people
Total number of Deportees 63,255 people Deportation Began In Novorossiysk In Anapa Ended in
1900 people were left at the coast waiting for transportation as it was expected other 10 thousand people to arrive.
Process that took place under the supervision of Captain Karganov Captain Karganov Commissioner to the city of Taman, viewed in a report No. 15 of June 14, 1864 of a list of the number of emigrants departing from the port of Taman to Turkey from 14 April to 17 May, pointing out that the Commander of the Kuban Region Forces had already transferred the task of rental of ships for the mentioned mission, to two traders, Vlasstari and Vonstein from Odessa in accordance with the special agreement (not accompanied by text), signed on April 4 specifying the fare as 3 Silver rubles per person and the list included 3803 people under four and 900 others were included in the lists of the Chief of the Section Bjedogovski as rich individuals and all of them were transported for free.

The total number of immigrants from Taman as shown in the list of Captain Karganov reached 27,337 people, including 3893 children, and the number of deportees at the expense of the Treasury amounted to 10766 people and the cost of their transport reached 32,298 rubles.
The list provided by Captain Karganov was not correct because the number mentioned in it, 27,337 people, while calculations show that the number did not exceed 26767 people, where there is a difference of 570 people.
It did not appear from the lists submitted by all the Colonel Vadyev and Captain Karganov what are the sources the spent funds had come from, for the transfer of migrants, and who took charge of disbursement of these funds and on what basis, therefore, it is not possible ratify these numbers except after comparing them with accounts that would be presented by the Count Evdokimov.
As for personal expenses and travel fare to the meant destination, Captain Karganov had received 51 rubles and 84 Kubek, in addition to 132 rubles for daily expenses (3 rubles per day for 44 days) with the calculation of these amounts of money allocated to the emergency military situations. Process that took place under the supervision of Lieutenant Colonel Batyanov Chief of Staff had assigned in his letter No. 61 dated 13 May 1864 issued in Mzymta, Lieutenant Colonel Batiyanov to begin the process of transferring the Mountaineers gathered at the mouth of the River Khusta, with funds received from the correspondent of the Division Major Kolossovsky with sending the amount of 1030 rubles in cash from funds of the Staff to Batyanov , and to allow him to spend 6000 Silver rubles for the process of the Mountaineers deportation in addition to the amount of 1030 rubles, which was cashed to him from the funds of the Staff.

As indicated in his letter to the appointment of Captain Kishelski and Captain Dobrzhinski as assistants to Lieutenant Colonel Batyanov as per the order from General, Prince Sviatopoulk Mirsky.
Shown in Report No. 42 of June 21, 1864 issued in Adler and the invoices submitted by Lieutenant Colonel Batyanov that he had paid to the owners of vessels for the transportation of 21051 immigrants the amount of 21051 rubles, and the list doesn’t show where the additional amount over 6 thousand was entrusted to him, and because the amount of 6000 has been transferred for the disposal of Batyanov from the Directorate of Funding of the Caucasus Army, it is likely that the rest of the money received from the same source, Batiyanov’s reports for funds disbursed must be transferred to deport the Mountaineers to the Directorate of Funding for inspection for the Chief of Staff to informed of the outcome of the inspection. Lieutenant Colonel Batyanov’s reports include the following points:
1) Captain Dobrzhenski received for the transfer of migrants 5040 rubles The expenses of emergency cases 50 rubles Total Amount: 5090 rubles
2) Prince Chavchavadze spent for the same purpose 4215 rubles The expenses of emergency cases 15 rubles Total Amount: 4230 rubles
3) Major Boghoslavsky spent 1118 rubles
4) Capt. Kiceleski spent 10583 rubles For the expenses of emergency expenses Total Amount: 10,635 rubles
5) Invoice in the name of Lieutenant Colonel Batiyanov Expenses of deportation 95 rubles Expenses for emergency cases 200 rubles
Total expenditure for the Batyanov’s process is 21366 rubles
Most of the invoices attached to the file raise doubts, especially the invoices submitted by each of Captain, Prince Chavchavadze and Captain Dobrzhenski, where it was written in one of the invoices issued by the latter (No. 1) that an amount of 226 rubles was received, and did not mention the name of the recipient and there is no signature for him, also it was written in another invoice (No. 4) "I handed over" and not known who is the recipient due to unavailability of a signature in it.
Except for large amounts that were spent for the deportation of Mountaineers included Batyanov’s process included another amount of 934 rubles and 36 Kubek, had been cashed by the Sokhumi Navy Station Manager to provide clothing and food for the poor migrants, in the amount of 200 bags of corn and 1000 Archin (Russian measurement of length, equals 71 Cm’s) of regular cloth as the following:
1) Sokhumi Marine Station Manager received from, the Viceroy 250 rubles 2) The disbursement of Sokhumi station funds 675 rubles & 11 Koubek 3) Price of 200 bags from marine stores 19 rubles & 26 Koubek The total amount 944 rubles & 36 Koubek Increase in expenditure calculated after the transfer of 250 rubles, which amounted to 694 rubles and 36 Koubek of the amounts allocated to the emergency military expenses for the year 1864 by the order of the Chief of Staff.
Lieutenant-Colonel Batiyanov sold the remains of the corn prepared for immigrants where he earned a profit of 100 Silver rubles, which the amount has been delivered to the Captain Yecebov to deport 100 sick people, from the Mountaineers remaining in coast (Batyanov’s Report No. 42 dated 21, June, 1864).
As for the amount of 1030 Silver rubles silver which has been transferred for the disposal of Batyanov from the funds of the Staff the funds, 730 rubles were returned with Report No. 42 of 21, June, 1864, where he had compensated the remaining 300 rubles to Major Bogoslavsky, which he received as per the order of the Chief of Staff.
Lieutenant-Colonel Batyanov received as travel costs to him to the place of his mandate 27 rubles and 63 Koubek, also he received 48 rubles and 64 Koubek after his return from the mission, with a total travel costs of 76 rubles and 27 Koubek.
Captain Obezyaninov’s Mandate
To end the deportation of the Mountaineers as soon as possible, Captain Obezyanenov has been delegated by the order of His Highness to Odessa to conclude an agreement with the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade and to pay him 3 thousand rubles as travel costs and for initial expenses for this purpose. This amount and the postal charges have been calculated from the funds of the Directorate of Finance and included in the list of the rest of the expenses of Supply.
Disbursement of these funds was as follows:
1) For the Captain of the sailing ship, "Voborg" to increase the ship’s funds and part of it was taken to buy 1680 pood of English coal from England from Kostengi for the needs of the vessel 440 rubles
2) According to the oral order issued by the Chief of Staff it is paid for Captain Varnitsky, Captain Lesetsin, Lieutenant Ismont and Lieutenant Koryenitsky for one month, and Corporal Nikolayev for two weeks - 270 rubles.
3) To cover the charges of cables 20 rubles & 25 Koubek
4) To cover the costs of travel from Tbilisi to Vladikavkaz, a distance of 195 Ferst at the rate of 5 Koubek per one Ferst 29 rubles & 70 Koubek
From Vladikavkaz via Stavropol, Berdyansk, Melitopol, Pereslavl, and Nikolayev to Odessa for a distance of 1435 Ferst at the expense of 2.5 Koubek per Ferst 107 rubles & 62.5 Koubek Total Per diem: 137 rubles & 32.5 Koubek On the way back 137 rubles & 32.5 Koubek The total cost of travel back and forth 274 rubles & 65 Koubek
5) the costs of the 2nd trip with the permission of HH, Commander in Chief 274 rubles & 65 Koubek The total balance 1279 rubles & 55 Koubek The remaining balance 1720 rubles & 45 Koubek
The remaining amount of 1720 rubles at 45 Koubek was returned when report No. 110 dated 2nd of June, 1864, and was recorded in the income book.
In 6, May, 1864, Captain Obezyanenov held an agreement with the Russian Association of Navigation and Trade under which it pledged to send two ships immediately, that is in May 1864that carry thousand adults under the Caucasus leadership to transport the mountaineers to Varna or Kostenge.
It was expected to send a third ship with a capacity of 3 thousand passengers (in case it arrives empty) at the end of May (item 1).

The conditions of the agreement were to get a full load for the ships, and in case of a shortfall in the number of passengers, the vessels that take 2000 passengers would receive an amount equal to the cost of transporting 1500 passengers, even if the number of passengers was less than that, and the vessels that carry 3 thousand passengers, would get an amount equal to load of 2500 passengers, even if the number of passengers was less than that (item 3).
The cost of transport for an adult with luggage weighs from 3 to 4 poods, 5 rubles per passenger, while the cost of transport a child from 3 to 14 years, half the cost of an adult, that is 2 rubles and 50 Koubek, and children under three will be transported free of charge (Article 6).
The local leadership should issue invoices for the number of passengers that were carried onboard (item 8). The Caucasus leadership should supply vessels with coal from the warehouses of its own, with their special tag prices in Konstantinovoskoya or Sokhumi and the Captain must issue a receipt of an invoice (item 10). The Caucasus Commandment undertakes the readiness to the Association for two trips per vessel from all ships sent except "Odaloy" (item 12).
Based on these conditions, the amount requested for payment from the finance director of the Russian Association of Maritime Transport and Trade to transport 7460 people of all ages, according to invoices No. 2, 690, 711 and 758 the amount of 30 707 Silver rubles and 50 Koubek.
Papers presented by Captain Obezyanenov, were sent by the Director of Housing to the General Directorate for inspection, also the Lieutenant-Colonel’s report attached with the documents should be submitted to the Directorate as well.
The rest of the data on expenses with the exception of what has been spent on the instructions of the General Command must be dealt with when considering the reports submitted by the Count Evdokimov, the Commander of the Kuban Region Forces.
Count Evdikomov did not provide yet a detailed report on deportation of the Mountaineers from the Kuban Region, but news that he provided us with (page 462 from the deportation of Mountaineers) refers to the amount that was sent at the beginning Major Batyanov was 10 thousand rubles, and after the deduction of 197 rubles and 92 Koubek, to help residents who have declared their allegiance it amounted 9802 rubles and 8 Koubek.
The Directorate of funding for the Caucasus Army through the Directorate of Supply of Stavropolskoy has Disbursed 25 000 rubles. Allocations -- 65 000 rubles. Total amount available -- 100 000 rubles.
The amount spent is 120743 rubles including 15107 rubles and 2 Koubek, remaining when writing the list which has been transferred to the disposal of Major General Babich, as this information have not reached to the Headquarters of the Kuban Region Forces yet.

According to the same list the number of migrants to Turkey during the autumn of 1863 and the year 1864 about 315 thousand people, and with the Kuban’s Naghwey and the rest of the tribes, the number has reached to 418292 people.
This information is not fact manner, so it is request to get statements of origin of the funds allocated to the deportation of Mountaineers from the Headquarters of the Kuban Region to be transformed to the Directorate General for Inspection.
The file contains documents on the deportation of the Mountaineers from Ghodawt after the military operations have succeeded that took place in Abkhazia, led by General Shatilov.
Captain Izmailov was in charge of this process.
Reports made by Capt. Izmailov attached by book of records and invoices that have been completed in full to the following:
The number of deportees to Turkey 3642 people Deportation costs 3293 Silver rubles (transport of 351 people, free of charge) Disbursed to Captain Izmailov 5000 rubles
Including: 3 thousand rubles received from the correspondent of Sokhumi Division (1500 cash and 1500 in credentials) as per resolution No. 1994 from the Commander of Forces in Abkhazia in 14, July, 1864.
Also additional 2000 rubles were received from him, but it is not known why and who issued a resolution to do so. What remains after that with a value of 1707 rubles was returned to the correspondent of Sokhumi Division with a testimony from him including 500 rubles in cash. Since this amount was probably given from the funds of the Directorate, the special reports must be diverted in addition to the documents to the Directorate for inspection. Also two invoices were found, signed by the Captain, who had transported 100 people, that were late in the coast in Sviatoy Dokh due to diseases, and because they belong to Batyanov’s process, and may be one of the invoices was duplicate and not genuine. Overall costs of transporting the Mountaineers to Turkey as the according to the data 289678 rubles and 17 Koubek as indicated from the lists. Document 328 On the 22nd of February, 1865, a copy of the report of the Russian Consul in Trabzon, to the Ambassador at Constantinople on the determination of the Circassians to return to the homeland because the Turkish government had "deceived them”. Karabatir works to ignite this anger. Some time ago I was told by some elders of the Mountaineers who loyal to us that there is outrage that prevails among their compatriots on the Turkish government, which - according to their claim – had deceived them and the Mountaineers’ population have determined to send envoys to St. Petersburg to request to His Majesty the Emperor to allow them to return to Russia, to those places identified by our government as places of residence for them. These rumors deserve special attention, because anger engulf almost the entire population of Mountaineers, and Michele of Sinop tells me of the same thing, adding that immigrants want to come back no matter what happens, as some have tried to do so and he rejected that in accordance with his words.
Also the Shabsough, Kasbola, who is faithful to us – says that at Sinop also, they are who complain of immigrants from the work of local authorities, and they want to leave Terci and Chirchassiba where they count up to 30 thousand.
According to reports I received recently, Karabatir Jr., known to Safarbi works to raise this anger through his envoys.
I will send a letter to Mr. Kakatche to verify the truthiness of these reports as much as possible, and it is my duty to inform the Caucasus Commandment about the matter.

Document 329

On the second of March, 1865 From the letter of the Ambassador in Constantinople n. B. Ignatyeve to the Tsar about what will happen with the Russian diplomatic missions and the Ottoman Empire in the event of return of the Caucasus Mountains’ residents’ to their homeland in significant numbers. ... Should they reject the request of the Mountaineers for re-deporting them to Russia? Probably the Turkish government would not agree to re-deport the Mountaineers, and that this movement that emerged among Caucasian migrants would place our consuls and our missions in general in a very critical situation. The Tsar’s comment: No way at all to talk about relocating the Mountaineers again.

Document 330

In 6, March, 1865, - A letter from the Caucasus Army Chief of Staff to the Commander of the Kuban Region about granting a piece of land for the arriving settlers from Saratov who reside on the left bank of the Kuban opposite the town of Nevinomeskaya. ng from Saratov and residents on the left Taking into account that the settlers comibank of the River Kuban oppose to the town of Nevinomeskaya are badly in need for plots of land for the purposes of agriculture, the General Commander has ur Excellency for the ordered for a request for the issuance for a letter from Yoallocation of land to the mentioned in return for payment, if that is possible in Your Excellency’s .
His Highness requests that your Excellency, to decide from now on whether it was the mentioned settlers formally possible to register the piece of land granted to listed, and, if possible, for Your Excellency to take the necessary arrangements to enable the settlers to exploit this land for a fee. T accomplish this step faster, His Highness sees that it is of duty upon Your Excellency to send a special envoy to explore the required land for the settlers, as well as to consider the possibility of transferring this plot to them for the purposes of exploitation. I convey to your Excellency the will of His Highness, for Your Excellency to issue the necessary instructions. Attachment Is the request of the representatives of Saratov’s settlers, who are residing on the left bank of the Kuban River, opposite to the town of Nevinomeskaya.

Document 331

 In 24, March 1865, - Letter from the Russian consul in Trabzon, Moshnin to the Caucasus Army Chief of Staff, Kartsov, about the desire of Adygas, who are numbered 2000 people to return to the Caucasus.
In addition to my last letter about the willingness of migrated Mountaineers to return to our shores, I perceive that it is my duty to inform Your Excellency that Mountaineers residing in Janecka have sent to the consulate a delegation, that included princes Mustafa Adok, Mustafa Koufa, Daghor from Pasha, as well as Natokhaway Ahmad Spano, with the request to His Highness the Deputy of the Great Prince, which he has attached with this letter along with the presented request to me. According to information which I gathered here that three Turkish boats have sailed from Charbagambeh (Janekeh) carrying the Mountaineers towards our shores, but went in different directions due to the storm, where one of them has reached Sormineh near Trabzon, where it offloaded passengers on the sea-shore and the sailors were arrested, where it threw the second boat towards the shore near from Tripali, located between Kirasond and Trabzon, and we have not received reports of what happened to the third boat. If the Caucasus Commandment is reluctant about the return of the Mountaineers, it is not difficult for me to stop them in coordination with the local authorities in Turkey without abusing of my reputation, and in any case I have informed the Pasha about the Mountaineers’ delegation approaching me, where this news has been transferred by strangers, as if it had occurred without my knowledge to do so. Thus, each of Pasha and Consulate to monitor the mountaineers, and if the Caucasus commandment want to allow some of them to return to our territories, I kindly request from Your Excellency to inform me of the numbers that can be allowed to return and what are the conditions for that. As for the Mountaineers themselves, they seem to agree on all conditions, except to change their religion and recruitment, and that what the envoys to them, have relayed for me.
Note: These delegates, are representing 500 families containing 2000 persons.

Document 332

In April 2nd, 1865 - Report of a staff officer of Kuban Region’s Forces, Dokmassov, to the Region’s Governor on imprisoning Koht Effendi for inciting the Bjadogh to emigrate to Turkey and the need to take measures to calm down the Bjadogh and to protect them from abuse by Cossacks. I found out from my visit to the Bjadoghski District that religious intolerance is common among the Bjadogh more than others of the Mountaineers who are residing in the Kuban Region, where the clergies in other areas have tried to conceal their participation in the agitation at the time the clergies here uttered these trivialities in public on which were based that some have requested to be allowed to leave to Turkey, stressing that they are ready to leave toward the sea shore even without obtaining consent of the Commandent, and they will not come back from there except under the pressure of weapons, as they are ready to go to their ruler as well, and the government may not steal them from their own Governor. Having explained to Khot that his words are illegal, and he is uncovering his rebellion and reveals his going back from the oath, and I spoke to the public about my skeptical that the people themselves have delegated Khot to convey this criminal speech, and I ordered Corporal Shkuropadsky to arrest Khot Effendi, who was immediately prevented from speaking on behalf of the people. Then as it did in 13 other villages, I explained to them the reasons that prompted the government to stop public immigration that is devastating to the people while allowing migration to Turkey, only to the upper class and clergies who know very well what they are doing and most of them have the means of good living, so it is easy for them to take the impact of immigration trouble.

At this meeting, one of the elders of Shabanahabl told me that if the Commandant did not allow the Bjadogh to migrate to Turkey, they will have to stay here, but they will stop farming and they will die of starvation. I ridiculed this childish talk uttered by the old man and I reminded him that his talk would result in legal questionnaire because if he does not work in the land when the season approaches, Corporal Shkuropadsky is obliged to report him to be exiled to the internal provinces.
Your Excellency can see from the mentioned above that the Bjadogh are disturbed more than the other peoples of the Kuban Region, and the reasons for that – in my opinion - that many of them have sold their properties and there are a large number of clergies are of young age and semi-literate who spread among the general public calls to boost people's negative stand against us, the infidels, in their opinion.
In order to stop the unrest among the people, I see it is of appropriate duty to do the following:
1) The imprisonment of Khot Effendi.
2) To arrest Chankhuk Effendi for a month in the castle, then to be exiled to one of the Tatar villages with his family, and that Corporal Tarkan Qoysoq deserves immediate deportation to Turkey and without delay, with preventing his family from returning to Russia, or if this measure is inappropriate because it can harm us to send some messages and propaganda from Turkey, then he should be exiled to one of the internal provinces with his family similarly to Chankhuk Effendi. As for Effendi Chilaghashtuk of Tlaustnahabl who - as the Bjadogh themselves have confirmed - instigated Mohammed Chankhuk being menace and brazen in general, he should be exiled to one of the internal provinces for at least one year to live there at his own expense 3) In avoidance to arousing the Bjadoghs’ anger in general, I see it is better to just punish the mentioned persons, although there are other guilty individuals who also deserve punishment, but they are not known yet as rude advocates and disrupters for the stability of the Bjadogh people.
Except for the punishment of persons who inflame the public, I think that in order to calm down the Bjadogh, urgent acts must be accomplished to protect them from the Cossacks’ stubbornness who are harassing them in every way possible. As well as to raise the continuing troubles along the lines of what is happening in Abadzekhski and Verkhnekopanski districts, as I mentioned previously in my report on my findings about these two districts, the Cossacks of No. 27 and Psekopski Regiments steal the livestock of mountaineer population from flocks under the pretext of the collection of fines for committing crimes, or to push these inhabitants to look for their astray cattle in fear of losing them.
Needless to mention here regarding the ways that must be followed to restore the property rights violated security judicial wise, and it’s my duty here to express my tota convincement that the Commander of Psekopski Calvary Regiment and by unilateral and illegal defense for Cossacks, elements of his regiment have laid obstacles in front of the Bjadoghovski District Commandment in protecting the interests of the Mountaineer population from tyranny and injustice of the Cossacks and Cossack leadership, which apparently does not realize that the position towards the Mountaineer population has changed completely after declaring their loyalty to the emperor of Russia. If this behavior is excused for the unaware leaders of towns, the reports provided by Colonel Bopko to the commanders of Bjadoghovski District reveal his youth desire to be known as father of the Cossacks, or their leader. Because this officer had a good reputation for having the writing talent, it seems that the leadership of the Bjadoghovski did not dare to take effective action to protect the people that is entrusted to, from Cossacks’ Gossips.

Also the people of the villages of Hatlouqai and Bshehatlouqai have complained of the Cossacks’ harassment , that they decided to move to Turkey just because they consider that their situation has worsened after the establishment of No. 27 and Psekobski regiments beside them even more than it was when the Abzakh who are hostile to us were robbing them. I have pledged to them to take firm action to protect them from the Cossacks and Cossack leadership’s harassment, hoping Your Excellency would issue instructions to the leaders of Cossack towns and regiments that prevent the Cossacks from bringing the Mountaineer population to account on personal and not permitted basis, as some of the available files held by Bjadoghovski District Administration indicate the necessity to take such action.
Currently, I ordered Corporal Chkurobadski to review the files of the district command and put forward some matters on the Cossack leadership for the need to meet a lot of the Bjadogh demands without delay. Corporal Chkurobadsky cannot do so, except with the assistance of an experienced Secretary and currently there is no such profession in the Bjadoghovski leadership administration.
Other than that, the Bjadogh complained of injustice in the collection of taxes, and when it appeared that some of them were forced to pay fines for mere suspicion of theft, I ordered to give back the funds that were taken from them, and that no fines to be imposed on the Mountaineer population in the future, except by the decisions of village and district courts. These are the observations that emerged after my visit to Bjadogh villages. Taking into account the volatile situation in the district, I convey to Your Excellency my opinion, for the need to keep Isawool Levitsky in office and not to be transferred to the regiment until after fully informing the new leaders about the Bjadoghovski District’s files.

Document 333

 In 02, April, 1865, - The General Commander-in-Chief of the Kuban Region to the Commander of the PsiKobski Regiment to prevent the Cossacks’ from abuse and harming the Mountaineer residents. Lieutenant Colonel Dokmassov, from the Army Staff has relayed to me, after inspecting the Department in Bjedogovski that he carried out according to an order from me, that the villages’ residents adjacent to the area that the regiment detached to you, have pressed complaints to him for harassment they have eencountered from the Cossacks who are dealing with them by impermissible behaviors, especially under the pretext of searching for lost livestock.
The status of these populations who have suffered great losses during the war is still difficult until now, and it is incumbent on tolerate them in order to build good neighborly relations.
With the postponement of the war, the Mountaineers themselves to change their positions as per the resolution issued by His Highness, of keeping them in their places of residence, for them to enjoy equal citizenship rights with the Cossacks, and the Cossacks may not ever expected to make the method stubbornness and abuse with them.
With the request from you to transfer all of this information to the residents of PsiKopski Department, I would add that I will be forced to resort to severe punishment against those Cossacks who enter the areas of the Bjedogh and who abuse their residents or effecting them with harm. The General
The Commander-in-Chief

Document 334

In 20, May, 1865 the list of Minor Kabarda inhabitants, immigrating to the territory of the Turkish Empire (supplement to the report issued in 20, May, 1865).
The Serial Number Names & Family Names Male Female
1 Hajji J’morza Varretlov 1
His wives: Ghuchinag / Minat 2
HIS Sons: Abd-el-Kader / Abdul Aziz 2
His daughters: Koenfelt / Khodjmat / Khoteta / 6
Ibeidat / Tashleykhan / Chkrkhan
J’morza’s Mother - Khaddijat 1
His Brothers: Zue / Omar / Islam 3
Zue's Wife - Almaskhan 1
His Sons: Kutchmazouqa / Koshaghutch 2
Omar’s Wife - Guchinachkho 1
Their daughter - Guchinagho 1
Islam’s Wife – Khoj 1
Sons: Mousa / Ismail / Achamoz / Jumoradin 4
Daughters: Kawana / Habiba 2
Their Servants
1 - Beshyonatil 1
His wife - Kolana 1
Sons: Pavoqa / Ghola / Khajali / Hadjinaghwa 4
Wife of Pavoqa - Guchinana 1
His son - Chandar 1
2 - Qorman 1
His wife - Nsacha 1
His Brothers: Varashoqa / Mazan 2
Son of Qorrman – Mahmut 1
His daughters: Badikhan / Shashi 2
Wife of Varashoqa - Hazo 1
Daughter – Jamilat 1 3 - Endris 1
His wife – Khoj 1
His Sons: Hatiza / Mirzaqan / Hadjimorza 3
His Daughters: Kaza / Sheikh / Kasokh / Hajirt 4
4 - Islam 1
His wife - Mesrakhan 1
His Daughters: Jaryat / Safyat / Mazagho 3
His son - Khoroma 1
Female servants: Khani / Safyat 2
Khani’s Son – Ghogonoqa 1
Male Servants: Al Arab-Sayed and Tlemagho 2
5. Khatakhchuqa 1
His Brother - Bshighosa 1
His wife - Koshaghoj 1
His mother - Kezmeta 1
His Sons: Chomako / Hamirza 2
His Daughter - Sawdat 1
Haji Jemorza Vytalov’s Colleagues:
1. Salamkiri Kanobkhov 1
His wife - Bazaar 1
His Sons: Suleyman / Askhad / Mahmut 3
His Daughters: Muslimat / Yarahamad / 5 / Tavkiz / Melekhan / Patty
His sisters: Ashkhabez / Pala 2
2 Hamah Salim 1
3 Matt Mirzayev 1
His wife - Zara 1
His sister - Nawra 1
Their Servants:
1 – Qenchaw 1
His wife – Salehat 1,
His mother - Baku 1
His son - Ghobjoqa 1
2 - Pavoqeh / Mashoqeh / Shabatoqeh 3
Their mother – Safyat 1
4 Haji Ibrahim Mirzaev 1
His father – Dulatgheri 1
His mother - Kaghrman 1
His Brothers: Tembut / Talustan 2
Talustan - Selemat 1
His sisters: Kawther / Aziza 2
His Sons: Sheratloqa / Werduoshoqeh 2
His Daughters: Habiba / Ghoj / Khasikan 3
Tembut’s wife – Ghoj 1
His son - Abdul Majeed 1
His daughter - Shakhbor 1
Talustan’s wife - Koshakhan 1
His daughters: Keys / Muslimat 2
Maids: Khair-Keys with her two daughters 3 / Shakhaliko / Kestman
Servant Gola 1
His wife - Nisaga 1
His two brothers: Gotch / Ghotcha 2
Ghotcha’s wife - Hakotsa 1
Hakotsa’s daughter 1
Gotch’s wife - Shaka 1
5 Haji Safer Mirzayev 1
His mother - Kwasha 1
His brother - Issa 1
Issa’s wife - Koshaghaj 1
His sons: Enders / Askha 2
His daughter Koshnan 1
Their Servants:
Jansukh 1
His wife - Khoury 1
His sons: Woroush / Talukho / Baterbye 3
His daughter - Zuriet 1
Maid Gushakiz 1
Her son - Khafi 1
Her daughter - Behaw 1
6 Wazeer Effendi Ashorov 1
His wife GoShassokh 1
His brothers: Pallock / Hatouqoy / Jafatkhan 3
His sisters: Kitts / Kizza 2
Kizza’s son - Sabantchi 1
Her daughter – Walan Wareek 1
The Maid - Woosh Keys 1
Her daughter - Kharzyna 1
7 Haji Wavajoqeh Ashkhotov 1
His wife - Khokolt 1
His Sons: Jamirza / Khabij 2
His daughter - Bekka 1
Jamirza’s wife - Kushamakhu 1
Maid - Fatimat 1
Servent - Elias 1
His wife - Ghuta 1
His sons: Ashira / Kaku / Shawf 3
His daughters: Kora / Salemat 2
8 Aslanoko Olekokov 1
His wife – Safyat 1
His son - Bakir 1
His daughters: Zazina / Kolina 2
His mother – Tofa 1
Maid - Shutsira 1
Her sons: Wistarkha / Qurman 2
9 Albozdoqo-Ashkhotov 1
His wife - Koshkiz 1
His son - Nalbum 1
His daughters: Hanifa / Sanyat 2
His sister - Sazo 1
His relatives: Tebsaroqo / Baroqo / Toqo 3
Tebsaroqo’s wife – Foze 1
Baroqo’s wife Barouko - Kasov 1
Abozdoqo’s mother – Zahrat 1
Baroqo’s son - Bysultan 1
10 Haji Dout Balaghuv 1
His wife - Meserkhat 1
His son – Ayoub 1
His daughter – Hajer 1
Maid - Kushamakhu 1
Her daughter - Chekhoghyek 1
11 Ibrahim Balaghov 1
His wife – Muslimat 1
His sons: Suleyman / Al-Joruqo / Younis / Elias 4
His daughters: Kabkhan / Goshaghutch 2
His brothers: Mustafa / Islam 2
His mother – Shayray 1
Servent - Mazan 1
His wife - Nesera 1
His sons: Aslangheri / Worossbi
His daughter - Arkhyat 1
12 Mohammed Balaghov 1
His wife - Koka 1
His sons: Albakhsid / Masha 2
His daughters: Hajikhosha / Kogha 2
13 Yacoub Muradenov 1
His wife - Janbeko 1
His sons: Ismail / Ali / Hjibatir 3
14 Abrek Wurtov 1
His sons: Zawerbek / Kayerbek / Bikbolat 3
His daughters: Hanifa / Ghotch 2
Zawerbek’s wife- Koka 1
His daughters: Zoryat / Fatimat / Jalekana 3
Kayerbek’s wife - Asyat 1
His daughters: Shogheidat / Goshanaghu 2
His son - Kalemat 1
Bikbolat’s wife - Konava 1
The maid - Shapur 1
Her sons: Ghafona / Tiuvaka 2
Her daughter – Canov 1
15 Abdul Razzaq Mendakhuv 1
His son - Azir 1
His daughter - Kosh 1
His mother - Dashaka 1
His brother – Qad 1
His wife - Kawther 1
His daughter - Abeidat 1
The maid - Zashda 1
Her son - Woghurley 1
16 Elias Beslanyev 1
His wife – Kokosh 1
His sons: Kitch / Ali / Kudabird 3
His daughter - Babich 1
Kitch’s wife - Kochemakho 1
His son - Jankhut 1
Worosbi 1
His wife - Hakiza 1
His daughters: Betsa / Kaso / Blatsa 3
His son - Masha 1
The maid - Nalmaz 1
Her sons: Qara / Kashatsa 2
17 Safer Takidov 1
His wife - Tsoko 1
His sons: Alimorza / Batmorza / Karamorza 5 / Hadjiwumar
His mother - Fatima 1
His daughter - Zazona 1
His Brothers:
1 - Ilmorza 1
His wife - Kabkhan 1
His daughters: Saneva / Sheriff 2
2 - Nashkho 1
His wife - Meserkhan 1
His daughter - Mazagho 1
18 Ahmed Abazov 1
His wife - goshasakh 1
His daughters: Fatima / Kabkhan 2
His brother - Kashbet 1
His son – Mahmut 1
The maid 1
Her son 1
Her daughter 1
Her Servent 1
9 Younis Kontsev 1
His wife - Chakhrakiz 1
His sons: Sedak / Bimorza / Elmorza / Jamorza 5 / Akmorza
His daughters: Luba / Ferdose / Chamkiz 3
His brother - Khakyasha 1
His wife – Labi 1
His daughters: Ayshad / Fatemat / Sakyat / Arkyat 4
20 Haji Khabov 1
His wife - Ghabakhan 1
His sons: Mousa / Ahmad / Abdallah / Ibrahim 6 / Ali / Wafajoqko
His daughters: Goghosha / sorya / Fatimat 8 / Jaldoskhan / Meserkhan / Shakharkhan / Beka / Bukha
The servants:
1 - Tyonij 1
His wife - Kutchisukh 1
His sons: Meyrerm / Beta / Khalot / Wefjoqo 6 / Msheetil / Meshoqo
2 -Worosbi 1
His wife - Mazaw 1
His sons: Kazakbi / Harabi / Tlemakhu 3
His daughters: Deshikh / Deshik / 3 Keys
3 - Kara 1
His wife - Kharekhan 1
His sons: Wavajouqo / Ghofshoqo 2
The servent – Mat (or died) 1
21 Ibrahim Abazov 1
His wife - Ghola 1
His sister – Khouri 1
His sons: Soslanbek / Alikhan / Shabyukh / Anzor 4
His daughters: Naghu / Kotsa 2
The servants:
Kalekhstan 1
His wife – Fatimat 1
His sons: Bemorza / Ghola 2
His daughters: Kabkhan / Selimkhan / Meserkhan 5 / Shakhrkhan / Kabetsa
Yacoub 1
His wife - Koshnakhu 1
His son - Mshetel 1
The maid - zaherat 1
22 Khatoukhcouko Ildarov 1
His wife – Salehat 1
His son - Kambot 1
His sister - Nfela 1
Wareesh 1
His wife - Tsoko 1
His son - Kampolat 1
Wareesh’s mother – Kuna 1
Wareesh’s brother Blam 1
Jamorza 1
Khatoukhcouko Ildarov’s colleagues
23 Mamser Takzedziv 1
His wife – Kooz 1
His sons: Mehmet / Mehmet Merza / Bimorza 4 / Hamorza
His daughter - Makadina 1
Mehmet’s wife – Kwagho 1
His sons: Murtaza / Kazi 2
Mehmet Merza’s wife - Dzetso 1
24 Tsevina Shakolov 1
His wife – Esht 1
His sons: Khayj / Mehmet / Pasha 3
His daughter – Khoj 1
Tsevina’s mother - Zalikha 1
25 Ibrahim Naghubljv 1
His wife - Kwagho 1
His sons: Mehmet / Mehmet Morza / Shapaz
/ Gheri / Adelgheri / Islam / Mahmtgere / Khontsha 7
His daughters: Jaldokhan / Almiskhan 2
26 Tetlostan Jajokoyev 1
His wife - Kwagho 1
His son - Ibrahim 1
Ibrahim's wife - Khomi 1
His son - Alimorza 1
His daughters: Hanifa / Safyat 2
Tetlostan’s brother Tltostan - Bikmorza 1
27 Mehmet Shakolov 1
His wife - Tsetso 1
His sons: Jembolat / Tembolat 2
His daughter - Buf 1
Mehmet’s brother - Konish 1
His wife – Cuf 1
28 Ibrahim Khamov 1
His wife - Tsoko 1
His sons: Abdul Rahman / Endres / Mustafa / Safer 4
Abdel-Rahman’s wife - Malak 1
His daughter - Ghoshikhoj 1
29 Lapa Shakolov 1
His wife – Kudash 1
Sons: Beta / Nakho 2
Daughter – Ghoghokh 1
30 Qanshaw Shawkolov 1
His wife - Ghova 1
His son - Bekmorza 1
The servants:
Merzey 1
His sons: Tsoko / Batoqo 2
31 Hasan Deshikov 1
His wife - Nasipkhan 1
His sons: Aslangheri / Adelgheri 2
Aslangheri’s wife - Ayshet 1
His sons: Jantemir / Qantemir 2
Adelgheri’s wife Odelgiri – Altenshash 1
His daughter - Goshinashkho 1 32 Bota Shawkolov 1 His brothers: Jambut / Sambut 2
Their mother - Kutsa 1
Her daughters: Karokh / Taroqo / Ghoghoj 3
The maid - Bghaghosa 1
Her sons: Wafajoqo / Ghobjoqo / Toqo / Makaw 4
Her daughter-in-law - Fatima 1
For “Minor Kabarday” District Chief, his Assistant Krokov

Document 335

In 20, May, 1865 – A list of families who wish to emigrate to Turkey together with General Kondokhov Serial number Names and family names Males Females 31 Genardoqo Mirzayev 1
His wife Gushinashkho 1 His son - Mehmet Mirza 1 His daughters: Nawrena / Gholana / Aminat / Bachakhat / Eyshet 5 His mother - KUNA 1 His aunt – Ghoghosha
Servants: 1 - Bekir 1 His wife Ghora 1 His sons: Momaw / Kherli / Paz / Mashoqo 4 His daughters: Gholijan / Tsokho 2 2 - Wafajoqo 1 His wife - Shkharkhan 1 His sons: Maryim / Lou / Shakar 3 His daughter - Zahrat 1 His brother - Aljaroqo 1 His wife – Menat 1 3 - Tiofajoqo 1 His wife – Sata 1 His son – Suleyman 1 His daughter – Lakho 1
His mother - Kharkhoza 1
4 - Abrek 1 His wife - Pago 1 5 – Wafajoqo 1 His wife - Meta 1 His mother - Telapa 1 Maida: 1 - Shkharbeka 1 Her sons: Bshunat / Kherli / Koujar 3 2 - Koreta 1
32 Albuzdoqo Salowev 1 His wife - Meshghata 1 His sons: Haghodzeh / Amfoqo 2 His brother – Wafajoqo 1 Servants: 1 - Younis 1 His wife - Nashkho 1 2 - Mokovo 1
33 Elias Ghovajokov 1 His wife - Qodas 1 His sons: Aljaroqo / Nokho 2 His daughters: Safi / Kaghoshat / Mesit / Kagho 4
34 Kanbut Dodyev 1 His wife, - Khata 1 His sons: Bater / Kairbek / Kero / Yanardoqo 5 / Yanaldoqo Bater’s wife – Khamsat 1 His mother - Kosakh / His daughter - Tso 3 / His sister - Kura 35 Ahmed Haabsidov 1 His wife - Cook 1 His sons: Tato / Karamorza / Hajimoraz 3 His daughters: Gara / Kharaz / Ghwaghwa 3 36 Batir Jilov 1 His wife - kwasha 1 His son - Ghelekhstan 1 His wife - Nestatsuk 1 His brother - Kairbek 1
37 Shozih Bshinshiv 1 His brothers: Mehmet Mirza / Zakari / Endres 3 Mehmet Mirza’s wife - Sawdat 1 His sons: Salah / Shwiq / Andotlan 3 Maid – Abesht 1 Her son - Salah 1 Her daughter – Fatimat 1
38 Ismail Geranhajyev 1 His wife - Zahrat 1 His sons: Ghataghij / Shamil / Albakhsit 4 / Janpolat His daughters: Dutsiniz / Kapakhan 2 His mother - Kwetsa 1 His brothers: Almorza / Atabi 2 His sisters: Kolaneh / Nalo / Menat 3 Maids: Skharkhan / Aban 2
39 Ibrahim Jrankhojyev 1 His wife - Ghoghosha 1 His brother - Hajji 1 His wife - Ghosha 1 His sons: Shamil / Tsetsa / Beto 3
40 Soslanbek Islamov 1 His wife – Sanyat 1 His daughter Fairouz 1 His brothers: Bekmorza / Almorza / Hato 3 His mother – Alighinokh 1 Servants: Mousa / Hajibater / Khadimet / Batsu 4
The maids Jambora / Nisatsha / Khoury / Dzudzu 7 / Hatshimiz / Hanifeh / Shareefeh
41 Abekir Makhsidov 1 His wife - Qodas 1 His son - Almorza 1 His wife - Waweghosa 1 His brothers: Betsa / Bekmorza 2 His sister - Degina 1
42 Aljaroqo Khubov 1 His wife - Goku 1 His brother – Omar 1 His wife - Gokosha 1 His Sons: Meta / Qassim / Bekir 3 His daughters: Ghasashakh / Tsokhan 2 The maids: Kyakha / Mashoka 2
43 Ibrahim Chisyev 1 His wife - Mezdnat 1 His sons: Hepej / Yamorza / Kanbot / Fidzu 4 His daughters: Khakenata / Jighwasa 2 Servant – Babis 1 Maid - Qaghaghuz 1
44 Blasha Ginawkov 1 His wife – Salehat 1 His son - Wafajoqo 1 His wife – Tseko 1 His brothers: KhaKyasha / Mehmet / Wafajoqo 4 / Ginardoqo His daughters: Kapasari / Hajeh / Fatemat 5 / Ghasanagho / Tsatsukh
45 Mamser Bovokov 1 His wife - Gosh 1 His son - Hajibeker 1 His brothers: Tsetsa / beta 2 His sister - Ghona 1 His mother – Ghosha 1
46 Adelgheri Ghidov 1 His mother - Dzu 1 The servant - Gola 1 His wife - Ghoshahakh 1

Document 336

In 20, May, 1865 – A list the names of General Kondokhov’s comrades and others who have obtained on permission to immigrate to Turkey from “Minor Kabarda”: Names of the nobles Special Notes
Effendi Ja ... (Writing is not clear) 1. Ginordouqo Morzayev Mirza Khudo ... (Writing is not clear) with 20 families Atajok Indarov with
2. Albuzdouqa Salowave
3. Ma’sh Kadzov
4. Sabahgheri Askhatov
5. Elias Ghovjakov
6. Batir Dodyev
7. Ahmed Hajov
8. Batir Gelaov
9. Traw Khubov
10. Omar Tawsyov
11. Ibrahim Jerankhojev
12. Othman Bajov
13. Shozeh Beshimsov
14. Ghola Boghdanov
15. Soslanbek Islamov
16. Ibrahim Jesyev
17. Almorza Nakhyedov
18. Aljarouqo Khobov
19. Khojyasa Astemirov
20. Ali Hajibolov
21. Aslanoqo Karov
22. Mansour Pavokov
23. Adelgheri Ghedov
24. Almorza Desyeghov His sons: Khapij / Kampot / Ismail - 3 His daughter: Dzaghfessa - 1 His sister - Gholas - 1
The total number: 103 95 “Minor Kabarda” District Commander
Lieutenant .Khetaghorov Document 337 In 25, May, 1865 – A letter from the Ambassador in Turkey N. B. Ighnatyev to the Director of the Asian Department, on the flight of the Caucasus Mountaineers from Turkey to Russia According to information that I received from the Mountaineers living here, in spite of our declaration to prevent the Mountaineers who came from the Caucasus to return, come and despite the anger of the Turkish authorities and the actions
taken against the fugitives, they still flee to our territories in large numbers. They say that three or four thousand of them were able to reach Batumi and Samson where they disembarked at the coast without obstacles and because our troops do not cover all the naval entrances, they managed to hide in the mountains. We are unable to ask the Turks to tighten control of the fugitives more than allowed by the nature of Ottoman Empire, which they are not able to stop Mountaineers who Turks have become fearful of them and they say that the blood of these illiterate people has got no value. The question arises - what we benefited from the so-called deporting of the Mountaineers, if the alleged poorest, most hungry and most brutal to return to their homes and hide in the mountains, forming gangs to return to practice attacks or perhaps to provoke a mountainous war. Large numbers of Mountaineer people are trying to cross from Choruk Sue where our land borders, and it is said that such attempts are repeated daily, we hope that our guards will beat them, where it is much easier for our guards to guard our border line than to monitor the huge sea shore, where the boat can be anchor anywhere. Document 338 In 26, May, 1865 - Report of Commander of the Kuban Regions Forces, Somarokov – Elston to Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Army on transporting all Circassians remaining within the boundaries of the Regiment Adagomeski to Turkey after opening the navigation season. The Commander of the Adagomeski Regiment has informed me in 12, May, through report No. 2639, that the Mountaineers remaining within our territories until the opening of the navigation season for this year have been transferred permanently to Turkey on the 11th of the current month onboard the Turkish ship "Tayef.". Also I added to this story that the balance of funds spent to feed the Mountaineers, who spent the winter inside our territories will be submitted to the Chief of the Army Staff at his arrival, with the commander of Adagomeski Regiment, Colonel Krokov.

Document 339

 In 15, June, 1865 - Letter from the Director of the Ministry of the Navy to War Minister of War on the procedures taken "to tighten monitoring of the Eastern Coast”. Confidential In response to the letter No. 87, dated 8, June, I have the honor to inform Your Excellency that I have asked General Glazenab to take all necessary measures to tighten monitoring the Eastern Coast of the Black Sea to prevent the attempts of the immigrated Mountaineers to return to the Caucasus. His Highness, the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army has been informed of the issuance of these instructions. The General, Director of the Ministry of Navy
Document 340 In first of July, 1865 - Data on the population in the districts, formerly Verkhnelabinski and Negnilabinski, currently the Labinsky District from the year 1863 until July, 1, 1865. The population of both sexes In 1863 the population of both districts Verkhnelabinski Negnilabinski 16314 Coming voluntarily from the mountainous areas and prisoners of war 11687 Some of them who emigrated to Turkey
1887 In January 1st the population of the Abadzekhsky District 26114 Coming voluntarily and prisoners of war 14009 Some of them who emigrated to Turkey 17397 In 1st of July, 1865 the total population reached 22726 Acting Director of Labinsky District Corporal (Signed)

Document 341

In 1st of July, 1865 - Population data about the Obadzenski District for the Verkhnekopanski Section from 1st of January, 1863 until 1st of July, 1865 Tribe population in the 1st of Arriving Departing Immigrants to Population in 1st of January, 1863 Immigrants Turkey in 1864 July 1865 Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Kabarday 2141 1936 -- -- 4 4 2137 1932
Abzakh 2488 2270 -- -- 4 2 2486 2266
Bselen 706 630 -- -- 4 3 703 630
Naghwey 1750 1513 -- -- ---- 1750 1513
Shakh’gheri -- -- From Greater Abadzekhski Area
318 248 74 53 244 195
Total number: 7085 6349 318 83 61 7320 6536 13856 Commander of the area Lieutenant-Colonel Zelinchukski....

Document 342

 In 1st of July, 1865 - Data about the population of Verkhnelabinski and Nezhnilabenski Districts, currently Labinsky region from year 1863, until 1st of July, 1865 (both sexes) In 1863 the population of both districts and Verkhnelabinski and Nezhnilabenski 16314 The number of arrivals voluntarily from mountainous areas and prisoners of war 11687 Emigrated to Turkey 1887 In 1st of January, the population of Abadzekhsky became 26114
The number of arriving voluntarily and prisoners of war 14009 Emigrated to Turkey 17397 In 1st of July, 1865 the total population reached 22726 Acting Commander of Labinsky area Corporal - Signed Secretary - Bolch ...

Document 343

 In 11, September, 1865 – A letter from the Russian Ambassador in Constantinople, General Ignatyev to the Caucasus Army Chief of Staff, General Kartsov about the willingness of 2500 families of Abzakh Natokhaway and Shabsough to migrate to Turkey. The Turkish Foreign Minister has informed me of the contents of the request made to him by the elders of Natokhaway, Shabsough, Bjadogh and Abzakh to secure means for them to immigrate 2500 families residing in the Kuban Region to Turkey, and according to their saying, these families are preparing to gather at the Sojok (Novorossisk). Ali Pasha sees that he cannot refuse the request pointing out at the same time to the difficulty to secure means of transport necessary for these migrants in the autumn season and finding land for resettlement, he asked me to intercession to the Caucasus Commandment to reject this process if it is scheduled for implementation and postponed until at least the spring period to enable the Ottoman authorities to take the necessary measures. It is my duty to convey this Turkish Minister’s request to Your Excellency...

Dear Sir, please accept my sincere respect and absolute allegiance to you. Document 344 In 5, October, 1865 – A group demand from Mountaineers’ prisoners of war were settled at the site of the former Tatary town of Adi for loans; “to avoid a famine”. We, the undersigned a group of prisoners of war of Mountaineers people, residents at the site of the former Tatary town of Adi, and our number 62 persons, we announce today, on 5th of October, 1865, that we spent all of our money when staying in the current location and we do not have any property than ragged clothes and 20 houses, we have to spend the winter period in severe suffering. We are also absolutely incapable of feeding our families, consisting mostly of women and young children in the approaching winter period, and we will not be able to feed ourselves in upcoming time through the subsequent practice of farming on the land allocated to us by the officer, Isayev due to our extreme poverty. Then to earn living, we have to be distributed in towns, but if we do that after the permission of the Commandment, it is the duty Officer Isayev, depending on the order of Kuban Cossack Forces No. 12841 dated 29, April of this year to convey our request to the headquarters, to lend us from the mentioned stores by the amount of 100 quarters of bread and to allow the exploitation of 400 Desattina of land for the purposes of agriculture for two years. The signatories are::

Kharok Ratouq, Kubizish Atchomiz, Niso Atchomiz, Ghassan Sagàs, Mirijav Yonokh, Shirokh T’khakakhu, Khozok Khawer, Akabsh Ghawer, Ghutchibs Sagàs, Ghatsuk Shiritel, Khakhutsuk Somen, Taghajok Tserqos, Ghaghutch Tserqos, Ghanokh Koppel, Guchiasaw Tchemis, Hamtoq Bzacheh, Alibi Thaws, Khakhuchuk Chiokhich, Sawikh Yonokho, Tseko Yerghuz, Bghakouz Beja, Hawel Sumez, Habatch Khosht, Ishaq Haz, Habit Mamet, Indhar Wul, Mehemet Dokov, Mustafa Kufa, Ishaq Telipsoq, Mousa Tlipsoq, Bayram Ratouq, Sofkor Ratouq, Ghobetch Telis, Bshebi Shakomid, Somakh haz, Nashkho Tsey, Ghassan Tsey, Syofej Tsey, Yedej Yeqas, Mustafa Atchomiz, Ghaqar Thaqakhu, Shghantchiri Ghdabash, Nizo Shoden, Tlikhostaq Sawso, Tlipsaw Sigiskh, Bikram Nebsaw, Nahlash Bghana, Khobets Khaz, Haghubaq Ghatkhes, Telyabkh Saw, Sema’aia Khodej, Tokho Khodej, Khakhotez Betrokho, Ghat Natakho, Zawerbich Dokov,
Toghoj Dokov, Noghoy Dokov, Haghoray Teqas, Hametoq Khorej, Bashemafeh Tlebsoq, Ghatsaj Gharatoy, Omar Dokov. Because they did not know hand-writing, employee Isaac Shiodenov has signed on their behalf. I attest to the validity of this claim with my signature 6, October, 1865 Officer Isayev

Document 345

 In 6, October, 1865 – A message from the Chief of the Caucasus Army Staff, General Kartsov, to the Russian Ambassador in Turkey, Ignatyev about the possibility of deporting 2500 Circassian families to Turkey. The position of this Caucasus Command towards that matter
Your Excellency have informed me through a letter No. 618, dated 11, September, that the leaders of the Natokhaway, Shabsough, Bjadogh and Abzakh tribes residing in Constantinople, have applied to the Turkish Foreign Minister for the request of securing means to deport 2500 families of Mountaineers who have been resettled in the Kuban Region to Turkey and that Ali Pasha did not see possibility to reject their request, and he asked to postpone the implementation of this procedure until next spring, for the Turkish government to be able to take the necessary measurements.
I would like to inform Your Excellency that His Highness, the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, has issued an order after the departure of the last batch of remaining migrants in the shores of the Black Sea, to stop the mass exodus at the moment where the remaining tribes have been settled in the Kuban Region, in the Kuban plains permanently, and with the establishment of proper administrative and judicial system based on popular traditions and Islamic law among them, and the start of the distribution of land lots in a quantity to enable them to meet their needs there are no reasons to abandon the pre-established deportation plan, in addition to the application itself may not reflect the will of the people, but it is likely to be made by those previous dignitaries of Mountaineers that the ex-Caucasus Commandment wanted to prevent them from immigration to Turkey. Based on the mentioned above, I rule out the deportation of the stated 2500 families in the future even if the families have made such a request to the Russian Government themselves, and it is impossible to take place in the current year in anticipation for accidents such as the ones had occurred last fall.

Document 346

 In 24, October, 1865 - Report of the Director of the Department of Investigations Yesky to the Commander of the Kuban Region’s forces on "the poor conditions of Mountaineers’ prisoners of war" and to provide material of assistance to them. I have informed Your Excellency in report No. 1404 dated 27, July, 1864, on the poor conditions of the Mountaineers’ prisoners of war and the lack of possibility for resettlement without the support of the Treasury, so I requested a disbursement of 20 Silver rubles annually to the officer in charge, Isayev, who is sponsored for taking care of the Mountaineers as an allowance for him and for the office expenses.
Based on previous correspondence and resolution No. 440 dated, 27, April, for the current year, the Mountaineers have told us that they do not have to expect rather than be allowed to emigrate to Turkey, and not the support that they asked for and still, but they have to settle in the places where they are at or in the village of Adi; o, regardless of the lack of funds and poverty, I sent to Officer Isayev after the end of harvest, 193 people and ordered him to take all possible measures to make them stay in the village of Adi, and in 20, August, in report number 1601, when notifying your Excellency about the matter, I sent you a list of the names the Mountaineers who are transferred for residency, and in particular widows and orphans who will later be having a special resolution issued about them, and I asked again, to disburse Isayev an amount of cash Isayev as allowance for him and for the expenses required. Currently these Mountaineers reside in 20 horrible homes they have built themselves, but we are unable to cover their needs due to lack of funds, so Mountaineers have come forward in 5, October, in a collective claim that came in the form of a letter signed by 62 people, to give them loans in the amount of 40 quarters of rye, from stores of towns, and 30 quarters of barley or millet as well as to allow people of Yesk to exploit 400 acres of land for agriculture purposes from those land to be allocated to them to them provided that those residents would cut one quarter of their crops of grain and dried herbs for the benefit of Mountaineers. Aware of the need to provide this assistance to them as minimum because it does not constitute a loss to the troops or the Treasury, and to save time, I ordered to plow 200 not only for troops and did not earn the Treasury and the time allowed plow 200 acres in accordance with the requirements. As for the rest of the matters as well as my decision of allowing the plow 200 acres, I request for the approval of Your Excellency on it. Attachment:: Scheduled appeal for the current 5th of October, and signed by 62 persons of Mountaineers prisoners of war..

Document 347

In 9, November, 1865 - Letter from the Russian Consul in Trabzon, A. N. Moshnin to the Caucasus Army Chief of Staff, General Kartsov, in regard to the Circassians’ complains of Russian troops.

The local Governor has visited me today, and asked me to send to Your Excellency to find out how many of immigrants from the Eastern coast is expected to arrive, in order to take necessary arrangements for transferring them. Recently, 10 boats have arrived here, filled with migrants, in which nine of them have arrived from a place, the Turks call, Vesia, and one from Tuapse, part of which was sent today to Samson. Also, Ali Pasha has asked me to inform Your Excellency that the new immigrants are having some complaints of harassment by our troops. For my part, I tried that I tried to divert him from those complaints, but I cannot hide this issue from Your Excellency.

 Document 348

In 14, December, 1865, a letter from the Deputy Commander General of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsov to the Minister of War Milutin on the issue of deportation of 2500 families to Turkey and to live in peace with Mountaineers residing beyond the Kuban (remained in the Kuban Region 80 to 100 thousand Circassians).
In Your Excellency’s letter, No. 6954 issued in 17, November, and concerning the report of General Ignatiev, who informed that the Caucasus Commandment had refused to ddeport, 2500 families of the Mountaineers from the Kuban Region, I was asked whether the local Deputy of His Highness, the Prince has issued such a decision because the decision of His Highness issued in December of the previous year about the need to take the necessary measurements to stop the ddeportation from the Kuban Region was intended to be in the current 1865 year only.
Above all, I feel it is my duty to inform Your Excellency that the Mountaineers remaining in the Kuban region - as we found after a thorough investigation - did not seem determined to emigrate in those numbers mentioned by General Ignatiev, but it was requested to the Turkish Government by some notables of the Shapsoughs and Abadzekh who migranted to Turkey in the year 1864 along with two or three unidentified migrants who left secretly in the current year, without assigning them to do so by the remaining population who are having now calmness and loyalty.

After intensive deportation campaign of the Mountaineers in the previous year 1864, 80 to 100 thousand people of both sexes remained, where most of them have stayed along the left bank of the Kuban River from its source until Ykatrinodar for the length of 400 Ferset, who are surrounded by Cossacks, population, and half of them came out of the mountainous areas, and hey are in a state of extreme poverty because of the war, who are only interested in their daily food, and they are only aspired by calmness and they carry out our requests without any objection, and the evidence is that they have stopped carrying weapons - the demand is more difficult to implement on Mountaineer individual.. In these circumstances, the resolution on whether to keep them here or deport all of them to Turkey is to us, and there is no need to resort to arbitrary actions. If we continue to demonstrate our attention to the those inhabitants by fair distribution of land to them, and we protect them from the Cossacks’ harassments, which is what we do in many cases, they will choose to stay, but if we do the opposite and we have neglected their needs and we did not take action to protect them from harassments and in particular to stop the rumors that spread a lot about the possibility of religious and non-religious prosecutions in the future, at the end of next year, leaving nine-tenths (90%) of this people to Turkey. Taking into account that the Mountaineers, residents of the area beyond the Kubando not harm us at all at the present time, but there is benefit from their presence in the area beyond the Kuban that got small population - on the one hand, and news about the injustice inflicted by the former immigration on the Christian population in Turkey, the news that echo a lot also in the reports sent by our ambassador toHis highness - on the other hand, I felt that I take measures to stop the migration of the population of the Kuban Region in large numbers, while allowing migration to these persons and those families who insist to do that, who would be better to deport them in the opinion of local leadership.

Document 349

Between the years 1863 and 1869, comments about the status of the Military / Popular Administration of the Kuban’s Region from first of January, 1863 until first of January, 1869.

Status in the administration of the Mountaineer inhabitants of the Kuban Region between the years 1863 and 1864
The year 1863 has linked closely with the intensified operations by our forces against the reprobate Mountaineers, as the local administration was forced, despite the conviction for the need to ensure stability of the loyal Mountaineers, and to grant them an administration that commensurate with the spirit of the modernity, was forced to focus its concern on the occupation of the area because any tiny error in this aspect was enough, not only to influence negatively on the loyal Mountaineers, but also to strengthen the intransigence of the insurgent population.
Until the year 1863, the indigenous population of the Kuban Region, who declared their loyalty to the government, will be resettled in the plain on the left bank of the Kuban River, where two governances were found, Verkhnekobanskoya and Negnekobanskoya, and two districts, Bjedoghoveskoya and Natokhaiskoya, and each of these administrations were given powers commensurate with the status of the population and with the present military circumstances. At the same time, the Temryuk and Hatoquai who have been resettled on the left bank of the Lower Laba River, subdued administratively for the nearest commanders of the boundary lines, but this administrative arrangement for those indigenous people has served its purpose as long as the population is low, and after the transfer of military operations to the upper parts of Belaya and Korjips Rivers, the migration of people who are not loyal has increased migration gradually to settle allocated to them in the strip allocated to them correctly and to take effective measures to arrange their living from the outset, where a need has aroused to form their own administrations.
For this purpose, in 16, October, a decision was issued depending on the pre-existing instructions of the Commander of the Army to establish two governances, Verkhnelabenskoya and Negnelabenskoya, and they started their work in early 1863. The two governances included the residents staying on the left bank of Laba River and at the mouth of River Belaya. On first of June, 1863 the number of Mountaineers who resided in the governances of Laba 17000 people of both sexes from free social classes without the peasants that their number was estimated to be 9000, and those Mountaineers who have been resettled on the Kuban River in the two governances Verkhnekobanskoya and Negnekobanskoya.

The Shabsough who have previously been in the present area of Adaghomsky Regiment townships, are currently moving to the Kuban Plain cups and settle in the strip allocated, and were at the beginning under the commanders of Bjedoghoveski and Natokhaiski Districts, then when the number increased and reached 25000 people of both sexes, a special officer was appointed in late April, 1863 for the purpose of managing residents residing between the former Adaghomski line until Bjedoghoveski District.
The increase of the number of people coming from the mountainous areas has Showed, and the news as well, about the willingness of the Mountaineers to migrate to the plains. The present military/popular administrations that had the pure security character are not enough and must be replaced by administrations of broader scope and to establish popular Courts and to organize the administration in general, on the basis of principles that can work on the development of the foundations of citizenship among indigenous indigenous. So, after the approval of His Highness, the General Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army issued on 3rd of December, 1863 a decision to establish the new directorates, Abadzekkski and Shapsougski, where the first one included all the indigenous inhabitants living between the rivers Laba and Belaya, while the second one included the Shabsough living between the rivers Aphipps and Adaghom.

Also, at the end of 1863, the upper areas Abzakh located between upper Psekups and Bshesh have declared their loyalty after they were disappointed in the resistance as a result of the progress our military divisions towards their territories. To manage the tribes that have joined once again, the interim Abadzekhskoya District is founded in November 8, 1863, with allowing the Abzakh to stay in their former places of residence until the spring of 1864.
The existing administrations before 1863 have remained in the form of two districts and two administrations as it is throughout the year 1863.
After coming out of the mountains and settling in the new administrations’ areas, the indigenous peoples have almost lost as a result of the long war all their properties, and when staying in the plains, most of them did not own, not only herds of castles and horses, but any means of subsistence, were their living issues in 1863, in a very bad situation, because those who have previously engaged in agriculture on a limited scale as much as they needed to feed their families, in addition to the instability and the rumors that were spreading by the support of the fanatic individuals concerning the need to migrate to Turkey had prevented them from doing a serious effort.
To improve the conditions of the Mountaineers who declared their loyalty at the end of 1863 and who were scheduled to be deported from the mountains and to provide food supplies to them, a resolution was made to grant supplies to them since the day of their arrival to our territories, from the stores the Kuban Cossacks’ Army in required quantities, and so as not to expose the grain reserves to total consumption, His Highness demanded that this privilege includes only those migrants who are in a real need for it.
Based on this resolution, food supplies have been disbursed for distribution among Abzakh immigrants who did not own any sources for the daily food in the amount of 1309 quarters of rye and 137 quarters of millet from the stores of Sections I, II and III of the Kuban Army.

Apart from that, and because of the lack of grain in the towns’ storage in essential quantities, as per a decree from His Highness, the disbursement of 6790 Chitafrt of Jawadir flour from Government stores to the poorest of the Abzakh migrants. The materials that were disbursed free of charge by the Government, were dispersed according to real need under the monitoring of the Commander of the Abadzekkski Direcotrate.
In the year 1864, the large numbers of wealthy Mountaineers of high net worth individuals who have occupied part of the area beyond the Kuban, from Upper Kuban, Anapa and the entire southern slope of the Gulf of Sojok until Bzyb River have left their homes and migrated to the plains inside our territories and to Turkey, most probably after realizing that resistance to Russian forces will not be useful.
The tendency among the population of the West Caucasus to migrate to Turkey had begun since the year 1860, but this migration was not comprehensive, but was performed by some families after obtaining approval from the authorities, thinking that they would find over there a warm welcome and a better life than what there is within our territories. The Mountaineers used to deal with rumors that the government intended to harass them from the religious aspect for an effort to revert them of the Islamic faith. These rumors, in addition to other actions taken by local authorities in order to keep Mountaineers from the Caucasus, have lead that the local administrations started to receive uncountable requests for obtaining approval to migrate to Turkey, which in the Winter of 1864, and with the exodus of the entire Upper areas and the Ubykh from the West Caucasus, the majority of inhabitants residing in the plains within the administrations’ areas have permanently migrated to Turkey permanently.
After the migration of most of the local population to Turkey, the population has dropped significantly in the areas allocated for resettlement within the military/popular administrations formed in the year 1863, and subsequently some of them were re-formation, and others have been canceled by a decision of His Highness, the General Commander of the Caucasus Army.
For example, after the migration of the majority of the Mountaineer population to Turkey and the deportation of the remaining to the plains of the Abadzekhskoya District was canceled of its own on 2st of May, 1864, at a time the two administrations Shapsoughski and Natukhayski no need for them because of the low population and it was must to be abolished after the deportation of 300 remaining families in them to the empty Bjedoghoveski District which, but it was difficult to set up new administrations for the indigenous people before the fall of 1864 because of the existing military circumstances. The changes took place ass follow:
1)The formation of Verkhnekopanski District by uniting the districts of Verkhnekopanskoya and Negnekopanskoya and to be divided into 3 sectors - Karashayveski, Abazenski and Armyanski. 2) Due to the exodus of the Natkhuwai and Shabsoughs to Turkey the two districts of Natokhayski and Shabsoughski have been canceled after the annexation of the remaining inhabitants to the Bjedoghoveski Administration. 3) To divide the Bjedoghoveski Administration into two parts Khamesheski and Chircheneski. 4) To divide the Abadzekkski Administration into two parts Verkhnelabenski and Negnelabenski. 5) The above-mentioned departments were given guidance on work fundamentals such as those served by similar administrations in two similar regions, Tereskaya and Dagestanskaya.
Based on what is mentioned above, the military/popular administrations of the region have been reorganized according the order No. 61 issued by the Kuban Region Forces Command on 30, September, 1854. But for the need for economy of funds related to the military/popular administrations, and due to the interim situation of existing administrations then, an order from His Highness was issued to reduce the staff of those administrations and the elimination of administrations of the sections with the exception of Karashayvski and Negenilabinski and the positions of the top assistants in the departments’ administrations as well as doctors.

The present military situation in the country which imposed on us that we pay greater attention to the subjugation of the last remaining tribes that are not loyal to us, did not allow until the year 1865, to take correct and progressive measures to arrange the conditions in the Mountaineers’ communities of the Kuban Region, therefore, the military/popular administrations have directed all to maintain apparent order in societies and the formation of security organizations under the command of the officers and individuals from high class families About the establishment of the current Mountaineers’ administrations After calming the situation in the West Caucasus, according to a plan the overall changes in the region has become necessary to tighten control to execute the orders leadership adopted a system among the population of the mountain would be a transition to be subjected to the laws of the Imperial General Aker effectively and commensurate with the aspirations of the government.
The procedures in this regard are to be taken slowly and carefully, as it was necessary initially to lift the curtain that was hiding behind the nature of these populations and to consider their inner lives without compromising sensitive isolation which formed the basis of the religious lives throughout the centuries.
In the first half of the year 1865, a final plan was developed to organize the Mountaineers’ administrations in the best way possible and was approved by His Highness, the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, and upon it, arrangements were implemented by the military/popular administrations within the four consecutive years gradually, step after the other, we entered the mountainous environment and by eliminating everything that is offensive and dreadful, we brought the people to a new and bright life, the life of Great Tsar’s nationals, as it was of danger for dealing with armed people who number up to 80000 otherwise. Procedures were as follows: 1) Adoption of the administrations and the division of Mountaineers peoples geographically. 2) Establish of administrative courts. 3) The elimination of influence and authority of the tribes and the implementation of the electoral authority. 4) The establishment of administrations and village courts. 5) Setting up lists of names of residents of the mountainous districts.
6) Measures to offer the Mountaineers pieces of land as soon as possible. 7) The imposition of royalties on the Mountaineers. 8) Agricultural reform. 9) Cancelation of the "Ebrik" tradition (unarmed combatants). 10) The disarmament of the Mountaineers. 11) To eradicate theft. 12) Measures for the development of good economic management for Mountaineers.

Document 350

The establishment of the current Mountaineer departments
The draft of military/popular administrations that was launched in Report No. 526 of March 29, 1865 has won the consent of His Highness, the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, as well as a letter number 1233 dated 4/5, June, addressed to the Commander of the Kuban Region to allow the establishment of 5 departments, namely: Bsekobskweh, Labenskweh, Wrobskweh, Zelenchukskweh, and Albroskuweh instead of 3 departments and two provinces existing at the time on interim basis pending the issuance of the High Commissioner in this regard, with the opening of interpretation court in each of those departments and the appointment of a special official called the guardian of Caucasus peoples for the Kuban Region to follow up the work of the departments and the courts and to protect the interests of the Mountaineers.
The need for reforms in the occupied territory again in conjunction with the rebuilding of the Kuban Region, which prompted local authorities to exert all efforts to prepare the Mountaineers population of the Kuban to live according to the security and judicial laws of the Empire at the time were not the minds of the Mountaineers population is not ready to accept any social reforms, but was in a rampage state after the extraordinary actions taken in the year 1864, in the lower departments to deport the whole population to Turkey urgently, noting that religious intolerance had been taken over all the Region's population to a very large extent.

So, minds’ tension has heightened in the year 1865 after the ban of migration to Turkey, even for those who sold their properties in the fall of the year 1864, in preparation to move towards the sea with the commencement of the spring, especially after the statement made by the delegation of the inhabitants of Verkhnekopanski department regarding the government's intention to liberate the peasants from their masters soon. In these circumstances, there can be no true social order in rural areas or make other radical changes in calm short period of time given to the military/popular administrations by virtue of the interim status except to fully abide by the plan and coordination between all administrations and with the existence of some confidence in the state employees. The last condition was the most difficult to implement because the aforementioned reforms were affecting the interests of a large part and the most influential of the Mountaineers in the eyes of the whole people, however, thanks to high salaries allocated for the employees of the Mountaineer administrations and the limited number of the functions of departments and precision in the selection of staff, has become possible to establish fair departments in the eyes of the population included in these districts, and finally, after the issuance of approval of the Prince's lending prisoners of war of Mountaineers who had been deported in the year 1865 and even in the year 1866 from the Southern slope and those who did not possess any means of subsistence and lived among poor people like them, as well as enthusiasm to protect the mountainous administrations from individuals who abused the application of security and judicial regulations did not only mitigate the acts of security and administrative measures, but repaired relations between the Administration and the large part of the population who have started working actively for their livelihoods and the less fanatic part of them have believed in the good intentions of the government towards the Mountaineer population. The work of the Administration of Mountaineers welfare has begun after its founding on the second of July, also the administrations of Bsekobskweh, Labenskweh, and Zelenchukskweh, have opened its doors on first of August, the administration in Wrobskweh in 7, August, and the administration in Albroskuweh in 11, August, 1865. The framework of these administrations and staff have got the approval of the High Commissioner in 20, January, 1866 and changed the title of the patron of Mountaineer peoples to the Assistant Commander of the Kuban Region in the administration of Mountaineer inhabitants.